Press and Sun-Bulletin from Binghamton, New York on October 31, 1938 · Page 1
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Press and Sun-Bulletin from Binghamton, New York · Page 1

Binghamton, New York
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Monday, October 31, 1938
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MHAMTON :.. PRE THE WEATHER City Edition Fair and continued cold tonight with heavy to killing frost. Tuesday fair. ,Yol. 60, No. 172. TWENTY-FOUR PAGES PRICE THREE CENTS MONDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 31, 1938. WAR Jffl WOMBS OF ed to Back PayR u ling Roads Called to Act Quickly With President Pelley Will Put Wage Slash Rejection Before Car riers in Week PRESS LEGISLATION Acceptance of Terms Is Expected, Averting Strike of 900,000 Men By International Sew Service Washington, Oct. 31 -"White House plans for a comprehensive legislative program to help the nation's distressed railroads were revealed today as a substitute for the 15 per cent wage cut which Ihc carriers sought. President Roosevelt promised such a program his full support in a conference with President J. J. Felley of the Association of American Railroads, during which Mr. Roosevelt asked Mr. Pelley to ascertain the roads' attitude toward the emergency fact-finding board's recommendation against the proposed pay cut Leaving the White House, Mr. Pelley said that the President was "very hopeful" that the special operators-labor six-man committee which he set up two months ago would meet in the near future and work out such a program. "The President feels quite hopeful that this committee will work out'r1t'fuTTi-Teglalatlve program," Mid Mr."-Ptller. ;TAnd vhe wilt Five it his fullest support." Mr, Pelley said the President told him the size of the six man committee probably would have to be expanded, and indicated he wanted it to get to work as fast ai possible. Mr. Pelley said he promised the President to call a meeting of member roads of the association, probably next week In 'Chicago, imd that he will (Ind out their attitude towards the emergency board recommendation against a rut Immediately and report back to the White House. In the meantime, Pelley indicated that the question of accepting or rejecting the emergency board recommendation ould be referred back to Individual roads. Soon after Mr. Pelley left the While House, George M. Harrison, chairman of the Railway Labor Executives Association, was called in to discuss the recommendations with the President. Mr. Harrison expressed satisfaction at the recom mendations and said that he did not know what aspects of the problems involved in the rail crisis would be taken up at his confer-tnee with Mr. Itooscvelt. Mr. Harrison emerged from the White Mouse to reiterate the words "'f Mr. Pelley concerning the projected legislative program. "The President," he said, "wants railroad labor and railroad industry representatives recently appointed on a committee to immediately take up the problem of de-velopment of a program for gen- (Cnntinurri on F.i(ht) Fight on NLRB Member May Bring Senate Probe Washington, Oct. 31 Wr Senatorial reaction indicated today that the American Federation of labor's demand for rejection of the reappointment of Donald Wakefield Smith to the National labor Board might become the hauls for a general airing of criti-elni of the board. One senator who asked that he nt be quoted by name said he "as convinced that if the President makes an active fight for Mr. Smith, the federation would have extreme difficulty In preventing Senate confirmation. Senator Holt (D.. W. Va.) gave notice, however, that he Intends to use the controversy to express "ome of his critical views about the labor board. Index to Features Page Page Aunt Het JO Old Gardener 7 Ir. Barton 16 Patil 17 Hible Passage 8 Pattern! 1 lllrthdays 17 Phlllpa Blake 6 Post 17 Hooks Radio 12 Oapper Right Word 17 Cmnlrs IS Ripley 21 '"rosswords M Serial Story 1 t'ulbertson 17 Society 4 !orothv lh( 1 Theatres Id rr. Dufne 17 Tuenty-flve Mltnrial (I Years M I'ai'ltlnns 1 1 'nt-le Wlgglly 1 7 Lindsay K Wlnchetl 17 OtJ the Record 1 Witty Kitty II Among My Game Harrisburg, Pa., Oct. SI VP) Detective John Abrams walked through a special train carrying 1,400 returning high school football fans when it stopped at a station. "If any of you took anything which didn't belong to you from any place in Harrisburg," he announced, "Just lay It beside you on the seat and I'll be back in about five minutes. When Detective Abrams returned he picked up beer mugs, salt and pepper shakers, false faces, women's underwear, glue and red ink. Love May Find a Way for Them Kansas City, Oct. 31 (IP) For more than a year William J. Walker, stationed on the U. 8. S. San Francisco at Long Beach, Cal., saved and pent money to Miss Elizabeth Blanchard to finance their wedding and a trip back to the coast. Mr. Walker arrived and Miss Blanchard drew the money from the bank. Later It disappeared stolen by a sneak thief. The couple went ahead with the wedding, but they found they had only $1 to finance their trip to California. Mr. Walker still Is trying to figure a way. Now, Now, This Is Ladies' Night Waukrgan. III., Oct. 31 (Jr Claude Warner, gambling lnves-tlcator for the state's attorney's office, heard that a group of women were playing slot machines in their club quarters. He and four special constables hurried to the place. ' When the .women some 200 of them saw who the visitors were they blocked the entrance and shouted It s ladies night.'' The raiders finally got inside hut they found no gambling de Vices. Protective Custody a for His Aato Kansas City, Oct. 31 VP) "My car has been stolen," James Saw-telle of Denver telephoned frantically to police. "Well, not quite," replied the clerk, "come and get it." Detectives had frightened two men who were attempting to steal the machine and then drove it into the police garage hecatise the keys were in the ignition system. Corrigan Magic En Route to School Milwaukee, Oct. 31 P) "Watch me pull a tack out of my mouth," said Jerome Getchell, 7, to a companion as they walked to school. The companion watched and waited. Jerome gulped and looked startled. An X-ray showed the tack lodged in his stomach. HONEYMOON SPECIAL Terre Haute, Ind., Oct. 31 04 Mestre K. Radicali, 21-year-old Robles. Cal., cafe owner, rode J.000 miles on a motorcycle to marry Miss Georgia Taylor, 19, here. For a honeymoon they planned a return trip to California on the motorcycle. Firing Squad Executes Slayer as Electro-Cardiograph Pens Action of H cart flt Lake Clly, Oct 31 VP) A firing squad executed John W. Dterlng; at dawn today in state prison while an electro-cardiograph recorded probably for the first time the action of the human heart pierced by bullets. Deer Ing, who had sought In every way to speed his death and who participated willingly In the srlentlflc experiment to determine how long his heart would bent after being struck, was calm to the end. The flve-mnn firing squad wss given the order to fire at 6:46 a. ni. (M. S. T.) and at 6:48Vi a. m. peering was pronounced dead In expiation for the Way 9 holdup murder of Oliver P.. Meredith, Salt Lake city business man. There were ominous clouds against the pale sky over the mountains as Deerlng was led quickly from his cell block and strapped in his chair against a prison wail. Electric wires were attached to his wrists and carried to a delicate machine hia last heart beats. Scientists began an Immediate study of the record but said It would be some time before they could announce any findings. Utah is the only state In the union now using a firing squad. Convicted men are given the alternative of this or hanging. One of tho five rifles used is loaded with a blank. The five marksmen who acted as executioners were recruited by Sheriff 8. Grant Young of Salt Lake county, their names kept a secret. They were tsken to the prison In s closed car. given rifles and assigned positions behind a rurtaln. As soon ns they llred. they left ss unobtrusively as they had come. State's Drive Shaping upas New Deal Test Both Parties Agree to Importance of Winning in New York on Nov. 8 WINDUP DRIVES OPEN Lehman to Speak at Gar- den Rally Tonight ; Dewey i to Talk in Syracuse New York, Oct. 31 VP) New York's political campaign appeared today to be shaping up as a test of the New Deal despite conflicting local issues that may decide how the voters mark theirj ballots one week from tomorrow, j There is no difference of opinion between Democrats and Republicans on the importance of carrying President Roosevelt's home state, although Governor 1-ehman and District Attorney Thomas E. Dewey, his Republican opponent, have avoided stressing national issues In their campaign speeches. Both sides know that a Democratic defeat would be Interpreted as a blow to the President, and that a Republican victory, in addition to raising a .possible presidential candidate, would strengthen Republican prestige throughout the country. .. President Roosevelt has taken cognizance of the campaign through conferences with Mr. Lehman and other candidates and he plans to make a radio address next Friday for the Democratic ticket. Mr. Lehman, governor for six years, is seeking a fourth term. He has kept his eye on local issues, but he has called for the election of Democratic senators and representatives "to strengthen the hands of our great President In his humane legislation." Mr. Dewey has campaigned for the most part on state issues, bas-fnirpifrt 'of lihT attack art the stale administration on charges of corruption in the Democratic party. He has called Mr. Lehman's budget-balancing a "bookkeeping trick." Mr. Dewey has criticized the Roosevelt administration, too. asserting both administrations, have fsiled to respect civil service prin ciples. He has contended that Roosevelt policies have failed to reduce unemployment and that state and national administrations have been wasteful of public funds. Governor Lcbman has defended his administration as progressive and financially sound. He has called for experience in office and criticized Mr. Dewey for "Ignorance" of state affairs. In this he was Joined by State and National Chairman James A. Farley, who dubbed Mr. Dewey "the voice of Inexperience." While Mr. Dewey has chided Mr. Lehman for his decision to stand again for governor after announc Ing his intention to run for the Senate. Mr. Lehman has contended that Mr. Dewey was "running away" from the Manhattan dis trict attorney's office to which he was elected a year ago for a four-year term. The direct issue of upholding the President's hand is Involved in the (TontlBUfd on l'm F.lihl) Pierced by Shot Convinced there was no place In society for him after half his lifetime had been spent in prison, Deerlng demanded that the state take his life. He had served prison terms for arson at San Quentln and for burglary at Kolsom, both In California. Then he sought to make restitn-Hon by giving his body to the University of Utah. He willed his eyes to the state that any blind person might obtain the corneas for transplanting to restore sight. No one has asked for them. Deerlng was raptured in Detroit Aug. 1 following an Intensive search throughout the West and midwest. A gun he pawned for "three bucks" at Heno, Nev., brought about his identification and ultimate capture. In Detroit he told officers "1 want to talk to you fellows. I'm wanted In Salt Lake City for murder. I want to go back there and die." TIeturned to Salt Lake City, he fold of planning the holdup, of shooting Mr. Meredith when "he reached into his pocket." He said he had a companion, but refused to give his name. "I didn't mean to kill him, but any rat that would shoot a harmless old fellow deserves to die," lie said. "It's the least I can do. I'm ready. I hope they make It his trial he fought almost desperately for the death sentence. He cursed the court when It entered a plea of innocent for him. mandatory in murder cases. He argued with his attorney and against the attorney's counsel took the witness stand to tell of his crime. When sentence was pronounced he said gruffly: "Okay." f Ml 11 H I ?vA u' vta- - m'.m iMAm -U A Ml M H W$ A h . . MARTIANS ON THE MOVE A IUliawhion of this picture adapted -from. II. (?. The Hinghamton Tress staff is what threw parts of the United Slates into panic last night. Orson Welles' portrayal of "The War of the Worlds," was just a bit too realistic. This picture shows the Martian fighting machines as II. G. Wells conceived them, striding across the country with their death ray going full blast. The big fellow in the foreground has just scorched a New Jersey barn and his buddy is coming up over the horizon to help him. SEC Approves Stock Reforms for Exchange Rules and Practices Adopted in Effort to Avert Whitney Case R .petition Washington, Oct. 81 (U.R) The Securities and Exchange commission today announced a program for extensive reforms in rules and practices of the New York Stock Kxchange, developed jointly with the exchange after the conviction of Richard F. Whitney. The program, the .SEC said, calls for thorough revision of many exchange practices, including a plan for separation of capital used for "banking functions" and brokerage activities. The report is the second Issued by the KKC since the crash of Richard Whitney & Co. sent tho former president of the New York S t n ( If V V h ti n CO t n,Unn Ctialv. man William O. Douelna of th. SEC said it "Indicates whnt a livo. wire, progressive group of business people can do when they sit down at the good old round table." The new program contemplates 13 major changes in exchange reg-ulations. part of which will be promulgated Into SEC rules, effective throughout all securities markets. The program includes: OJiK Brokers must maintain a 15-to-l ratio between indebtedness and working capital, replacing the present 20-to-l ratio. TWO No governor or officer of an exchange may loan money or securities or borrow from any ex-. change,mernber firm. THRKK No governor or member of an exchange committee may participate in an Investigation of any member or firm Indebted to the officer. FOUR Tho exchange will require "short form" reports quarterly on financial condition of its 1 (Continued nn Psie Eight) F.D. R., Wage-Hour Chiefs Confer on Func1 Request Washington. Oct. 31 (UB President Roosevelt summoned wage-hour officials to the White Houe today for a conference which will Include review of requests for additional funds to administer the new law. Secretary of Labor Ferklns and Wage-Hour Administrator Elmer F. Andrews and their aides are participating In the discussion. The White House did not disclose the purpose of the conference but Labor Department officials) said It would Include review of requests for additional funds. -Wells by Artist Droughton of London, Paris Speed Steps for Rearming 'Grand Inquest' of Cham berlain's Munich Action Nears in Parliament B (lie AMocinfcrt frcat Britain and France made new efforts today to build up their armaments In the face of Europe's unsettled future. British Prime Minister Chamberlain met with the cabinet to draft his program on tho eve of a three-day parliament session that is expected to be a "grand inquest" into his Munich peace. Reports calned that he was seek ing to meet demands of some of his ministers for creation of ministry of supplies with powers to enforce an armaments speed-up. In France, Premier Edouard DAladler also summoned his cab- inct for the first of a series of to draft decree laws to imeetin rehabilitate French finances, the nation's most pressing security need. At the same time Foreign Minister Oeorgee Bonnet opened a series of conversations which wus regarded as the prelude to four-power negotiations for general European appeasement. M. Bonnet received his first report from Andre Francois-I'oncet, who has been transferred from the Berlin embassy to Rome, on his last conversations with Fuehrer Adolf Hitler and high German of-ficials. They talked at the war office. M. Bonnet then returned to the foreign office and conferred In succession with Sir Eric Phlpps, British ambassador; Augusts Coulon- nre, new froncn amoansaoor to Berlin; the Italian charge d'sf. c faires. Rcnato I'runas, and the German ambassador. Count Jo-hannes von Welcyek. M. Bonnet's conversations with (Continued on I'ace KIhO Lights Failed so Town Thought War Was Real Concrete. Wash., Oct. SI (UP) The citizens of this little mountain town claimed today that they took the real brunt of the "Invasion" of the earth by the men of Msrs. Just as an announcer wss "choked off" by ' poisonous gas" i In what ho had just said might be. "the last broadcast ever made' the lights In Concrete failed. Many who were tuned in on the program and. like thousands of others throughout the nation, did not realize It was only a piny, became panic stricken. Fantastic Causes Hysteria Over Nation Bulletin Interrupts Dance Music and "Most Horrifying Invasion" Is Flashed to U. S. "People Are Dropping Like Flies" Kew York, Oct. 31 (P) The Mercury Theatre of the Air program opened with dance music last right. Suddenly "We interrupt our program of dance music to bring you a special bulletin Professor Farroll of the Mt. Jen-ji nlngs observatory, i;ntcago, in., reports several explosions of the incandescent gas occurring at regular Intervals on the planet Mars." Eventually the Martians landed in meteor cars with the shock of an earthquake in tho vicinity of Grovers Mills (fictitious locale), N. .1. ... A 30-sccond pause for studio music. . . . Then the octopus-like Martians using the dread "heat-ray" end then, by telephone from the scene, the report of 40 persons dead there. A moment after the gas explosions on Mars, the scene of the fantasy switched to Princeton, where an astronomer undertook to "explain" the phenomena. Another meteor "struck" at nearby Orovers Mills to Interrupt the professor, who rushed out with the announcer to investigate. It was a giant tube of metal, thry reported, not a meteor at all. "Just a minute." the announcer called. "Something's happening! Ladies and gentlemen, this is ter rific! "The end of the thing is beginning to come off. The top Is be-cinnlng to rotate like a screw! The thing must be hollow." There was a babble of voices as fictitious spectators grew alarmed. 'Look! The darn thing's un-ccrewlng. . . . Keep back! Keep hack, I tell you! . . . Maybe there's men In it, trying to escape! . , . It's red hot. They'll burn to a cinder! . , . Keep back there. . . . Keep those idiots back!" There was a clanking sound of falling metal then more voices: She's off. Thn top's loose. Look out there. Stand back!" Suddenly the "monsters" beijan crawling out. . , . Their "firearms" proved to be death ray machines. . . . Two hundred spectators died Instantly. "The governor of New Jersey." declared law. Through the drone of airplane motors came radio reports of army pilots to headquarters: "One machine partially crippled. Believed hit by a hell from nn army gun. ... A heavy black fog of extreme density, nature unknown. . . . Objective Is New York city. . . . We're ready to at tick. . . . They're closer. . . There they go. ... A giant arm is ralRed. . . . They re spraying us with flame." An "operator" cut in: "Poisonous black smoke from tho Jersey marshes. . . . Gas masks useless . . . Urge population to move into open spaces." The bells you hear ringing are to warn the people to evacuate the city as the Martians approach, came the announcement "from a point in New York "All communications with Jersey closed. . . . Our army wiped out. . . , This may be the last broadcast. . , . We'll stay to tho end." i Then: "I've just been handed a bulletin. Cylinders from Mars are falling all over the country. One outside Buffalo another In Chicago St. Louis, . . ." The announcer kept on: "People aro dropping like flics. , . . The poison gas spreads. . . ." The Martluns eventually sue ,,,,,1.1 t ,..,m, h,,t u , uni-tri. lings are immune to and the real j announcer cut In to explain simply 1 1 hat the audience had been listen- 1 Init to a dramatization of Mr. Wells book. - HP 'D.-t,.-UJ' . u. wens rerturDea by Panic Play Caused t . ". . '"'"1 0rl' SI l,NS' "" "' Wells, the author, was deeply per - turbed today at the panic caused by the broadcast In America of his War of the World.' "It was my understanding with I the broadcasting company that the broadcast should be presented ss fiction and not as news," said Mr. Wells. NAZIS LAUGH AND HERE'S THE REASON Berlin, Oct. l (IMS) If Americans fall so easily for a fantastic radio broadcast of an "Invasion from Mars." that explains why they so readily believe Nazi "atrocity" tales, Der Angriff said today. "What Is the lesson?" Der Angriff wanted to know about the wave of American mast hysteria. "Let us weep for our American contemporaries, who accept such atrocities as true. Naivete la a gift of God, but It should not be abused. How much less naivete Is required to accept ss true atrocity stories about Nszl Germany. 'This explains a lot for us In the old world." News Broadcasts , Twenty minutes heforc eight, Nation Reacts Strangely to Martian War NKW YORK, Oct 81 (P) The terror caused by radio's "end of the world" and "foreign invasion" as some listeners understood it. produced some strange repercussions throughout the country. It brought the following messages over Associated Press wires to the New York office: rilOVIDKNCE Weeping and hysterical women swamped the switchboard of the Providence Journal for details of tho mas sacre and destruction and officials of the light company received eeores of calls urging tnem to turn off , all lights so the city would be safe from tho enemy. ATLANTA The Birmingham Age - Herald reported people gathered in groups and prayed. Memphis reported women on the phone. , ' , Reports to newspapers from listeners in the Southwest had It that a planet struck In New Jer sey, monsters, almost everything, Anywhere from 40 to 7,000 people reported killed. So confusing were the calls that editors were able to determine only that "something was happening In New Jersey. The calls taxed telephone facilities of the newspaper offices, but sub sided almost as quickly ss they started. Responsible people, well known to editors, were among those calling. BOSTON Boston Olobe had call In connection with radio dramatization of meteor In which New Jersey woman called brother here to say she heard radio broadcast and 'she was leaving home Immediately, "getting out of here." 1 She told him many others in her neighborhood also leaving in hnste.' Claimed she could "see the fire." RICHMOND. Va. Re: "Meteor," MartlnHville publisher says a guest "went home, crying." Tlmes-Dlspatch' readers report they "praying." NEW HAVEN Waterbury says Mercury theatre war program "causing alarm" locally because of realism. MONTGOMERY (Ala.) Advertiser says one man reported physician called for his wife who had hysterics. Guest from New York fainted. CHARLOTTE Wilmington, N. C, reports several score phoned newspaper office: one said wlte was hysterical; another said given his wife bromide result of broadcast; several wanled to know to whom to protest. AKHBVILLE (N. CI Times siiys five boys at Brevard college, Brevard, N. C. fainted as pandemonium relcncd on campus for half-hour when students convinced world coming to an end. Many fought for telephones to inform I parents to come and get them. .students finally quieted by few who kncw Program was dramatization TMMANAJ'OI.IS Woman ran. i Into Indianapolis Methodist church I 'screaming, destroyed. I- A 1 1 &-... IT I. It's the end of the i world. You might ns well go home ;to die. i just heard it on mo ;aC.y. HcrvlCPi dl"n"""cd ,mme' MILWAUKEE Newspaper switchboard operator got several iciln, vng "it was thrilling; there i Kht to be more programs like ; that," She reported most men , liked program: most women didn't. LOUISVILLE. K Y. Filling sta tion operator reports carload of; 'tourists. bound fur California,) ' stopped quickly for tankful of gas, j drove away with a roar, saying; heard about meteors on radio audi wanted to get "as far awsy f rom j I tho destruction as possible." j j DETROIT Pennsylvania motor-1 I Ixt who heard program stopped at; j Ann Arbor police station to ask If j true New York and New Jersey; I conquered and hordes marching on i I Pennsylvania: said two daughters' in hack sent had fainted during I broadcast. CINCINNATI Two New Yorkers who hsd Just registered in a downtown hotel ran a mile to police headquarters and demanded that something be done. Telephone company reported many tried to put In calls to New Jersey. Ono church service broken up. CLEVELAND Cleveland station WtJAll was swamped with calls and broke into broadcast to reassure listeners. Aged couple in flight to country aroused grocery-man to get food supplies and did noL wait for explanation. MCRANTON, PA. A dozen families snatched their belongings and rushed hysterically outdoors, one wanting to know If "V. 8. Army reserves had been called out." PHILADELPHIA New York and New Jersey students at the (Continued on !' Ki(ht) Dramatization of H. G. Wells Story Too Realistic for Thousands 'MARTIANS' IN JERSEY Police Stations, Newspa pers Swamped by Calls; Some Smell Gas By the Associated Press New York, Oct. 31 Thou sands of terror-stricken radio listeners throughout the coun try fled from their homes last night when they tuned in on a series of synthetic news, broad-easts which depicted the begin ning of an interplanetary war. The simulated news bulletins, which accompanied a Columbia Broadcasting System dramatization of II. G. Wells' fantasy, -"The War of the World," be: came so realistic that they sent a wave of mass hysteria across the continent. Tho broadcast waa intended only as fiction. Explanatory announcements dur. Ing the program, between g and S p. ni., were overlooked by thousands who were led to believe that a poison gas expedition had ar-rlsed from Mars and was spreading death and destruction over the New York metropolitan area. In the double-quick tempo of the news broadcasters, the fiction of a Columbia program became so realistic that hysteria prevailed among listeners throughout the United States and Canada. Demands for an investigation multiplied in the . wake of tho broadcast. Frank P. McNlnch, chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, , asked the broadcasting company to furnish the commis sion with an electrical recording of tho broadcast, as well as a copy of the script. "I shall request prompt consideration of this . matter by the commission," he said in Washington. "I withhold final Judgment until later, but any broadcast that creates such general panic and fear as this one Is reported to have done is, to say tho least, regrettable. "The widespread public reaction to this broadcast, as indicated by the press, is another demonstration of the power and force of radio and points out again the serious (Continued on !' Klht) 'Invasion' Means Aches for Young Opportunists North Bergen, N. J.. Oct. 81 (INS) Dramatization of a H. G. Wells' novel spelled panic to thousands, but not to two towheaded youngsters with a couple of pennlea in their fists. To them It spelled O-P-P-O-R- T-L'-N-I-T-Y and they made the most of it. The lads were In ft local candy store, looking over gumdrops and all-day euckcrs, when the staccato broadcast began. As the "Martian Invasion" grew rapidly In scope, the shopkeeper suddenly threw out his hands in terror and daehed out the door, shouting over his shoulder: "Go ahead, boys. Help yourself ! to ""ylhln8 y.0" 'a"t' . When he returned, reassured, a half hour later, he found the boy had gone and had taken with them the foundation of a first class stomach ache. War Is Certain, Hitler May Win, Says Observer Material losses to the Allies at Munich were enoti'.'h to change the balance of power in Europe in favor of Germany, writes II. R. Knickerbocker, roving forcisn correspondent of International News Service, in a new series of articles on the situation in Europe today. Will Hitler keep his pledge to refrain from any further territorial claims in Europe 1 What are the next steps Germany will take and when will they come! These questions and others will be answered in Mr. Knickerbocker'. series. Turn to Page 8

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