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FRIDAY, MAY 12, 1950 Supreme Court Finds Freedom of Speech Can Be Knotty Problem By JAMES MAKI.OW WASHINGTON, May 12...(,1>>—The Supreme Court gcU itscU Into neat knots on the question of .freedom qf speech. The constitution says Congress shall mate no law interfering with freedom of speech. i . <4Jiti 1919, backed by the other «ght Justices of the supreme court, Justice Oliver Weixiell Holmes wrote an opinion on freedom of speech. He said: "The question in every case Is whether the words utcd are used under such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that th.cy will bring about, the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent." Since 1919, this "clear and present danger" test has-been a"guidc for other supreme court Justices to follow in deciding whether some law which comes before Ehetn is in keeping with the- constitutional Kuaranteo of freedom of speech. Other Cases Less Clear Mo one will argue (hat n man should be allowed to shout "fire" in a crowded theater to cau.se a panic. That's a clear cut cuse of when a man shouldn't be allowed free speech. It's an abuse of [ree- dor.i and harmful to hotres. But other cases which have come before the court since 1919 are not so clear cut. The Communist Parly, on the to join any political party he chooses. This is an exercise of his. pnai-piitecd speech. right of freedom of jffince the Communist Party has 3 ^&r* been outlawed by Congress, snvone Ls free to join it. But in I!H7 Congress passed a law. the Ta ft-Hartley Later Act, which said: Tf the officers of a labor union are Communists, that union can't get the benefits and protection of the law. This has been a bitter point with labor leaders ever since. The argument against that part o! T-H goes like this: 11 is unconstitutional because it interferes with the right of union officials freely to express their political views by joining the Communist Party. Speed Not Involved The ca?e finally was brought before the .supreme court for a decision on whether this' part of the T-H violated the constitution. Only six -ot the nine Justices took part. In the decision. The vote was 5 to 1, saying the act was constitutional. Chief. Justice Vinson issued a long opinion. Summed up, it said: Freedom of speech Isn't involved. But. another part of the constitution is involved. That's the part giving Congress the power to regulate commerce among the states. The government here Isn't interested in preventing the spreading of Communist doctrine. And the spreading of that doctrine, at least in this case. Isn't a matter of a "clear and present danger." In fact, speech Isn't involved in this case at all. What is. then? Action, said the court. Justice Vinson argued that the T-H section in question was Intended to orotect the public, not against Communist Ideals, but the things; Communists do: pulline strikes that Interfere with Interstate commerce. Therefore, (he law Is all right because Congress has a right to protect interstate conimrrce. Not Unanimous Still, It wasn't a unanimous decision of the court. Justices Reed son. Justices Jackson and Frankfurter airecd in part. Justice Black dissented. This is not the fir.st time in recent years there was split thinking on tlie high court about freedom of speech. In I!M9. the court snlit 5 to 4 on the case of Father Arthur Terrni- nlello, a Catholic priest. He had m^<ic a fiery sneech in 1946 in Chicago. Stink bombs and bricks were hurled and the court record says the "streets oulside were black with a surging, howling mob,'! which the police couldn't control. The Chicago trial Judge fined the priest S100 for di=ttlrbine tlie pence. But the supreme court majority of five ruled this was uncon- slilutional. Justice Jackson, one of the four justices overruled by the other five, protested this was certainly a case of "clear and present danger" and he thought the fine should be BLYTHEVILLR (ARK.) COURIER NEWS 21 American Warships on Way to Orient PEARL HARBOR, May 12. (/!'}— A task force of 21 American war- snips headed west for the orient today. It will relieve ships of the Seventh Fleet, But the main purpose of the task group w ji| be to show the American flag along the shores of Asia. The carrier valley Forge headed the force, it has aboard 33 jet planes, fir: • O f the speedy American warplanes to be shown in the Pi-lent. Tiiere are 47 other planes aboard. Rear Adm. John M. Hoskins will command the task force, which also will include two snorkel-type sub- marines—tlie kind that can stay un- clerwarter hid -finitely. Besides the valley Forge, other ships In tlie task force ate the cruisers Jimcau and Rochester, the aircraft tenders Curtiss and Sul- san, the transport Wantuck, the destroyers Dehaven, Brush, Taussig. Mansfield, Mnddox, Moore, Eversole and Shelton, the destroyer escorts Fletcher and Radford, the submarines Remora, catfish and Segundo and the oilers Navasola and Passumpsic. Vice Adm. Calvin T. Durgin. commander of the Pacific First Fleet, said all major trengthening of the pacific fleet "for the Immediate future" had been completed. :The Valley Forge will relieve the carrier Boxer in [he Orient. The Boxer and other ships of the Seventh Fleet will return to the West Coast in June. Oppose Truman Plans WASHINGTON. May 12. W) — Senators Fulbrighl and McClellan of Arkansas voted with the Senate majorities which yesterday rejected two proposals of President Truman. One proposal was to reorganize the National Labor Relations Board; the other was to reorganize the Treasury Department. Sex Hormone Treatments Aid Mental Patients, New York Scientists Say upheld. On a freedom of speech issue In June. 1948, the court ruled. 5 to 4. that local police may not regulate the use of sound trucks and loudspeakers. • But in January, 1949, the court followed this with a 5 to 4 decision (hat a city may stop altogether the use of sound trucks and loud speakers. PAGE TIIREB By ALTON' I-. BI.AKKSLKE * Associated Press Science Reporter NEW YORK. May 12. (/!')—Sex hormone treatments made one-third or a croup of mental patients well enough to BO home, five Creedmoor <N. Y.) state Hospital scientists said tortny. The hormones helped some patients who had not bencnltcd from shock treatments, they told a New York Slate Medical Society meeting. Boili male and female sex hormones were used, in large doses. The combination Is something new In treating severe mental illnesses. Their use is based on a theory that, mental Illnesses result from an Imbalance of various body hormones. The sUidtes were reported by Drs. Mortimer, Raymond and Arthur Saekler, three brothers; Dr. Co 'mi, and Dr. John H. W. Van Ophulj- sen, of the Creedmoor Institute for Psvchobiological Studies. The sex hormones were • tried on 40 patients. They were suffering from schizophrenia, In which a person withdraws from reality: manic depression, marked by severe depression or extreme excitement, nnd Involutloiial psychoses, or melancholia. Best in Early Cases Fifty-eight per cent of tlie 40 improved, and one-third recovered enough to be able to go home ,thcy said. As with other treatments, the sex hormones brought best results In early rather than long-lasting cases of disease. Of patients who had been In the hospital six months or less, 74 per cent improved and more than half went home. Seven of the patients were young, from 16 to 26 years old. Six of these, all with sclm.ophrcnla, were able to go home. In age groups, patients over 50 showed tlie second best results, then persons of middle age. Good results in using histnmlne in mental Illnesses has been reported also by the Creedmoor group. Histamine is a chemical that lowers blood pressure, and is one cause of'allergies. The sex hormones, hi.slamine. ami other biochemical treatments offer great promise in treating mental illnesses, the doctors declared. They seem to be steps, they said, toward the day when major mental illnesses will be better controlled, 'perhaps anticipated, detected earlier and more surely, and even prevented. 2 Stores Burn n Monricello MONTICEIAO, Ark., May 1J. (/)>) —firemen early today still battled fire which swept two stores on lonticcllo's main square. Tlie two are Oklahoma Tire and upply company, opened only a ew weks-ageo. and the adjoining 1 and S variety store. The fire threatened other build- )gs. 11 apparently started In a enlllator fan In the variety store ullding. Tentative estimates of damage an as high as $60,000. Firemen Jack pierce and Zcb faynes were overcome by smoke. Both recovered with a few ruin- ites. Approximately 150,000 people are employed to supply ice for the U. .S. every summer. Martin & Son has a Special Gift for each and every Graduate: DISCOUNT Tories Score New Gains in City Elections LONDON, May 12. (/r)—Winston Churchill's Tories scored new gains in Britain's town and city council elections as urban dwellers continued their drift away from tlie rul- 1ns Labor Parly. The rlKhiward swing in tlie municipal elections yesterday was too slight, however, to give a clear-cut sign for the possible outcome of the general elections expected this fall. Voters In 378 municipalities went to tlie polls yesterday to pick a Cigarette Lighter Fun But Probably Painful OAK RIDGE. Tcnn.. May 12. </!>) — Three-year-old Crnlg Thompson TOW better than to play with n :lfarette lighter. But that closet, — privacy anil Inrkne.w; Eic quietly stepped In ami shut, the door. The flame showed tp fine. So do the smoke from the clothes His parents. Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Thompson, Jr.. suffered burns on (heir feel and when they stamped out flames of whnt they said had Jecn SOO worlli of clothing. Craig was uninjured, unless it as by a hairbrush. The Thompsons didn't say. On Any Hem in Our Stock! Choose Now From an Exclusive Group of Nationally Advertised Lines and Save 10%. Hyde Park Suits Manhattan Shirts Esquire Socks Walkover Shoes Hubbard Slacks Curlee Suits Manhattan Sportswear Wembley Ties Marlboro Sportswear Adam Hats W« hay* on fiU the size for «ach graduate to odd to your shopping convenience. Martin & Son "Everything For Men and Boys" Political Announcement The Courier News has been author- zed to announce the following can- dictates subject to the Democratlr primaries. July 25 and August 8 FOR COUNT* JUDGK Roland Green FOR STATE REPRESENTATIVE I* H Autry He-election Post No. t John Cowan Kenneth S. Sulcer Post No 2 E. C. "Gene" Fleeman <ror re-election Post No. 4) For State Senator W R Nicholson J. Lee Bearden tliirU of.tlielr councils. Fnnl result's will not be known until late lodny. Bui latest return!; from 373 bor- iRhs gave llic Conservntivc Party ft net Bain or 213 seats, among the 3.217 seats being contested. Most o4 them were won from the Labor Party ami Independent candidates. Those returns showed Hint, labor hail suHcrert a net loss oJ 79 scats, the Inrteiicnclcnts a net loss of 112 and the IJlwraU « uct loss /if 23. All In nil, llu'rc W as no such ara- nnitlc swing as occurred in the municipal elections Inst year when the Colservatlvcs made a smashing comeback with city voters to seize co»rol of many councils which had labor hands since 194S. V4-L FOK U! Al ILETE S FOOT H AUSI W .... f r»l>r PENETRATING r.**>, all", undiluted alcchol 'tax, ft '. tbo -til., .indication DtEri.T. Ul tk« ,or«yi contact. Get b»p^» >y diuf »ton. Today at KIKBV DRUG STOKES DECORATE YOUR HOME WITH and "Flexalum" Venetian Blinds Austin & Wicker Red • Spot Paint — Gliiss — Wallpaper 112 So. 1st. I'h<>n« 6207 A GREAT DREilUS VALUE! While They Last BEAUTIFUL GIFT PLATE Warranteed 22k Gold Bord nil i: ins Lnssr President Roosevelt's Board said- President Truman's Board said- Still the leaders of the Railroad NO! NO! Firemen's Union say— SIR IK This ridiculous strike is an affront to every citizen of the nation. It's not for more money. It's not because of hours. It's only for soft ICOniCI'" bedding spots for additional unnecessary firemen to go along in diesel locomotives just for the ride. A leading liberal newspaper calls the de- mands of the union leaders "horSC-fCOttlCrs"! • The reckless leaders of the firemen's union want to force down Uie throatji of the railroads and the public a ridk- nlous "make-work" proposal which kae been twice ruled owt by Presidential Fact Finding Boards duly appointed nmJer the provisions of the Railway Labor Act. TT>is demand of union leaders for additional and uonecewary firemen to ride in dkael locomotives wan rejected —after mon ths of hearings—by a Board appointed by Preeidcol Roosevelt i* 1943. It was again rejected in 1949 by a Board appointed by President Truman. Ttecent meetings with the National Mention Hoard have brought no change in the attitude of the union dicta lorn. Union Leaders Defy Intent of TJ.W The union kad«r« helped writ* th« Railway I-alx>r Act. Yet in an attempt to >«UB Uwou*h U>» »cb«tn« of "feather-bedding" by leading the members of their union out on strike and threatening paralysis to large areas of the nation, they are defying the spirit and intent of the very law which tlxsy helped to create. Triie strike is not for higher wages. It if a strike to force the railroads to employ many more thousands of firemen who are not needed! It would bo indefensible waste. The railroads have refused to plnce this additional and vnneceeeary burden on the public. But more important than any other consideration, rs the action of theee few irresponsible union leaders in seeking io focce a crippling strike upon the silli is one of the es in history! Wlmt tire these recklefiH union lenders' trying to do? Tliey seek to snrwla of their inemlKrrB to throw hundreds of thousnnds employes on lui«l off the rnilroads ( '< employment, with lo«s of pay w' nnrl their families, plus a severe industry and the citi7.enB of the nation. WhoVi the strike all about? If the union has its wny—what ImppcnnY Tho present members of the union won't get one cent more pa'y. They will merely have l>ecn%i«e*.'*Kl for a costly and indefensible drive in an attempt to provwlc more dues-pay ing mcmlicrBfor the union by criyiting "fealhcr-lxxlo'tng" jobs for additional and unnecessary firemen. This is certiiinly one of the silliest atrikcn in hbttory! nation for their own selfish purposes, j There is no other possible answer to j such a demand but "No!" The railnjrjs in making such a reply believe they have the whole-hearted support of the people in whose Interest they are willing to fight this out, de- spile the loss and inconvenience that all win suffer* It is time to put an end to such un- i American demands. \Vc nro publishing trtt* and other ftdvcrtiscmRn% to Inlk to yo«J first hand about natters which ar* important to everybody.