FRIDAY, MAY S, 1958 PAGE NTNS FARM NEW REVIEW County Agents Report on Artificial Incubation Test with Goose Eggs By KEITH BILBREY And H. H. CARTER An earlier questionnaire study of North Mississippi County cotton farmers using geese in grass control, made by County Agents Keith Bilbrey and Herschel Carter, revealed that R number of farmers TABIK 1 Data and Results or Trial by Source of Efts. Source of Eggs Total Eggs Percent Goslincs Fertile Percent Goslings Hatch- Helped Eggs Fertility Hatched ability from Shell Harry Mantz Age of Eggs Prior to Setting '2 to 4 days . 5 to 7 days . 3 to 10 days Age of F:ggs Prior to Setting 2 to 4 days 5 to 7 days to 10 days Treatment of Eggs had attempted to hatch goose CRCJS Clayton Holder in an Incubator. In all cases the t H - l>. Halsell attempts resulted in a very poor E- V. Wilson . hatch or a complete failure. Also. | Entire Setting hatches tinder geese were too often unsuccessful. These reports of unsuccessful Incubation, along with the recognized need for hatching and raisins more pollings on North Mississippi County farms, to provide for chcnn- cr 'replactments :uid expansion of floc'-s. promoted a trial of artificial incubation of goose e°ps bv agents, Bilbrey and Carter. H.. C Kn;i'>pen- berser. manager of the Ml"f«looi Crvmtv Electric Onon.. cooperated vith the County Extension Service bv providing the incubator used l'i the trial. The purpose of the trial was tv,-n- fold: first, to determine if coe'e eefrs could be hatched successfully in an incubator; and second, to re- cure data on some factors that mi-jht affect hatchability. |^} T}ie incubator used was a Sears Roebuck Farm-Mister model of 250-goose egg capacity, which cost snpro.ximalclv S90 delivered. The manufacturer's Instructions were cprefullv followed insofar as possible. The dry bulb thermometer was held at a temperature of 99 decrees fahrenhett up to the 25th day of the hatch, at which time it was lowered fo 97-97U degrees for the remainder of the hatch. The wet bulb thermometer was held at a temperature of 87-89 degrees up to the 25th day. at which time it was raised to about 91 decrees. Instructions called for a wet hulb temner- ature of 93 degrees after the 25th day. but 91 degrees was as high as could be secured. The difference between the dry bulb and wet bulb temperature Is a measure of the humidity: >he ICFS Ihe difference, the higher the humidity. The eggs were turned completely over 180 degrees three times daily. The eggs used in Ihe trial were secured from four different flocks which were under separate man- ^agement, 9 Results Satisfactory The results secured in the trial were very satisfactory. One hundred and thirty-three (133) °oslii!"s were hatched from 196 fertile eggs in a total of 238 eges set. This amounts to a halchabilily (percent of fertile esgs sell of 67.9'ner cent. Only 7 goslings oll the tail-end of the hatch were helped from the shell. There were no spraddle-leg- ged goslings in the entire hatch. These results are In line with results secured in artificial Incubation studies at Ohio State. Unnn the basis of their results, Dr. Car] Randies. Jr. states: "One can expect a season average of BO to 70 percent hatchability of eggs from mature breeders (2 years old or over) that have been well managed, and the eggs incubated according to recommendations," given in the article. A dry bnlb temperature of 99'i degrees to 00 s ; degrees fahren- helt. and a wet bulb temperature of 90 degrees to 92 degrees, up to plnping and of 94 degrces-05 degrees after pipping begins was rcc- immendeij. Complete turning (180 f ._—•«> o» the egcs 4 tlms dally and dipping or sprinkling the eggs twice each week during Incubation were part of th« recommendations In a study of Table t at right It will be noticed that fertility was good, with no significant difference In the fertility of eggs from the different sources, with the exception of one—the Wilson flock. The reason for the low fertility (40 per ccntl of these 20 eggs Is" unknown. Difference In Hatch.lhllilr Under the conditions ol the study, there was no statistically significant difference In hatthability among the flocks fed mash and the flocks not fed mash. The Halsell and Wilson flocks were fed mash I in addition to grain, while the SO .... 93 75 20 238 44 El 63 8 196 88.0% 87.1 84.0 40.0 32 55 41 5 133 12.7" 67.9 65.1 62.5 67.9? 0 10.9 2.4 0 5.3 TABLE 2 Relation bttwetn lenith of Holdinj Period and Halchabllity Number of Fertile Eggs Hatchability Combined Halsell & Holder Flocks 41 61 42 Mantz Flock 8 and 9 days 22 10 to 19 days 22 80. ST, 67.2% 52.4",. 81.B*i TABLE J Relation of len s lh nf Holrtini Period of Eggs to Help.outs in (he Combined Halsell and Holder Flocks Number of Goslings .. 33 .. 41 .. 22 Number of Help-outs 1 2 4 Percent of Help-outs 3.01 4.3% 18.2% TABLE .4 Comparison of llatehabilily (I) of Dipped Ejgs and of EBBS Not nipped Number of Eggs with Live Embryos at Beginning of Dipping Hatchability (1) Dipped ....................... _"". . " 62 " "isT? Not Dipped (Chec-,0 2 .............. 54 ri^ r (li Based on the numbsr of eggs with live embryos at beginning of the ' Cnt ' a " d n<>t ° n thC " Umber Ol fcrtl!e sggs wlllch ' ls true hatch- eqUal|y dlvi[lecf in the lest and check group as to age TABLE 5 Comparison of Hatchability of Egirs Washed »ith Eggs Not Washed. at Time of Setting Treatment of Eggs Number of Fertile. Eggs Hatchability Washed Not Washed (Check) 83.3? 8I.9 C (II Eggs in the test were from the Holder flock. Eggs were equally'riivided between the test group nnd check groups as to age and other treatments. Mantz and Holder flocks were not hatchability of the 8 to 10 day age fed mash. All four flocks had ac-(-group of eggs In the combined Hal '" """"" •"'- "--'"- - sell and Holder flocks (w,th a hatchability statistically that eggs Holder flocks cess to pasture. The hatchability of the mash-fed flocks was 64.8 per cent and for the no-mash flocks, 69.6 per cent. This difference is not statistically significant (at the 5 per cent level!. There was no sta- tisticaly significant difference in hatchnbility of any two of the four different flocks. Olrl ERE* I.nw-er Hatchability Table 2 gives Information pertaining to the relationship, found in the study, between the number of days eggs were held prior to setting, and their hatchability. The difference in hatchability of the 3 age groups (Table 2) of the combined Halsell and Holder flocks is statistically significant. The difference Is hatchability between the 2 age groups in the Mantz flock was not significant (at the 5 per cent level). However. It did approach this level of significance. The difference between the at a temperature somewhat below :hat of normal room temperature, ii'obably had some bearing on the wtter hatchability of the comparable age group of eggs from the Manlz flock. Eggs from all sources »'ere picked-lip daily mid were :urned daily during the holding leriod. Although the number of goslings nclped out of the shell wajS loo small for (he results to be significant. ih e results do indicate a possibility of some relationship between the number of help-outs necessary and the age of the egg when set (Table 3). Of the '22 eggs which hatched in Ihe 8 to 10 day group. 4 of Ihe gos- iillgs (18.2 per cent! had to be helped out of the shell. In the 5 to 7 day group. 2 out of 41 (4.9 per cent) had help. In the 2 to 4 day age group, only one out of 33 goslings (3.0 per cent i was helped out of the shell, ''tie fact that G of the help-outs were from one source of eggs alone (Table 1> indicates that other factors, other than ape of ej?g( may be Important in affecting help-outs necessary. The results of the study'pertain- ing to the relations of aie of egss to hatclialnllly do indicate that much better hatchabilily can be secured by holding eggs for only a relatively .short perioti before setting them, and by storing them in a cool place during Ihe holding period. (Lower holding temperatures compensate for longer holding periods. Eggs are best held at a temperature of 45 dejrers to 60 degrees and should IK turned daily*. Long holding periods to save sufficient eggs to set the incubator at n>i? time arc not necessary. Successive settings may be made "at weekly or 10-day intervals, or as often as a tray or tv.-o of cgps are raved. Value of Dipping Egjs A test to determine the relation of-dipping eggs during the last week of incubation to hatchability was carried out in the incubation trial. The results are shown in Table 4. The dipped epes were dipped once daily for 1 minute in lukewarm water during the last week of incubation. The hatchability of the dipped eggs was 85.5 per cent compared to 17.4 per cent for the check trays which were not dipped. While this difference is not insignificant, it does approach statistical significance (the a per cent level). In the Ohio trials there was a significant difference (in favor of dipping) between the hatchability of undipped eggs and eggs dipped twice a week throughout the incubation period. Sprinkling was equal to dippiirg. In view of these results, It seems advisable at present in artificial incubation to dip or sprinkle eggs twice a week throughout the incubation period; or as recommended in the manufacturer's instructions. Washing of Kgps In the trial by Bilbrey and Carter, there was no difference in hfltchsbilify of eggs washed at the time of .setting and of eggs not, washed (Table 5). Alihough no data was secured In the trial to indicate [he effect upo of 61.8 per cent was significant. The fact from the Halsell ahd | ™ 'rial to indicate the effect upoi '" hatchability of washing eggs at th were held at room temperature during the ?????!!!!!! holding period prior to setting, while eggs from the Mantz nock were held time they are picked up. it is believed that they should not be washed nt this time. Theoretically eggs washed at this time would age for the counties Is as follows: May 21, Morning — 10:00 a.m.: Mississippi and New Madrid: af- leriuxin, 2:00 p.m. — Dunklin, Butler and Bellinger. Mny 28. Morning — 10:00 a.m.: Scott and Stoddard; afternoon. 2:00 p.m. — Pemtscot, Cape Ol- rardenu, Wayne, Ripley, Perry tIARV Slil'TKIl—A mother sow Is Just added baRcage on tins farm near Somerville, Tenn. Seems that Bess, the English setter, had to find something to mother tiller her own litter had been disbanded when owner Louis Oliver found homes (or the pups. Louts says he thinks the mile pigs—shown getting a meal from the dog—like Bess just as well as their own mother. (Al 1 WlrepNoto) faster durinK the holding period. 'Because of more rapid evaporation ns a result o[ washing away the protective seal. Extremely dirty eggs may be cleaned some by use of a damp cloth. Candling Eliminates Odor Problem No odor was encountered in the trial. (The Incubator was located in the County Extension OfTicc.) The eggs were candled on the 7th, 14th. and 25th days ol Incubation, and the eggs with dead embryos were removed at these times. 13y candling out bad eggs, goose eggs can be incubated in the home without any disagreeable odor. Range In Time Required . for Hatching In the trial, the eggs started pip- ping on the 27th day of incubation. The first gosling broke out of its shell on the 28th day and the lost on the 31st day. Practically nil of the goslings hatched out on the 29th and 30th day of incubation, however. Significance of the Sludj The results of the study (along with the results of the Ohio study) indicate that good hatchnbility of goose eggs can be had in the common small cabinet type forced draft incubators, by following recommended incubation practices and by properly cnring for hatching cges prior to setting. It is likely that the following of certain management! practices with the breeding nock, such ns the provision of pasture or I adequate nutrition In general, will ! contribute to successful hatchability Sikeston's Field Days May 27-28 Field Days at the Slkcslon Experiment Field will be Mav 21 niirt 28. The suggested schedule Rcbcrt Lee Jetton. Defendant. The defendant, Robert Lee Jetton, is hereby warned to appear within thirty days in the court named in (lie cnption iivreof and answer the complaint of the plaintiff. Jackie A. Jeton. Dated this 25th day of April 1952. Claude F. Cooper, ally for ptf. Ed. B. Cook, ally ad liteni Harvey Morris, Cleric By Anita Sykes. D.C. 424-52-9-16 and Carter. Visitors will have »n opportunity to see weed control trills en cotton, alfalfa variety tests, aV- falfa fertilization tests, smiill srnln variety and fertilization testa, th« winter legume nursery »nd p*<- ture studies. Planting Seed We have for sale a limited quantity of Northern Grown WABASH SOYBEANS. OGDEN SOYBEANS. COTTON SEED d Henderson - Hoover Seed Co. Highway fil South Phone 2860 PLANTING SEED SOYBEAN SEED We have Ogden and Dortch No. 2 Cleaned Si and Sacked. Ready for *** immediate delivery. Empire Cotton Seed, first year from breeder. Discounts on large lots. RED TOP GIN CO. N. Highway 61 COTTON SEED Phone 3756 WAKMNtt ORDER In the Chancery Court. Chlcka- . »awha District, Mississippi County, Arkansas Jackie A. Jetton, Plaintiff. VS. No. 12042 For Sale • Soybean Seed • Funk's Hybrid Corn • Soybean Inoculation • Fertilizer Farmers Soybean Corp. 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