The Bakersfield Californian from Bakersfield, California on October 3, 1944 · Page 14
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The Bakersfield Californian from Bakersfield, California · Page 14

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Tuesdoy, October 3, 1944 Cbttortal $age of Wfje JSafeentftelb Caiifornian ALFRED H A B N E L L IDITOB 1ND rUBLISHBB ifce Entered In post office at Bakeroflelrt. California, a« »«cund cinss mail under the act of Conprpss March 3, 1879. MEMBER OF THE ASSOCIATED IT. ESS The Act-related Press Is exclusively entltl*<1 to the 'isr tar r-'iM'ra- tion of all news dispatches credited to it or not "ihpnvipe ctc'i):ted In this paper, ind also the local news Dunlnhr.: therein. The BakersfleM Cnliforntan Is also and receives its coniple a rlUnt of thp United Press REPRESENTATIVES West-Holiday Co.. Inc. New York. Chicago. San Frunclfro. L<» Seattle. Portlanri. Denver WASHINGTON. D <:.. RCRI.A1 The Hashin Service. Wnkhn'tnnn U By carrier or mall (In advance) In poacai zo per month. S5c; MS months, Jfj.lrt: nne VP.-I r. postal zones four to eicht. per mimtli. Jl 03. t\-.-n. thrri 1 . Hy mail in IMPORTANCE OF A VICE-PRESIDENT T in; uncorliiinly of human lilV should necessarily be a fat-lor in determining the verdict of the voters in the selection in November of the next President. And so it is that these same voters will, or at least should, give serious consideration to the selection of a Vice-President, which otlicer under our form of government might succeed to the presidency. We have no assurance that Mr. Roosevelt or Mr. Dewey would continue to enjoy life and carry on Hie activities of a Chief Executive during a four-year term. Which means that the uexl in line, the Vice-President, would enter the While House to discharge the duties incumbent upon the President. With that in mind, do the voters want to see Senator Truman placed in the oflice of Vicc-President? Or would they not prefer Governor Brickcr? The latter has served as chief executive of the stale of Ohio for three terms and has made such an admirable record that it influenced the voters there to return him to the office in which he has acquitted himself with credit and to the advantage of the people who have honored him. Senator Truman, on the other hand, .became a possibility in the Federal government through the support of a Missouri political regime which no longer finds favor with the people of thai slate. The head of that regime came inlo conflicl wilh the law and suffered accordingly. II was he who gave to Mr. Truman his endorsement and made his election to the Senate a possibility. The Jailer's expressions in regard to policies and to the future of the country, since his nomination, do not commend him to the people with whom rests the responsibility of filling the vice-presidential oflice. So it is in casting a ballot, the voter must think aboul the uncertainty of life along with the legal provision as to the successor of a President. Four years is a shorl lime in the history of a country yet the developments in the four years that are now to follow will be such as to call for the services of men of higli order, of unquestioned capacity and with Hie will to serve the public in a manner that will cany il through the critical era ahead of us, and without thought of political or personal advantage. UNDERCOVER MOVEMENT W E xo longer have a Communist parly, or the parly heads said so weeks ago. They gave notice that it dissolved itself with the approach of this presidential election. But thai docs not mean thai we have no Communists. Unhappily, we have more than ever before in Hie history of the country. Through their activity they have injured the cause of one great labor organization and now they seek power through control of one of our major political parlies. Do the voters wish to sec them succeed in their effort to become a potent factor in the government of free America? A review of their subtle program as il is being framed and carried out by Communist leadership is contained in the pages of the October number of the Headers' Digest. It is something worth the attention of every elector who casts a ballot in the November contest, and the value of understanding the situation is emphasized by the probability that the real leader of Hie movement that disavowed Communism but now threatens to dominate a political parly may be Earl Browder, who cannot and does not deny his former activities in behalf of Communism. Certainly (here is no nation-wide approval of tlie land of government that has been set up by Communists and by Fascists in European countries. We want no repetition of it here. It is in the power of the people lo say whether or not we shall give the undercover movement approval or whether we reject il at the polls. MERCHANT FLEET T HAT the United Slates plans to maintain a "full-scale merchant fleet, built and manned by Americans," after the war, is the encouraging assertion of one of the leading shipping men of the nation, Basil Harris, who pointed out that 5,000,000 jobs will depend upon whether or not we establish and support an adequate foreign trade, transporting the manufactured commodities and raw productions in American hulls. An expanded foreign trade carried in American ships, he believes, will benefit Sl\(> rust riiils every American, millions directly and millions more indirectly through Hie general improvement of business. "The only way In make such an American commerce successful on the seas, secure under American control and not at the mercy of other nations, is to make certain we have an adequate merchant fleet carrying its fair share of American trade," Mr. Harris said. This viewpoint, if effected in the postwar actuality, will be far belter for the nation Hum the scandalous scrapping of a mighty merchant marine following the end of the first World War when hundreds of cxpen- ships were moored and permitted to away in a waste of money and mate- that shocked the nation, while other countries took over the lucrative task of transporting the world's goods. In this World War we have built most of the ships used by the Allies, probably three- fourths of them, and these hulls constructed at the expense of the American taxpayer should be used for the benefit of those same numbers of Americans when the war is over and not scrapped that some foreign nation may regain profitable world shipping. The scope and success of the American merchant marine built to aid our Allies in this war is indicated by Ihe fact that during hist year we shipped (>2,000,000 long Ions of cargo—mostly war munitions for our Allies—from the I'niled Slates alone. In addition, our merchant fleet has transported .something between '1,000,000 and 5,000,000 men overseas in safetv. RANDOM NOTES It is just one of those things that happen. For the past several days housewives of the land have been rushing into retail stores buying coffee, not just a little coffee but enough to last them during a threatened shortage which would necessitate governmental rationing. But investigation disclosed that there is no probability of a shortage and no reason for rationing. So tlSs activity of (lie housewives was premature. They have Ihe coffee but they also have the knowledge that there was no need for them to purchase il. It is not a new chapter in the history of this country; in fact, il has been written and re-written in the course of the war years and we presume il will be as long as rumors are accepted as facts or as long as officials publicize conditions that do not exist. It was a distressing report but it is officially nounced thai il was unneccssarv. an- There may be inquiry as lo why we have liars but a more emphatic one is why women patronixe them. We do not have lo go to San Francisco or Los Angeles to ascertain that, as never before in the history of this country, femininity forms a considerable part of the crowds that visit cocktail lounges, or whatever the reader desires to call them. It is a habit that has developed in cities, large and small, and we may add that it is one that may stimulate another experiment in prohibition. Possibly the situation today is one that developed from the era in which we were supposed to sell no liquor in the United Stales. In any event, it is one that causes the gravest concern and in passing il may be said that il likewise is one that calls for the fullest consideration from those who arc engaged in the business of retailing liquor, for it is a contributing cause of Ihe steady growth of those organizations that are devoted to furthering reform in the business of distributing alcoholic beverages. Hut reform cannot come solely from an effort on the part of dealers to keep women out of their bar rooms; another influence must find emphasis and that is the home. The latter must take definite steps toward a plan that should be co-operative if il is It) achieve any degree of success. Conditions as they affect peoples of the world now attract the sympathetic interest of Ihe cili- /enship of the United Stales. But we do not have lo go abroad lo discover that there is something remiss in the lives of our own people. In an older day we had bars and their existence was resented by many Ihoughful people. But never did we have a condition such as thai which faces us now in our daily lives. If the threat of rationing coffee could cause as much anxiety as it did among the housewives of the land, it would seem that they and the people generally should be more greatly distressed by the fact that wives and sweethearts and daughters assemble daily in those centers where liquor is dispensed lo all who desire lo imbibe, minors i excepted, that is, if they are expected! Which is questioned by olliciakloni in many a city, town and village. Many churches throughout the country arc inaugurating classes for instruction as to the evils that arise froiu the sale of alcoholic drinks. That is a good beginning but it will not suffice in itself. The home must be the starling point of a campaign to war against an acknowledged and growing evil. * Tke War Tc may EDITOR'S NOTE—Until tiicri tlm. a. Ernie Pyle'. column la resumed following nis vacation. thl« «uace will be uned tnr war feature stories. By HUGH BAILLE President of tho L'niti'd I'reng Copyright, 11144. by United 1'rese OX THE BRITISH FRONT, Oct. I Rommel, hanging at the foot and 1. <L.R> — Field Marshal Sir B< rnard ! alongside his bod. I... Montgomery, commanding the! Both pictures of Rommel were Twenty-first Army group, like all' "captured" as he followed Rommel's commanders I have met along tho j ^treating armies over two continent from Metz to Nljmegen, radi- atos complete confidence that the German Army bus been licked and Umt it is now only a question of how long it will take the enemy to admit defeat. On tliis important question no dates are being mentioned. Montgomery is a hard man to find, lie liki. over the place. Finally, by automobile, jeep puddle-jumper plane, I readied and | we heard had a conversation with the British j head. I'it.-IV1 marshal within hearing of the grumble of guns where a tough fight was continuing. Montgomery was attired in a gray .sweater, corduroy trousers and his never stays put very long. Just • in Africa and Sicily, he is all and nonts. Ono showed Rommel glamorized, looking pleasant. The other, captured some time later, showed him looking haggard but it bore his personal signature. Monty gave the opinion that Rommel now preferred the latter appearance. Tie said that he did not believe Rommel was dead. In fact, he said ho would like to set face to face with him some day, discuss their battles and ascertain how Rommel's mind worked, causing him to commit so many mistakes. In the midst of our conversation a sudden scuffling over- world-famous beret. Sizing up the Germans he chased from the R] Alarnein desert to the land of canals and windmills, Montgomery says that a good fighting army should have a composite of youngsters and older men. The Germans still have youngsters, some : very much too young, and oldsters. : some very miic-h too old. The essen- {Hal middle stratum is missing. ! .Montgomery looks much better I physically now than when J last saw j him in Sicily. j lie described how a battle must be i planned definitely to the last detail •and then executed exactly according j to plan in order to achieve the niaxi- i mum results. However, his record ! shows he can extemporize when nee- I essary and get there just tho same. i He illustrated the conversation wilh rough drawings of some of his greatest victories, using blue, red and black pencils to demonstrate his strategy and the results of it. Meanwhile, the rumble of the front, supply columns going past, troops going up, emphasized that we were then and there in the midst of one of his greatest engagements, perhaps only in the early stages of it. Montgomery has a casual, easy nrumer, but his steely glance and precise exact language, never lacking or groping: for the word best milted to express his definite moaning, showed the keenness with which he was "on Ihe ball." T.ator, inside his caravan, or trailer as we say in the. United States. IIP showed me two colored pictures of Field Marshal Erwin "That's Hitler up there," said Montgomery. Me was referring to his wire-haired fox terrier which was scrambling about on the camouflage netting. Meanwhile outside, "Rommel," a Cocker Spaniel, was sniffing around. Returning from the visit by a small (yes, very small indeed) plane. I could see in tho distance the front lines where the battle was continuing. Previously T had conversed with General Uwight J). Kisenhower; Lieutenant-General Omar N. Bradley, commanding the United States Twelfth Army group; Lleutenant- j General C'arl A. Spaalz, conimand- | ing Ihe United States Strategic Air i Forces in Kurope; Lioutenant-Gen- ! oral George S. I'atton, commanding ! the American Third Army: and Lieu- tonant-Goneral Courtney H. Hodges, commanding the First Army. They were all confident and aggressive but they were, not Indulging in speculative V-Day predictions. Nobody along the front which I visited, extending from the Holland I'latlands down into the wooded, rainy mountains around Metz, with a couple of fingers sticking into Germany, has any time to make V-Day plans. They are too busy keeping pressure on the Germans who still ap pear plenty bellicose. This extends even to children, one of whom inside Germany, shook his fist instead of giving the victory sign while others and grownups scowled or looked away. Incidentally. I might remark, just in passing, that the hats of many women in Paris and Brussels are one of the war's strangest spectacles. They appear about a foot high and are reminiscent of Carmen Miranda, although without bananas. Hollywoocl Col umm By HARRY JAMES (Pinrhlmt me for Krskine Johnson) Three years ago I said that I would never return to Hollywood. For me it was always a city of harA luck and disappointments. Today I never want to leave it. 1 guess that is what a wife and baby can do for a guy. Musicians are seldom known for their domesticity, but here is a trumpet-footer whose, life from now on will he tied up with a fireplace and a pair of slippers. Since Betty and I were married a little over a year ago. things have certainly been different in the life of Hurry Haag .James. I used to constantly have the smell of night club smoke in my nostrils. Now I wake at 8 o'clock in the morning—we go to bed at 11—with the fragrance of orange blossoms coming through the window. I guess I've just become a softie, but I love it. My fellow band leaders think I've, gone completely batty. I've heard them say, "Harry has three loves in his life, and outside of his work, that's all that interests him." I guess Krskine Johnson heard someone make the crack, too, for he called me up. "What's all this stuff about your three loves'.'" he asked. "I know all about Betty and Victoria Elizabeth, the new blonde pin-up girl that arrived at your house a couple of months ago, but whore does the third love come in?" Boy, what a letdown for super- sleuth Johnson when I laughed and said, "Baseball!" I've been a baseball fan since I was a kid. There have been a lot of rumors circulated about me. I read a story about myself in a newspaper the other day that was a dirty lie. It said that recently when 1 was interviewing a number of musicians for a spot that was open in the band, I asked one of the boys what lie played. "The violin." replied the boy. "No, that's not what I mean," supposedly replied James impatiently. "What position do you play in baseball?" The truth of the matter IK first I ask a prospective member of the band what instrument he plays, then I ask him what position he can play on the Harry James baseball team. All of this brings up the question that is put to me so many times, "What does Mrs. James—some people call her La Grable—think of all this baseball business? Doesn't she raise a fuss?" I hate to give the answer to that question. It seems that Betty is the nation's number one pin-up girl. All of which makes it kind of tough on a guy named James. Now when the boys hear the answer to that baseball question, they're going to go for Mrs. James even more than they did before. Belly loves baseball. Incidentally, here's an inside tip for the gossipers. The Jameses really don't get along as well as most people think they do. We have our differences. She likes her steaks rare. I like mine well done. Copyright. 1U44, NBA Service, Inc. like Readers'Viewpoint KDlTOli'S NO'l'K— hellers should be limited to 150 words; may attm;k Irti-as but not persons; iiiuii nut lie abusive and should be wrltteu Imlbly and on one Bide or the napcr. The Callfnininn la nul cusponslhle for the Bcnljinentfl raittnined therein and reserves the rluht to reject any tellers. Letters must brur an authentic address and slKuature, although these will be withheld if desired. AN IMAGINARY UKI'OKT I Kditnr The California!): An imaginary report on orders givi-ii by Doctor Goebbcls to propaganda agent Xo. , Bakersfield, (.'alii 1 .: "Vou must make the people love America so much they will hate their Allies—start in un Britain. They can only hale so much, so if they hale Britain enough, they will fin-get to hate Germany. Make them believe they suffer more than the Kiiglish. Don't mention the blitz or the liuzx. bombs. Toll them a dead Kngllshman is not nearly as dead as a dead American. Make them forget Hint if Kriglaml hadn't been so slupid to fight us supermen two years alone wo would be bombing American cities now. Put your propaganda in 'Readers' Veiwpolnt.' the only column all the local people read. Kill each article with hate. ' hate, hate! (Hut be sure it is Britain they halt', and not Germany. Don't sign your real name; use a name that shows how much you love your country. Do a good job and I will give yon n modal, and let vou polish mine, when America and England start fighting each other and we f'lormuns win the war. Now, ivmom- her your orders—love America, hate Britain, hell Hitler!" HKLEN CLARK. CROSSING SIGNALS Keillor The Caliiornian: The familiar crossing signal seems simple enough to Ihe average person. H goes into action when a train is coming and gives advance warning to those with sense enough to heed It. But there is more lo it than just lhat, as I found out by discussing the subject with a locomotive engineer. An ideal, but Impossible, signal would give the Kiimo length of warning time for all trains. Unfortunately some factors in the picture are fixed, Mich as the distance of the electrical circuit that works the signal. In most instances the distance is about a quarter of a mile. For a slow train Ihut gives ample time. But consider what happens when a train comes roaring down Ihe track al 75 miles an hour and even faster. If my memory is correct Ihe engineer told me that it only takes •4S seconds to run a mile at that speed. So that quarter of a mile warning distance disappears in 11! seconds. One should always keep that in mind when noticing crossing signals. One of the worse possible accidents is that belween a tank truck and train, especially if Ihe truck is loaded with gasoline. Most such equipment hauls a trailer as well. The law requires the tank trucks to stop at grade crossings, and they do. Now in case a driver has stopped and the signal Just starts to go, there is the temptation to cross first. Any tank truck driver should be aware thai he may only have 1- seconds to make it, and., tlial is hardly enough. So Ihe best tiling to do, for everybody, is wait and watch tho train go by. F. B. WILLIAMS. Bakersfleld, September 25, 1944. ON QUEBEC CONFERENCE Editor The California)-): In the editor's note is stated that one may atlack ideas, but not persons. It seems to me as if the article "Quebec Conference" and signed "America First was a definite attack on the President. Also, I wonder just how much time that Individual spent thinking up such tripe. Possibly enough to knit a sweater for an overseas serviceman—and the sweater would have done a lot 111,0re good! TRUE AMERICAN From the Files of TKe Californian TEN YEARS AGO (The California)!, Ihiadate. 1934) The town watering trough, set up by Whlskerinos as a beard-persuader, received its first victim yesterday when Tom Carter was given a ducking. Dates for dedication ceremonies for the newly completed additions to Jefferson, Longfellow and Roosevelt grammar schools have been set by L. E. Chenoweth, city superintendent. They are, respectively, October 19, October 23 and November 5. Dr. Hugh Bell has returned from a hunting trip in the Jackson Hole country in Wyoming. He brought back a 7-point elk and a 10-point moose. Doctor Bell was accompanied by Jirn Betchel of Kernville. A Magunden service slalion was destroyed by fire lale yeslerday. causing a damage of $9600. LcRoy Hitchcock, 23, was one of the tragedy victims when a Uniled States bomber fell near Bishop yesterday. | TWENTY YEARS AGO (The Culit'oi-nian. this dale. 19:14) Mrs. James Curran will be installed as Legion Auxiliary president next week. The Reverend George E. Burglin- game, acting" pastor of First Baptist Church, presided over an annual meeting AVednosdny night. Twenty-eight marraige licenses have been issued in the county clerk's office during tlu last montli, netting the county $56 in fees. William B. Rowland is reported to be seriously ill at St. Francis Hospital. Han Francisco. John Martin, 94, today promised not to take another drink until he is 100. Percy Grainger, concert pianist and composer, will open the season for Bakersfield Musical Association November 15. THIRTY YEARS AGO (Tho Otlii'ori.iun, this date. 1S14) Tom Polhemus and A. M. Barton are on a surveying expedition in the Tejon mountains. Mr. and Mrs. Arthur S. Crites are enlerlaining as house guests Mr. and Mrs. George Crites of Los Angeles. Elma Rumf, society editor of The Californian, is ill at her home. R. R. Mack, farm adviser, and Kent Knowlton, agricultural commissioner, are on a trip to Tehachapi on farm business. The Californian carries on page one a large photograph of German soldiers charging during Ihe bailie of Aisne. Heavy losses are reported in the Argonne region. The attempt of the Allies to break through the German lines has been stopped. FORTY YEARS AGO (The Culilor-nian, this date. 11)04) Major Frank S. Rice will address Woman's Club on his trip to Yellowstone when members meet Monday afternoon. J. R. Dorsey, C. C..Clifford and other members of Widgeon Gun Club will visit Delano tomorrow before the opening of the season. Chinese are leaving Port Arthur reporting Russian and Japanese gunfire terrific. Horse and donkey meal is selling at a premium. Un buried bodies about the forts are causing disease. Carrier Frank Rosendahl is in charge of the new rural mail route No. 2, put in operation this morning the route includes Kern Island Roac and Union Avenue. The dislance is L'6 miles and will be covered 6 days each week. FIFTY YEARS AGO (The Californian. this date, 1894) John Irabarne is down from Te< hachapi. Sam Shannon has moved his slore from Easl Nineteenth street to Chester avenue. E. S. Ridgeway has leased his stand and has gone east for two months. The Asphallo post office will be disconlinued after October 15. The Great Register has passed the 4200 mark and there are several more days lo register. The mail route to Rosedale will be carried directly from Bakersfield in stead of from Jewetta as of late according lo Postmaster Miller. W. H. Holablrd, advertiser in the Weekly Californian, writes that he is pleased with the results and has a large number of demands for county lands. SO THEY SAY We would never need to train 1,200,000 youths who become 18 every year. The cost would be prohibitive. If one-sixth of that number would volunteer to take 1 military training for two consecutive summers while they are in college, we would have plenty of trained men.—Senator Robert A. Taft (K) of Ohio. Certainly both l>wey and Roosevelt will do their level best if called upon to serve. The firsl queslion to decide is one of equipment and experience. Who can betler provide for permanenl peace and full employment, Dewey or Roosevelt?—Vice- President Henry A. Wallace. We must build a structure of peace which our people and all people will support, not merely this year or the next four years, but for 25, 50, and many more years to come—Thomas E. Dewey. Hell's bells, they run like any other Jerry when you get them started.—Staff Sergeant Leonard Ogren of Hartford, Conn., after setto with German officer cadets in Holland. N ews .in Ne -(By PAUL MALLON')WASHINGTON, Oct. 3. — The Dumbarton Oaks conference opened with a flare of trumpet publicity but ended practically in official silence. The departing announcements could have been hidden in a thimble with room to rattle around. Essential fact of disagreement came out to the press through a senator, As has become generally known, Russia objected to a plan drawn up by the British and unreservedly supported by us, specifying that if one of the big four powers was a party in an .aggression dispute, it should retire from the deliberations about what action to take. Russia wanted participation by the involved party, and wanted it so badly agreement was impossible. Speculation on the meaning of the disagreement has been difficult for fear of embarrassing Russia or over- interpreting her position. Off the record officials have attributed Russia's stand to her extreme sensitivity of capitalistic and Imperialist nations from the beginning. No doubt she thinks some small nation could get a council led by Rritain and the United States to exclude her from consideration of any dispute in which she becomes involved and perhaps take joint action against her. But Mr. Churchill, in the sharp- pointed words of his speech to Parliament, contrived a few typical phrases which may have carried more meaning- to the Russian delegates than to the casually reading public. He said, in effect, a peace agreement could not be effective unless made in full and confident accord, and advised thnt another meeting would have to be held at the undersecretary level to get that accord. The intimation was that it would have to be soon in order to prepare for a big joint conference with Stalin "as soon as the" military situation permits." At Bretton Woods, the Russian delegates could not agree on anything until they heard directly from Stalin and any change in their instructed course was occasionally de- Inyed as much as three days while they got in touch with him. Pre- sumably they have withdrawn now to let Moscow think this over for even a longer period. The subject seems to me to contain the heart of the whole peace problem, although the officials here say 90 per cent of the program was agreed upon, including the creation of the top council of large nations and the assembly of all nations. They must be measuring by the amount- of foolscap upon which thy agreements were typewritten. The Russian position certainly reflects her intention to retain freedom of action, if nothing more. But what is most puzzling is tha*t the .Russians have groat influence upon China, which is to sit on the big four council and upon France, which is to join later. She certainly would get a full hearing through them, even If Britain and the United States were Inclined oppositely in any given case. ' To me personally it appears the •fact of the disagreement is not as important as that Russia stressed it to the breaking point. In actuality, even though the agreement called for unanimous consideration, everyone will appreciate that a big four power could in reality take independent action if she chose, even without consulting the big four. Nations inclined toward war seldom consider themselves stopped by agreements. Perhaps Russia might claim she wanted to watch the others in every dispute involving herself sT) closely that they could not act without her knowledge, but this is a fuzzy thought as action without public knowledge in democratic nations is impossible. I have told the possibilities mentioning Russia only, as she is the declining party, but they apply equally to Britain, the United States, China and France. In short, the British proposal seems to me to be on the theory of rendering judicial judgment in disputes. The Russian idea would be like putting the defendant or prosecutor on the court to help make the decision. (World copyright. 1944. by Klna Features Syndicate, Inc. All rliihts reserved. Reproduction ID full or In part strictly prohibited.) » asliingfon O o 1 11 HI -(By PETER EDSON) • PEN SHAFTS WPB has okayed the making of 630,000 pressure canners for next season. Housewives should be putting the pressure on for this reason right now! It's clever how some restaurants can cut three halves out of one cantaloupe. Now is the time when men are sorry they used their vest last spring to patch their pants. People who marry merely for money usually earn it. New shoes hurt most when you have to hand over a ration stamp. A THOUGHT FOR TODAY And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it proflteth me nothing. —/ Corinthians SS:S. • • • No sound ought to be heard in the church but the healing voice of Christian charity.—Burke. Operations of Lieutenant-General Lewis H. Brereton's First Airborne Army in Holland now explain to a large degree where all the United States air transport planes have been going. For over two years domestic airlines have been crying for more equipment. Their prewar fleet of .''54 planes was reduced to 166 in May, 1942. It has been gradually increased by release of planes taken for the army—to 200 last April, to 244 today, with 30 additional planes now in the shops undergoing recon- version for commercial airline operations. By crowding schedules the airlines have been able to carry vastly more passengers, mail and express than they did in prewar years, but as today's air traffic demands would justify a fleet of 600 planes, the commercial carriers have been putting on a contest Oliver Twist act to get more and more planes. However, the Army Air Forces have been forced to turn deaf ears. Building up Brereton's Airborne Army to the thousands of planes required to transport troops and keep them supplied was the reason. The army couldn't talk about 4t at the time and as a result has taken terrific criticism for hoarding planes, delaying the mails and holding up war-priority air cargo. Anyone who has ever gone through the annoying ex>9rlence of being kicked off a plane or not getting a reservation should now understand, and cross off his great sacrifice as a small contribution to General Brereton's effort. The way in which speculation was permitted on possible uses of the First Airborne Army to mislead the Germans on its actual use offers one of the best examples on record of how to wage successful psychological warfare. Creation of the First Airborne was announced in London early in August. Its strenglh was even estimated at 250,000 men—the equivalent of some 15 infantry divisions, though this figure included ground crews necessary for maintenance and supply. This announcement came at the time of General Patton's breakthrough in Normandy, and as his forces swept across France the military experts began to speculate freely that Brereton's army would be a natural to hurdle the Siegfried Line and the Rhine river, stabbing the Nazi rear and opening up the roafl right to Berlin. Nothing was done to stop this speculation. How much it threw the Gernjans off in planning their defense strategy is of course unknown. But when Brereton's paratroopers and glider troops landed in Holland, it was a completj surprise operation. Tactical employment of airborne troops has been developed In American Army operations in New Guinea, Africa, Sicily, Italy and Normandy. In the bigger and bloodier invasions of the next cosmic cut-ups, long- range airborne operations will play an increasing part. That furnishes the link with the Dumbarton conferences, temporarily stalemaled while London and Moscow review the first phases of the deliberations. In General Brereton's Army there were not only American, Canadian and British troops, but also Poles, Dutch, Belgians and sprinkling detachments from other Allied armies. Now a United Nations airborne army, backed by United Nations combat air forces, Is just what the Russian delegation is understood to have proposed as the best possible type of police force to maintain the peace of the future. The great paradox is that while Brereton's international airborne army is accepted in time of war, there is opposition to setting up any such type of force to operate in tfine of peace. An international airborne army to check aggressor nations Is today a functioning reality, even while scoffers are shouting that^lt won't 'work. Questions and Answers -(By THE HASKIN SERVICE)Q. Are there certain plants which indicate the coming of rain?—M. W. A. Many plants undergo some changes on the approach of rain. The hanging of the leaves so as to show their undersides, when viewed laterally or at a distance, is due to changes In the leaf stalk on the absorption of moisture. Similarly all noticeable plant changes on which weather predictions are based, result from variations in humidity, temperature and sunshine. Plant signs, however, are not regarded as reliable guides to coming weather. Q. How many illegitimate children are born each year in this country'' M. K. P. A. According to the latest figures of the bureau of the census, there were 83,459 illegitimate births In 1942. This represented about 4 out of every 100 born. Because records are not complete, some authorities believe the total figure to be much larger, perhaps twice as much. Q. What is a kit fox?—J. T. F. A. This is a small, slender fox with large ears, reddish gray or grizzled gray in color and a black tip to its tail. It is smaller than either the gray or red fox. Kit foxes ive in the southwestern desert areas and northward through the high plains and have been called a "van- shing species." Q. What foreign power rendered he first salute to an American flag? H. R. H. A. De Gruaf, Dutch govenror of 3t. Eustat'ius, an island in the Carib- lean, ordered a salute fired when the brig Andrea Doria from Baltimore and flying the Grand Union Flag entered Orange Town harbor November 1«, 1776. The governor was recalled for his act. Q, Who were the Boston Bloomer Girls?—P. F. A. In the 1920s there wag a Boston Etlopmer Girls baseball team, made up mostly of girls from that section. They played men's semi-pro teams and, with the aid of a male battery, would play minor league teams. Q. Does Turkey have compulsory military training?—M. McC. A. Turkish men are drafted when hey have passed their twentieth birthday. Q. Who wrote the Arabian Nights? A. F. A. No one knows. It was thought that the stories were derived by the Arabians from India through Persia. They were introduced into Europe at the beginning of the eighteenth century through the medium of the French translator, Antoine Galland. Lane was the first Englishman to translate them worthily. The present form dates from 1500. •' Q. What make of clock did George Washington use?—M. C. N. A. Milham in "Time and Timekeepers" says that George Washing* ton's favorite clock was made by Lepine, a well-known French clockmaker (1720-1805). It is made of brass, covered by a glass case and is wound by a key at the back. It is a typical French mantel clock. Q. How did the bayonet get its name?—F. A. B. A. The origin of the word is disputed but there is some authority for believing it to, be derived from Bayonne, a town in France, where in 1640 a blade was attached to the muzzle of a musket. Q. Where was the 1944 reunion of the G. A. R. held and where will it be held next year?—W. S. T. A. The seventy-eighth national encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic was held in Des Moines. The 1945 encampment will be in Columbus, Ohio. Q. When were the Stop; Look and Listen signs first suggested for railway grade crossings?—E. D. F -. A. The first of these signs was drawn in 1884 by Thomas H. Gray, a shop employe of the Southern Pacific Railroad in San Francisco. Q. What does the eagle stand for on the Seal of the United States?^- 1 P. V. A. A. The eagle signifies the power and authority of Congress. Q. What kind of a ship is the U. 8. 8. Prevail?—C. C. K. A. The U. S. a. Prevail is a minesweeper. A reader cut itt th« aniwer to 107 queitlon of fact bjr nrlilni Tin Hikcrtflfld I'llKotolin Inrnrmttlnn Uuieiu. 31A Kje Bneel, N. E.. WuhlmloD. il. D, c. Pleue tocloM tbre* (II MOU foe rtpljr.

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