Great Falls Tribune from Great Falls, Montana on July 20, 1969 · Page 29
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Great Falls Tribune from Great Falls, Montana · Page 29

Great Falls, Montana
Issue Date:
Sunday, July 20, 1969
Page 29
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Apollo 11 Timetable: 22 Busy Hours on Moon By PAUL RECER AP Aerospace Writer SPACE CENTER, Houston (AP) - With its big descent engine sending shudders through its fragile frame, the Apollo 11 moon lander lightly drops toward the moon's surface, it commander delicately controlling the flaming decent. Probes on the moon lander's legs contact the surface and two lights in the cabin announce in white letters "Lunar Contact." Neil A. Armstrong cuts the engine and he and Col. Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. become the first men on the moon. That's the scenario. There's no time to look at the scenery. No time to cheer. No time for memorable speeches, Man's first visit to another planet will begin with two hours of frantic preparations to leave. Like tourists unsure of their welcome, Armstrong and Aldrin will start a countdown for take off even before the engine that put them on the moon has cooled. "For the first two hours after touchdown, we have a very busy time verifying the integrity of the lunar module," said Arm strong. "Without that . . . we can not safely continue with the lunar surface work and we cannot safely return to lunar orbit." This results, he said, in great deal of technical discus sions about sytcm during time when most people will be wondering, 'Well, what does it look like out there?' " To Point of Ignition They carry the countdown al most to the point of ignition. If all still looks good, mission control will give them the "go" to stay. If there are problems, the crew will fire the ascent rocket and leave the moon with hardly a look at it. If they get the clearance to stay, the pair will stop working for the first time since their landing. They'll doff their space helmets and gloves ana lane a lunch break. They have 40 minutes to prepare their food, which will be ei ther breakfast bacon squares or dinner beef stew. Presuro ably, while the freeze-dried food is being reconstituted in its pias tic bags, the astronauts will get their first chance for a long look at the strange new world be yond their cabin windows. Then, while a view never be' fore seen by man beckons just outside, the flight plan tears them away from the windows and tells them to go to sleep, "I'm going to be surprised if I'm able to sleep the first night on the moon," said Armstrong, But the spacemen are ready if sleep comes hard, as they say it almost surely will. The astro- elves to sleep with pills. Finding a place to sleep in the lunar module may be the tough est problem. LM Lacks Comfort The module wasn't designed for comfort. There are no bunks , or beds or even cots. One of the astronauts will spend the four-hour sleep period silting on an engine nousing, leaning against a bulkhead with his feet suspended by a cord, Aldrin said. The other will sleep on the floor, leaning against the bulkhead. "One-sixth G (the reduced gravity of the moon) and the padding of the suit, I think, should make it fairly bearable Aldrin said. Two hours after Armstrong and Aldrin begin their rest, Mi chael Collins, orbiting the moon .1 ! XI A.11. 41 J aione in we npuiiu 11 Lummanu module 69 miles above his colleagues, also goes to sleep. At 9 p.m. MDT Sunday, Ald rin anrt Armstrnncr pnH thpir rest period. They'll report to earth and then eat breakfast for an hour. Then the high point of the ad venture of the century and maybe of all time. Working with difficulty in the very cramped lunar module cabin, Armstrong and Aldrin help each other put on almost ,200 pounds of equipment. This includes helmets, gloves and the portable life support back pack that will feed them oxygen during their moon walk. Putting on this equipment in the small cabin, says the Apollo 11 commander, is "certainly the most difficult, possibly the most i tiring and certainly the most po tentially hazardous ... We view it with a great deal of caution." : Two-Hour Struggle For two hours, the astronauts struggle to don the equipment. iney load and prepare three cameras. They stow unneeded equipment. At 11:55 a.m. MDT they turn on their back-pack oxygen system. At 12:05 a.m. they open the for ward hatch. The moon waits beneath them. At 12:12 a.m., while his fellow Americans 250,000 miles away wait in darkness, Armstrong emerges from the moon lander into the blinding, undiluted light of the sun. Armstrong will begin man's first visit to the moon by inglo- riously backing out of the moon lander on his hands and knees. With Aldrin taking pictures with a sequence camera from the window, Armstrong starts down a ladder to the surface. He moves slowly, hampered by the bulk of the moon suit and its equipment At the second ladder rung from the surface, he pulls a cord that opens a work bench out from the side of the space craft. A television camera attached to the bench automati cally focuses on Armstrong and the ladder. Aldrin turns on the television transmission system. People the world over watch history hap pen. At about 12:20 a.m. MDT, Arm strong steps from the last rung to a foot pad on the lunar mod ule. He stands in the dish-like pad momentarily and then, like a swimmer testing the water, he will gingerly place a foot on the moon. The time is expected to be 12:21 a.m. MDT, July 21. Still gripping the ladder, Arm strong then carefully brings his other foot to the surface and puts his whole weight down. Checks His Balance Armstrong checks his bal ance. He takes a few step to see if he can walk. He attaches a conveyor belt to the ladder. The other end is in the LM. The astronaut then takes a long-handled scoop from a loop at his waist. .Leaning over slightly, he picks up a scoop of lunar dust, puts it In a plastic bag and stows it in a pocket on the left leg of his suit. Armstrong then looks at the moon lander and reports on its condition. Aldrin connects a camera to the conveyor belt and Armstrong pulls it down to himself and mounts it on a bracket on his chest Like a tourist with unlimited film, Armstrong starts taking pictures, focusing on the surface, the spacecraft and the terrain. Then he rests while Aldrin begins his tedious exit. Armstrong takes his picture. While Aldrin rests at the foot of the ladder, Armstrong walks to the work bench, removes the television camera and moves it 30 feet away. He places the camera on a tripod and then points it around the lunar surface, giving home viewers a look at the terrain. The camera is then pointed at Aldrin who goes through a series of arm, body and foot movements, checking his ability to work on the surface. To Plant VS. Flag There's no mention of it in the official flight plan, but at some point during this time Armstrong will plant an American flag on the moon and leave a plaque and recording disc as reminders of the landing. Working in view of the television camera, he'll unstow the nylon flag from a leg of the lander, attach it to a jointed eight-foot staff and jab the staff into the ground. Aldrin then moves to the work bench and erects a sample collection table, He also removes a solar wind experiment a sheet of aluminum on a stick and jabs its staff into the ground. Armstrong opens a rock box, or sample return container, and, using long-handled tools, starts picking up rocks and dirt. He places moon material in plastic bags, closes the bags and places them in a rock box. After picking up 60 to 120 pounds of material, he seals the box. Aldrin removes a camera from the work bench and takes pictures. Th3 two astronauts then walk part way around the lunar mod ule, taking pictures of it. On the side of the moon land er away from the television camera, Aldrin removes two ex periments from a storage area. He carries them away from the spacecraft about 70 feet. They are a laser beam reflector and a seismic device. They are set on the surface. They move back to the moon machine, taking more pictures of it and the terrain. Aldrin and Armstrong then begin a documented gathering of moon rock. They take pictures of rocks before they touch them, describe the material, then scoop it up and place it in a bag. The bag is labeled and placed in a rock box. They also take core sample and place it in the box. Final Tasks Thpir two hours and 40 min utes pn the moon's surface is drawing to a close. They collect as many samples as they can and then return to the moon ladder. Aldrin collects the solar wind experiment and puts it in a rock box. Aldrin then moves to the ladder, wipes his boots against the footpad and starts up the ladder. Armstrong takes his picture. Aldrin then pulls cameras and rock boxes into the space cabin on the conveyor belt while Armstrong holds the belt taut. Then Armstrong dusts his feet and starts up the ladder. At about 2:42 a.m. MDT, the moon walk is over and the spacecraft hatch is closed. Armstrong and Aldrin tidy up their space cabin, rest briefly and then reopen the hatch to toss out their portable life support pack and other equipment no longer needed. They close the hatch, check the moon lander systems again and then take off their helmets and gloves. Their work day man s first on the moon is over. They eat dinner for 40 minutes and then rest. This time sleep will come eas ily, the astronauts say, they ex pect to be exhausted. At about 9:55 a.m. MDT, Armstrong and Aldrin wake up. They eat a quick breakfast and get ready to leave the moon. At 11:55 p.m., Monday, 22 hours, 15 minutes after it began, the visit to the moon is over. Armstrong ignites the ascent rocket and the top half of the lu nar module lifts off and streaks away. The craft goes straight up and then cuts away at an angle, rocketing toward the orbiting command module mother ship where Collins, and a ride home, await the first men to go to the moon. (Space Agency officials revealed Thursday that they are considering delaying the sleep period and allowing the astro nauts to begin their moonwalk several hours earlier than origin ally scheduled. By Saturday, no final decision had been reached.) N . - ' l r Lip, ?&&Vkr- M? -: -. 4 f, .y i'u ;l Ni l' b ;l '; , . J I V'V a ti' , w-i $ nil M0S h POISED FOR THE MOON: In 1865 AND TODAY The illustration at left is from Jules Verne's noval, "From Earth to the Moon," and shows the arrival of the moon projectile at Stone Hill, Fla. At right, the Apollo 11 command modnle Is shown at Cape Kennedy being readied for Its historic moon trip, Wednesday. (AP Photo) May Hop Instead of Walk Array of Strange Jobs Await Astros &m $drk Staff HOUSTON, Texas - The two men scheduled to be the first to tread on the moon early Monday may find that walk ing is not the best way to get around. The answer may be a "kangaroo hop". This is the view of Dr. Don L. Lind, a scientist-astronaut who has been responsible for planning the activities of as tronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during their two hours and 40 minutes on the moon. Another possibility, he said, is that a loping walk with slow, three-foot strides will prove most efficient. No one knows, because there has been no way to simulate on earth the deep vacuum that will envelope the astronauts on the moon. In this vacuum their suits will be tightly inflated by their breathing oxygen, making it impossible for them to move at more than a slow pace or to bend over and pick up objects off the ground. Hence, to oper ate on the moon, they have been provided with an array of special tools. Friday, at the Manned Spacecraft Center here, Lind Demonstrated what the well-equipped I lunar explorer must have and final descent, it will drive its how he will use each piece of equipment. He also answered a broad range of questions. What, for example, will hap pen if one man falls down? Will he, like an ancient armored knight, be unable to rise? Lind replied that by doing a pushup and then "running" vigorously until his feet are under his center of gravity, the astronaut could stand again. It would, however, be an ex hausting effort. More probably his companion would help him arise. Another problem is that the bulkiness of the moon suits will limit the astronauts' vision While Armstrong is to collect a "contingency" bagful of lunar material, as soon as he steps onto the moon, and put the bag in his big pocket he will be unable to see the pocket. He will have to find it by feel. Yet his sense of touch will be greatly dulled by his heavy clothing. One of the first tasks of the astronauts after they open the hatch of the lunar module that lands them on the moon may be to clean off their porch and front steps. Lind pointed out that as the descent stage rocket blasts downward, slowing the gases down into the lunar ma terial. This will probably carve a shallow crater, throwing debris out to the sides, not in billowing clouds (since there is no air) but in arching trajector ies. Some of the rocket exhaust may spread out thousands of feet, Lind said, but that which is driven into the surface immediately below the rocket will be unstable. As soon as the engine shuts down, this gas may burst forth into the vacuum of space, pro ducing a small eruption of surface material that could blanket lower parts of the lunar module. However as soon as rods dangling from three legs of the descending LM touch the surface a light will flash inside the cabin. If the astronauts shut down the engine promptly, the blast effects should be minimized. The moon tools are carried in the modular equipment stowage area, or mesa, between two legs of the lower stage of the LM. When opened, half the mesa drops down, like a very large suitcase with top and bottom compartments, so that its entire interior is accessible to an astronaut on the ground. Inside are two "rock boxes" each slightly larger than a selves, are vacuum sealed. DtAMETfK Of (ACM STAGE 14ft. lin. ASCENT STAGE 77U. Uin i i Jsr v I Hon f v SM. IU. ,.-t u ' 3i it rSSH ion, 7i. dispatch case and designed to be hermetically sealed lest the specimens be contaminated by-cabin oxygen or earth air, and to prevent escape of any lunar germs. Tongs have been provided to enable an astronaut, by squeez ing the instrument's double handle, to open a spring loaded "hand" at its base. With this he can pick up fist-sized rocks and put them in his specimen bag. A scoop with a bucket like that of a steam shovel can be used to collect loose lunar material. Since the astronauts cannot stoop, an extension handle has been provided that can be attached to the scoop. Lind said an attempt would also be made to capture and bring home a little lunar "air." It is known that the moon has no true atmosphere, but leakage of gas from its interior may have coated its surface with an extremely thin layer of primarily heavier gases. Two high-vacuum containers, each the size of a coffee can, have been provided so that lunar samples can be collected with a minimum of danger of a t m ospheric contamination. They will be carried inside the rock boxes which, in them- In their final and most am bitious specimen collecting the astronauts will act in the manner of earth-bound geologists, except that their field notes will be made on earth instead of on the moon. Hanging from a ring on the moon suit will be a stack of small, numbered specimen bags. The astronaut will select an interesting specimen, pho graph it, and describe hs location and appearance to those monitoring the sequence at the space center here. He will then pick it up, yank a speciment bag from the ring and report the number to earth before closing and stowing it in a large collection bag on his waist. A team of some 10 specialists in lunar geology will be "watching" from a special room here. When the astronauts pause to rest which they are expected to do often from necessity they will ask for suggestions from those on earth who have been shown the local terrain. Soon after landing a television sweep of the entire panorama from the high windows and hatch of the spacecraft is planned. Body Decoiitlitioning Worries Space Doctors By HOWARD A. RUSK, M.D. Km Uork $wt a NEW YORK - When Neil A. flight to the moon cal. was practi- One of the most serious physio-Iocical Droblems in snarp flioht Armstrong and Col. Edwin E.s the cardiovascular decondi-Aldrin Jr. step out of their lunar , tioning phenomenon. It has been module on the surface of the .known since World War II that moon, aviation medicine will be complete bed rest will cause put to its greatest test since the! rapid general body decondition-physiological problems of manjing. A patient who could do a m flight began with Orville and, given piece of work that would Wilbur Wright in 1903. raise his pulse rate to 120 a Medical problems have in- minute before the test had a creased with the increasing 'nulsp ratp nf 1ftfl a mtnnto nor. I vw M 1IUIIUVV LVl - MEASUREMENTS OF MOON VEHICLE This drawing shows how the lunar module the Apollo 11 astronauts' shuttle to the moon ; measures up for the momentous task. (AP Drawing) speed and altitude of planes and now spaceships. The first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's biosatellite program had these objectives: To discover whether complex organisms could survive space conditions, and to test life support systems. To determine whether complex organisms (dogs and primates) could survive during launch, orbital space flight, reentry and recovery. To determine the effects of ambient space radiation, and any obvious effect of weightlessness on biological organisms. NASA reported that these studies indicated that man's forming the same work after six weeks of bed rest. It was noted that after only a day or two in a fixed position the deconditioning phenomenon was already evident. Dr. Charles A. Berry, director of medical research at NASA's manned spacecraft center in Houston, now feels that weightlessness is more of a factor than confinement in producing deconditioning. When checked on bicycle type ergometers, after the aircraft pickup, both Gemini and Apollo astronauts showed cardiovascular deconditioning even though they took isometric exercises during the mission. Sunday, July 20, 1969 GREAT FALLS TRIBUNE 29

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