FA bum: A. hptptf Jl IItvj II Hi THIRTY-SECOND YEAR SEGNENC OF FEWE-YEAR . - - ' ' . - - - ' CMENA German Delegates Affix Signatures at 3:13 P.M. Followed by Americans ' " ' , Versailles, June 28. (By the Associated Press.) The credentials of Dr. Herman Mueller and Dr. Johannes Bell, German plenipotentiaries sent here to sign the treaty of peace, were approved this morning. i ." The peace treaty was deposited on the table in the Hall of Mirrors at 2:10 o'clock this afternoon by Wililam Martin of the French foreign office. It was enclosed in a stamped leather case. Premier Clemenceau entered the palace at 2:30 o'clock. A few minutes before 3 o'clock the fifteen enlisted men from the American, British and French armies entered the hall amid decorous cheers. ' ' ' President Wilson entered the Hall of Mirrors at 2:50 o'clock. All the dele-gates then were seated except the Chinese, who did not attend. The Germans entered the hall at exactly 3 o'clock. Premier Clemenceau called the session to order at 3:10 o'clock, and in opening the session said: "The session is opened. The allied and associated powers on one side and the German commission on the other side, have come to an agreement on the conditions of peace. The text has been completely drafted and the president of the conference has stated in writing that the text that is about to be signed now is identical with the 200 copies that have been delivered to the German delegation. The signatures will be given now and they amount to a solemn undertaking faith, fully and loyally to execute the conditions embodied by this treaty of peace. .1 now invite the delegates of the German commission to sign the treaty." The Chinese delegates shortly before the hour set for the signing of the treaty, reiterated their Intention not to sign. Premier Clemenceau put the direct question to the Germans whether they were willing to sign and execute loyally all the terms. The other delegates did not arise when the Germans came into the hall. Dr. Hermann Mueller and Dr. Johannes Bell signed for Germany at 3:13 o'clock. The American delegates came next, led by President Wilson. The British followed the Americans. All the American delegation had finished signing at 3:15 a. m. after President Wilson, the official report said. The order of signing after President Wilson was Lansing, White, House and Bliss. '., The other delegations headed by the British signed after the American plenipotentiaries in the order set forth in the treaty. :, General Jan Christian Smuts, one of the delegates representing the Union of South Africa, signed the treaty under protest. He objected to certain territorial settlements, making a lengthy statement!,- General Smuts said that the indemnities stipulated could not be accepted without grave injuries to the industrial revival of Europe. He declared it would be to the Interest of the allied powers to render the stipulations more tolerable and moderate. The protocol was signed by all those who signed the treaty. The Rhine arrangement was signed by the Germans, Americans, Belgians, British and French plenipotentiaries. All of the plenipotentiaries having signed the treaty, M. Clemenceau declared the session closed. The German delegates left the hall first, the allied representatives remaining in their seats. Those who had assembled in the hail then went to the terrace to see the fountains playing. As Premier Clemenceau, President Wilson and Premier Lloyd George emerged from the palace the great crowd gathered outside swept aside the cordon of troops, cheering madly. The three statesmen were swept along by the surging thousands. Many soldiers broke ranksand joined in the demonstration, while guns boomed and low-flying airplanes seemed to fill the air. Premiers Clemenceau and Lloyd George and President Wilson were photographed together on the terrace. After ths demonstration the three allied leaders left Versailles in the same automobile, the crowds following and cheering. MUST BE BEFORE COMMERCE BE Washington, June 28. Signing at Versailles of tne peace treaty with Germany arranged for today, formally brings to a close the world's greatest war. Altho technical termination of the war will come to each nation only when the treaty is approved by ihe ratifying power of that nation, to all intents and pur-popes the conflict, that neg'iu in August 1914, ended when in the historic Hall of Mirrors, the accredited peace commissioners affixed their siguatures to the treaty. Likewise will be brought to an end the armistice granted Germany last November 11. Portion of the treaty with Austria yet remain to be completed and negotiations with Turkey and Bulgaria still must be conducted, but as to Germany, chief of the enemy powers, only the work of carrying out thru the long series of years of the provisions of the treaty will remain. With the departure from Paris tonight of President Wilson preparatory to sailing tomorrow from Brest on the George Washington the center of interests as regards the treaty shifts to the senate, ratification by which is necessary for actual termination of the war between this country and Germany. Due to opposition to the league of nations covenant a part of the treaty and to certain provisions of the treaty itself, the contest in the senate is expected to be long and bitter. As the signing of the treaty must be followed by formal ratification before commercial relations with Germany may be resumed, a spirit of rivalry among the entente allies to file notice of ratification with the French secretariat in Paris may be expected. The first nation to resume relations with Germany, therefore, probably will be among those whose forms of government admit of speedy action such as , Great Britain, which may ratify the treaty thru a mere order of the privy council. STILL HOLD A CLUB. Paris, June 2S. (Havas) .In the completed peace treaty signed today at Versailles, the newpapers say, were certain stipulations which it was hoped would hasten ratification of the treaty by the GerniSn national assembly. The journal says that the allies stipu-- (Continued on Page Twp). T RESUMED S CUSS TREATY II SCRAP OE PAPER; LUST FOR REVENGE Berlin, June 28. (By The Associated Press.) The Pan-German Deutsche Zeitung prints the following across its front page: "German honor today will be carried to its grave in the Hall of Mirrors, in which, in the glorious year of 1871 the German empire was resurrected in all its former splendor. Lest we forget. In restless labor the German people will strive to attain that place among the nations of the world to which it is entitled. Then vengeance for the disgrace of 1919." The Tageblatt says: "The German people reject the treaty which its delegates are signing today, and it does not believe for a single moment that it will endure. Despite the fact that it is written on parchment, it remains a scrap of paper, because it is a mockery of all the laws of reason and morals and the most disgraceful exhibit in the museum of civilization." WITH LEAD OF 7,000 Fargo, N. D., June 28. With 90 widely scattered precincts still to report their ballots in the referendum election of Thursday on the seven non-partisan league laws, the league tonight had a lead of more than 7,XK votes. This majority will be further increased when the remaining precincts, virtually all in the rural districts, make their returns. The figures are 59,071 for the laws to 51,712 against. Havre Man Present at .Treaty Signing Versailles, June 28. Among the soldiers attached to President Wilson's residence who witnessed the ceremony attending the signing of the peace treaty was-M. D. Mary, Havre, Montana. HUN IN mm hi ' GREAT FALLS, MONTANA; SUNDAY MORNING, JUNE 29, i919 TREATY ERENQ8TO ENB . PER ONLY NATEON TO FOR AND AGAINST ifHi . v40 r- I w i i ... .1C-JRS: '.. . , n$m feCr XEQ3S ' Left to right-- Senators Hitchcock, Watson and Knox. Here are the newest snapshots of three prominent U. S.. senators whose -names have figured in the league of nations debate. Senator Hitchcock of Nebraska, is the principal democratic support of the league. Senator Knox of Pennsylvania has been leading the fight against the league covenant in its present form. Senator Watson of Indiana is supporting the views of Senators Knox and Lodge. WILSON WON'T SUSPEND WAR-TIME PROHIBITION Washington, June 28. President Wilson announced tonight that he would not suspend operation of the wartime prohibition law, effective Monday at midnight. . The president in a cablegram to the White House said : "I am convinced that the. attorney general is right in advising me that I have no legal power at this time in the matter of the ban on liquor." ' Terms of the wartime prohibition law do not allow him to act, President Wilson said, until "the termination of the demobilization of the troops, and I cannot say that that had been accomplished. . "My information from the war department," continued the message, "is that there are still a million men in the service under the emergency call. "Whei demobilization is terminated," the president said, "my power to act without congressional action will be exercised.' President W'ilson has decided he can not legally lift the wartime prohibition ban before the country goes dry at midnight Monday, but he expects to do so as soon thereafter as his power has been made clear by the completion of demobilization. In a cablegram made public tonight at the White House the president said he was convinced after consultation with his legal advisers that he had Tao authority to act at this time. The message expressed no opinion as to the authority of the president, when he raises the ban, to make his action applicable only to beer and wine. Secretary Tumulty gave out the following statement: "The secretary to the president at the White House tonight made public the following cable from the President with reference to wartime prohibition: " 'I am convinced that the attorney general is right in advising me that I have no legal power at this time in the matter of the ban on liquor. Under the act of November 1918, my p6wer to take action is restricted. The act provides that after June 30, 1919, until the conclusion of the present war and thereafter until the termination of demobilization, the date of which shall be determined and proclaimed by. the president, it shall be unlawful, etc' "This law does not specify that the ban shall be lifted with the signing of peace, but with the termination of the demobilization of the troops, and I can-" not say that that has been accomplished. My information from the war department is that there are still a million men in the service under the emergency call. It is clear, therefore, that the failure of congress to act upon the sub-gestion contained in my message of the 20th of May, 1919, asking for a repeal of the act of November 21, 1918, so far as it applies to wines and beer, makes it impossible to act in this matter at this time. "WThen demobilization is terminated, my power to act without 'congressional action will be exercised. "WOOimOW WILSON." Refusal of President Wilson to act at this time means that the loDg arm of the war-time law will reach out at, raid-night Monday and close the door of every liquor establishment on American soil. . Next in public interest to announcement of the president's attitude comes the question -how soon will the army be demobilized ? There was belief in some quarters tonight that this date would not be long delayed, in view of the signing of the treaty, the action of congress in reducing the size of the army, and the . effort of the government . to . bring (Continued on Page Two), EOEDOF EWWASTATEON LEAGUE OF NATIONS SE1TE RECEIVES - NEWS OF !M QUIET DIGNITY House Is a Little More Enthusiastic and Cheers the Name of - the President. Washington, June 28. Word of the consumatioa of peace was received by the national capital with scarcely a flutter of popular or official sentiment. At the White Ilouse and the state department the news aroused only a quite feeling of satisfaction that the prearranged program for the signing at Versailles had gone thru. In congress there was but a momentary demonstration and on the streets the crowds gave no show of interest. As soon as the signing was concluded, President Wilson's message to the American people announcing the long awaited event and appealing for acceptance of the trtaty without change or reservation was made public at the White Ilouse together with . some details of the president's home coming. It was by the reading of this message congress was informed that the Versailles negotiations were at an end. In the senate chamber, to which the nation's interest in the outcome of the peace negotiations now is transferred, announcement of the signing was received- in sil-nce. Interrupting an nppropri-ation-vhill debate, Senator. Hitchcock, Nebraska, senior democrat of the foreign relations committee, read the president's message to an attentive audience comprising less than half the senate's membership. ' Without any comment'. he then relinquished the. floor and the appropriation debate proceeded. - ' - - The house punctuated reading' of the message with applause and there was a short outburst of cheering when the president's name was read at the end. There was no discussion of it, the only comment being . an., announcement by former Speaker Clark, when he sent it to the clerk's desk to-be read, that he wanted to put - into . the . record . some "good news." - ". SIGNING PEACE ON FIFTH ANNIVERSARY OF SERAJEVO The world war came to a formal end five years after the assassination of Archduke Francis ' Ferdinand and two years and two days after the first American troops landed in France. The Austrian heir-apparent was Killed at Serajevo June 28, 1914. The first American contingent disembarked in France June 26, 1917. On July 28, 1914, one month after the death of Francis Ferdinand, Austria declared war on Serbia, marking the beginning of hostilities. On August I, Germany declared war on Russia and invaded Luxemburg. Germany sent her ultimatum to Belgium August 2, and declared war on France August 3. The next day Great Britain declared war on Germany. June 28 also Is the anniversary of the renewal of the triple alliance between Germany, Austria and Italy which has been broken by the war. On June 28, 1890, the German reichstag adopted a bill creating a new German army, the organization of which is greatly diminished in power by the treaty signed today. In American history Jane 28 Is the anniversary of the battle of Monmouth, N. J., where In 1778, Washington defeated a force under Sir Henry Clinton. MAKES A PLEA ACCEPTANCE QFTHETREATY President Asks America to Make No Changes in Covenant. EXPRESSES CONFIDENCE IN ALL ITS PURPOSES Washington, June 2S. President Wilson in an address to the American people on the occasion of the -signing of the peace treaty made a plea for the acceptance of the treaty and the covenant of the league of nations without change or reservation. His message, given out here by Secretary Tumulty, said: "My fellow countrymen: The treaty of peace has been signed. If it is ratified and acted upon in full " and sincere execution of its terms, it will furnish the charter for a new order of affairs in the world. It is a severe treaty in the duties and penalties it imposed upon Germany, but it is severe only because great wrongs done by Germany are to be righted, and repaired; it Imposes nothing that Germany cannot do; and she can regain her rightful standing in the world by the prompt and honorable fulfillment of its terms. "And it is much more than a treaty of peace with Germany. It liberates great peoples who have never before been able to find the way to liberty. It ends, once for all, an old and intolerable order under which small groups of selfish men could use the peoples of great empires to serve their ambition for power and domination. It associates the free governments of the world in a permanent peace league in which they are pledged to use their united power to maintain feace by maintaining right and justice, t makes international law a reality supported by imperative sanction. It does away with the right of conquest and rejects the policy of annexation and substitutes a new order under which backward nations populations which have not yet come to political consciousness and peoples who are ready for independence, but not yet quite prepared to dispense with protection and guidance shall no more be subjeceted to the domination of a stronger nation, but shall be put under the friendly direction and afforded the helpful assistance of governments which undertake to be responsible for the opinion of mankind in the execution of their task by accepting the direction of the league of nations. It recognizes rights of nationality; the (Continued on Page Two). WEATHER FORECAST FOR COMING WEEK Washington, . June . 28. Weather predictions for the week beginning Monday issued by the weather bureau today are: Northern Rocky mountain and plateau regions: Generally fair ; temperatures above normal except shower period. Pacific states fair except for occasion rains along north coast early in week. Nearly normal temperature. THIRTY-SIX PAGES EEOEJD) Signing Takes Place in ihe Historic Hall of Mirrors at Versailles Versailles, June 28.: Germany's delegates and the delegates of the allied and associated powers met in Versailles today to sign the treaty formally ending the war between Germany and' 27 other nations. The credentials of the new German delegates were approved during the forenoon and everything was in readiness at an early hour for the ceremony, set for 3 o'clock. Last minute changes were made la the program te expedite the signing ef the treaty. Two additional tables were placed beside the one within the historic Hall of Mirrors on which the peace treaty was laid. One of the new tablet held the Rhine convention and the other the protocol containing changes In and Interpretations of the treaty. All these documents had to be signed by each plenipotentiary and the arrangement of the tables thus enabled three persons to bo engaged simultaneously in affixing their signatures. Because of the size of the treaty and the fragile teals it bore, tho ptaa to present it for signing to Premier Clemenccao, President Wilson and Premier Lloyd George seemed unlikely to be carried out, the new plan being for the thro conference leaders to step to the table to affix their signatures. Wilson Leaves Paris Upon His Way Homeward Issues Statement Telling of Warm Friendship for the People of France. Paris, Juno 28. (By The Associated Press). President Wllsea left Paris for his homeward Joentey tonight. His train started from the Gare des Invalidet for Brest at 9:45 p. m. . - - BIDS ADIEU TO FRANCE. Paris. June 2S. President Wiloon today on the eve of his departure from France made the following statement: A I look back over the eventful months I hare spent in France my memory is not of conferences and bard work alone, but also of innumerable acta of generosity and friendship which have made me feel how genuine the sentiments of France are toward the people of America and bow fortunate I have been to be the representative of our people in the midst of a nation which knows how to show ns kindness with so much charm and so much open manifestation of what is in its heart. "Deeply happy as I am at the prospects of joining my own countrymen again, I leave France with genuine regret, my deep sympathy for her people and belief in her future confirmed; my thot enlarged by the privilege of association with her public men. consons of more than one affectionate friendship formed, and profoundly grateful fur unstinted hospitality and for countless kindnesses which have made me feel welcome and at home. I take the liberty of bidding France godspeed as good bye and of expressing once more by abiding interest and entire confidence in her future. (Signed). WOODROW W1LSONV Montana Organizes Emergency Committee to Provide Pasture for Starving Montana Livestock St. Paul, June 2S. Thousands of sheep and cattle now starving on the dry, brown stretches of Montana and western Dakota will be placed on fresh green pastures in northern Minnesota under a movement planned late today in the state department of agriculture at the capital. State, railroad, livestock, land aud commercial organisations are united in the scheme to turn the starving "critters" into high priced mest. The conference of representatives of various interested agencies voted to create the Minnesota emergency livestock grazing committee. The organization is to work out solutions of the problems Vf furnishing one class of western ranchers' with grating and another class seeking feeder arrangements. Imperative need of prompt action was evidenced by reports that Montana and Dakota ranchers becsuse of dry burned pastures already are shipping cattle eastward. Initial shipments, it was said, include one of 7,0H) sheep now en route over the Great Northern road to the district north of Cloquet and another of 5.800 sheep consigned over the Northern Pacific line to Algier, and others are to follow early next month. The movement may bring into use the burned over lands in the Moose lake section as well as cut-over regions andv other pasture lands in the northern part of the state. A request from John M. Brander. now Montana director of markets and formerly Burley county agricultural agent in North Dakota, for a conference on the problems brot sbout the meeting late today. Commissioner X. J. Holmberg of the new state department of agriculture and Commissioner Fred D. Bherman of the Immigration burvsu co-operated to secure the representative group that responded. Failure of Mr. Brander to appear did not prevent decisive action by the conference. Commissioners Holmberg an J Sherman aud A. V. Wilson, director PRICE, FIVE CENTS. O 9 BACK -Hours before the tiaj set for the reremony a seemingly endless stream of automobiles began moving tip the cannon lined bill of the Champs Kiysees. past the Arc d Triomphe and oat thru the Bois de Boulogne.' carrying the plenipotentiaries, officials and guests to the ceremony. The thorofare was kept clear by pickets, dragoons and mounted fendarmes. At the end of the Court of lonor in the chateau, a guard of honor was drawn up to present arms as the leading plenipotentiaries passed. This guard comprised a cospscy of republican guards in brilliant uniform. The entrance for th delegates was by the marble stairvray to the Queens spart-ments and ihe Hall of Peace, giving access thence to the Hall of Mirrors. The route to the peace table for the plenipotentiaries was thru a space re-e erred for some 4K privileged nests. It had been srrsnjred that ths delegations, instesd of strangling in wittsst order, as when the original terms of peace were communicated to the Ger-miLt, should enter by groups, each on being formally announced by nsbers from the French foreign office. This formality was not prescribed fr the Germans, who were riven a separate route of entry, cotninc thru the park and gaininc the marble stairway thru the German floor. There was thus avoidance of occasion of the roard of honor to render tfcem military honors, these beinc rerved for the allied representatives. The dismounted rnsrdsnten on the marble, staircase and in the queen's apartments, however, were Instructed to remain in their t3ace for the entry of the Germans. Within the Hsll of Mirrors where the historical furnishings and pain tins Cave a tone of impressive state which would otherwise have been rather lack-inc in the assembJsces of soberly attired delegates, 22 chairs for ths plenipotentiaries were dram-n up around three sides of the table, which formed an opn rectangle fully SO feet tn length on its longer side. A chair for M. Clemenceau, president of the peace conference, was placed tn the center of the long table facie g the windows, with those for President Wilson and Premier Lloyd George on the rixht and left hand respectively. The German delegates were assigned sests st the side of the table nearest the entrsnce which they could take after all the others had been seated. of the extension division. Vniversiay of Minnesots, will head the new committee which will have headquarters in the agricultural department at the canitoL . Other members to be named by Commissioner Holmberg will include three railroad representatives to advise on traffic problems, and two or more each from the livestock and parking house interests. Northern Minnesota development sssociationn and commercial organisations of Dnluth, Brainerd. Bemiiji and posibly Crookston. As proposed by Hugh J- Hughes, market agent of the new state department the committee will fork out a detailed plan of operatiou which may require five years to reach a stage of perfect development,' but will concern mainly clearing house problems and leave various localities free to conduct such carupsTcns as they may undertake. The discussion was featured by a talk riven by J. J. OpsahL representing the Bemidji commercial club and the Northern Minnesota Sheepgrowers" association. Gracing possibilities of vsrious kinds in northern Minnesota which should attract both the rangers desiring to lease pstures and others seeking feed contracts on a shsre basis were outlined. German Delegates Make Objection to Discrimination Versailles. Jane IT. When to. German deleraUon saw the program f r ths treaty signing ceremony todsy l.lerr Von Haimbansen told Colonel Henry, liaison officer, that the German would not consent to entering by a different door from the allied delegates nor that military honors be withheld from them. "Had we known there would be such arrangements. he said. tb delegates wcAld nvt have come."
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