The Bakersfield Californian from Bakersfield, California on September 29, 1944 · Page 16
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The Bakersfield Californian from Bakersfield, California · Page 16

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Friday, September 29, 1944 ^tutorial $age of pafcerstftelb California.! ALFRED HARRELL IPITOl 1ND POBLI8HI* Entered ID pott office at Bakersfleld, California, an *econd cla» mail under the act of Congreu March 8, 1879. MEMBER OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Tbe AVftociated Press !• exclusively entitled to the nap for publication of all oewa dispatches credited to It or not nthprwlse credited tn this paper, and also the local news oubltshrd therein. Xhe Bakersfleld California!) IB also a client of the United Press and receive* Its complete wire service. REPRESENTATIVES Weat-Holiday Co.. Inc. Is'ew York, Chicago, San Francis™. Lot Angeles. Seattle, Portland. Denver WASHINGTON. D C.. BUREAU The Haskin Service. Washington. D C. By carrier or malt (in advance) In postal ?,on** one. two. thrpe. per month, 85c; six months. 15.10: one ypnr, JIM'O. By mall in postal tone! four to eight, per month. Si.05. CHURCHILL RENDERS A SERVICE I F OL'ii people liotv in America find discouragement in the setback of the Allied forces resulting indirectly from the paratroop invasion, they none the less will be thankful to Prime Minister Churchill, who has jusl reviewed for the benefit of his country, and of ours, the balllefronl condition as it now exists. It is good to have disseminated news that is news and which gives the public a clear understanding of the situation as it has been developed by what we hope is n temporary (ierman gain. In any event, we learn definitely that 200.000 Germans are now (rapped in Holland and that their capture or destruction appears "highly probable." thai (ierman losses in France were 400,000 killed and wounded, with a half million more prisoners, and thai Allied losses during the same period wer" 90,000 British and 115,000 Americans, killed, wounded or missing. And we should be told, as we are now, that several months in the year t!M"> may be required to "finish off Germany," and that even after organized resistance ceases "fierce warfare may be carried on in the German hills and mountains" by those conscious of their own guilt and of their impending doom. There is approval of Mr. Churchill's frank discussion not only of the crisis that our armed forces face but a full dress report of the Quebec conference. \Vc learn from the Prime Minister's speech that our Allied forces in Northwestern Europe are between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000, that the invasion has cost Germany nearly a million men killed, wounded and captured. There will be agreement, too, that with the developments as they are now disclosed, the dale ending the war cannot be definitely given at this time. All this does not mean that the optimistic view of the American people will be destroyed by learning facts as they exist. Indeed, our population is entitled to know just what those facts are and the Prime Minister has performed a service both to his home people and to the Allies generally by his frank declarations to the House of Commons. America can be trusted when told the truth whether it has to do with successes or temporary setbacks. WHY FURTHER CONTROL? N o DAY goes by that we are not reminded that bureaucracy is not willing to relinquish any of the control it now has over the life and activities of the people. The proposal for a return to peacetime economy has emphasized the plan for increasing wages to keep pace with the higher price to the consumers of many products. To make that effective it would now be necessary to secure approval of the OPA, according to Price Administrator Bowles, which would mean delay and confusion during the reconversion period. But War Mobilization Director Byrnes has something better to submit. He notes that it would be well to "authorize a percentage increase over earlier prices for prices of articles which have been out of production for sonic lime." If that authority were granted there would be no necessity for continued activity of the OPA. It would not have to hold hearings from time to time to be persuaded that increases or decreases in prices were needful. Always we see stressed by the bureau in question the necessity for price control, and rationing and priorities naturally run baud in hand. What the public wants is the elimination of wartime price control, but we are not encouraged to believe that will lake place if the fixing of prices still depends, as in wartime, upon the OPA. The sooner we are rid of such bureaucracies as the one in question the quicker we will get back to normal when production and competition were factors in the business of the nation. There is no substitute for the price system which has served the country admirably through the years. And that is true even if the holders of official places at the present time have an entirely different view. ANOTHER THERMOPYLAE F .OB nine days the British force of airborne troops, now inevitably to be known as mother "lost division," held off the massed weight of the German armies sent to ex- jwnge them from the face of the earth, sent to wipe out this handful of men threatening t$te flank of the Siegfried Line and the very (fertility of the Reich. This airborne division, known as the "Red Devils," blossomed dramatically from the sky as a swift blooming army of parachutists descending upon Arnhem, September 17, to turn the German flank, or at least permit the building up of a British salient for the drive into Germany around the Siegfried Line. For nine days his division dug in and, with light guns, held oil' the Germans sent to annihilate them, but the isolation of the force precluding reinforcements, and the fact thai the Germans moved up heavy artillery, resulted, inevitably, in the defeat of one of the most heroic groups of fighting men of this or any other war. The Germans reported 1500 of the "Red Devils" were killed; 1700 wounded and 6150 captured. Our own reports show that many of the division effected a successful retreat back to Allied lines. With only light parachute weapons, this division of men held up Hie combined strength of the German armies for 250 tor- lured hours, while the Germans, using machineguns. mortars and field artillery, supplemented by tank lire, made Iheii- positions untenable. II was another heroic stand to add to the annals of war. ENEMIES OF MANKIND T in; four great enemies of mankind arc, according to Dr. Ilarlow Shapley of Harvard University: The tyranny of the unknown, illiteracy, premature senility and the deadening uniformity of culture. Addressing some of (he best educated men of (he nation at Cleveland during a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Doctor Shapely said we should be as active in warring against cancer, mental diseases and those of the circulatory and respiratory system as we arc against enemy nations. These diseases shorten life unnecessarily. Tor instance, during the first 11 days of the Normandy invasion we lost .'500 Americans a day due to warfare, while during the same period of time in the nation cancer was killing '100 a day, but the persons who died of cancer do not die spectacular deaths on battlefields and little attention is paid to them beyond that of the relatives immediately affected. Doctor Ilarlow said that the mind of man must be the best part of him but it must also progress in lime to its ''ultimate flowering into something far beyond the primitive muscle guider and sensation-recorder with which we started." "We are still embedded in abysmal ignorance of the world in which we live. We have advanced very little relative to the total sur- misable extent of knowledge beyond the level of wisdom acquired by animals of long racial experience. We are to be sure no longer afraid of strange squeaks in the dark nor completely superstitious about the dead. On many occasions we are valiantly rational. Nevertheless, we now know how much the unknown transcends what we know." The tyranny of the unknown is worse than that of governmental restraints and social taboos, according to the savant, but as the fear of the unknown seems decreasing with the extension of knowledge, the tyranny of governmental edicts does not seem to be decreasing, but government, contrary lo the ideal, seems to become more complex, often more onerous, and certainly more costlv with (he march of lime. RANDOM NOTES In the death of County Assessor Tom Burke the people of Kern have lost the service's of a trusted and efficient officer, one who understood the importance of his work in fixing the valuation of properties and who has carried out a program through the years which has been, and is, of incalculable value to the public. Occupying the position of Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce in a day before he entered the Court House, he demonstrated his capacity to serve. His official work for a quarter of a century so convinced his constituents of his fairness and his sound judgment thai they retained him in office through Hie years, a judgment they would have reaffirmed had Ihey been given an opportunity lo do so. His death will be widely regretted by thousands who came into personal contact with him or who were familiar with his useful activities. And the death of Mr. Burke brings lo memory the service rendered by a number of other outstanding citizens who once held official position in Kern County. Long remembered will be such men as Assessor J. M. Jameson, County Tax Collector Charles I£. Day, County Auditor II. P. Olds, Judges of the Superior Court J. W. Mahon, Paul Bennett, E. W. Owen, Benjamin Brundage, Sheriff T. A. Baker, County Clerk I. L. Miller and others in a lengthy list who have held official place in the past but who have gone on to that bourne from which no traveler returns. They and their services lo the people are still recalled by those who vested authority in them in an older day. Tke Wa, IT J .• 1 oday EDITOR'S NOTE—Until nuch time aa Ernie Pyle'a column la resumed following bla vacation, thli apace will ba uaed for war feature atoriei. By niCHARD D. McMILLAN United Press War Correspondent ATRBOUXE HEADQUARTERS, Sept. 24. (Delayed)—Three survivors of a, heroic little band of British parachutists, surrounded while trying to hold the north end of the Arnhem bridge over the Rhine, told tonight of resisting German flames, tanks and mortars for three days and nights while with bayonets they drove off repeated Nazi attempts to blow up the structure. The band, reduced to 45 men, including ,'!"> wounded, finally was overwhelmed by the waves of German attacks. Leaving four to care for the wounded, six attempted to escape. Three, their tunics battle- stained, torn mid muddy, reached Allied lines today. "it was a tough go at the Arnhem bridge," one of the survivors, little Lancashire Officer Lieutenant Dennis .Simpson, said. "We made a perfect drop on the outskirts of Arnhpm and my section moved off to its objective—the bridge over the lower Rhine in the heart of the town. "In the darkness we passed through Oosterbeek and reached Arnhem without any real opposition. Crouching through the streets, we reached houses at the northern end of the bridge. Our mission was to occupy them. We got into a school building underneath the approach to the, bridge. The first story was above the bridge level. Others occupied other buildings. "That first night wo made a charge against a pillbox guarding tiie bridge and blew up an ammunition dump inside. Twenty Germans ran out with their hands up. "We pulled back again and began fortifying the school house. By now the Germans had gathered force and were attacking the next house with tanks, firing from 110 yards. They set fire to houses, hoping the wind would carry the flames to the school house. That failed. "About mid-day a convoy of German lorries came over the bridge. We opened up, killing the men riding them. The lorries caught fire. That night the enemy started firing mortars at us. "Tuesday two Mark III tanks appeared and began furious firing which continued most of the day. One of our men crept across the road under fire and dropped a bomb from a house top on a tank, disabling it. "That evening the Germans again tried to burn us out but we extinguished the fire. That night Tiger tanks roamed about, shelling the school house until It was riddled llk» a sieve. "The next day two Tigers started hammering away again. From our second floor we could see the Germans working on the bridge and we realized they were putting in a demolition charge. We rushed out with fixed bayonets through enemy fire, cleared the Germans from the bridge and removed the charges. Then the Germans counterattacked and we withdrew to the houses. "We organized another bayonet charge. This time we suffered heavy casualties but all the charges were removed. The enemy now was closing in. They set fire to the school and the building began to fall in. We had "1 wounded and tried to get out with them. There were now 4T> of us. "We got as far as the next house when the Germans raked us and pinned us down. We had more casualties. The wounded now numbered 3">. We decided to leave four men with them and give the others a chance to escape. "But as we got clear of the houses the Germans closed in and forced the last six to surrender." A corporal, Charles Weir, added: "They placed us in a house under guard but we saw a chance to escape and took it." H-oll J (P 1 dl \^> o 1 limn Today the class will come to order for a little lecture on motion picture censorship. Bedroom scenes, for instance. They pop up almost every day in Hollywood based on the assumption that people do sleep and the screen is supposed to reflect life. In some parts of the country, censorship boards regard a bed as a comfortable piece of furniture. In others it is :> hideous monster with all kinds of implications lurking under Us covers. Some censors object to seeing a lady and gentleman in tlie same bed, even if they have been married for 50 year". So there is a censorship rule that the gentleman must keep one foot on the floor. This has worked pretty well up to now, although it is fast making contortionists out of'gents like Walter 1'idgeon and Kri'ol l-'lynn. There are all kinds of kisses, but it is generally agreed that anything ovev :io seconds is necking. And ordinary screen kisses under an ancient Massachusetts state censorship law can be only half as long on Sunday as on week days. Film censors are about as consistent as politicians. For years they have been approving photographs of Dorothy Lamnur in her scanty eight-ounce sarong. But recently they banned as indecent three photographs of Dottie in modern shorts. Writing n scene for lledy T^imarr In a new film, a script writer com- j mented: "Miss Lamarr enters the room wearing a negligee. The negligee is stunning—as stunning as the censors will permit." Feminine sen n ties take on unlooked-for meanings in the eyes of the censors. Set dresses hung a pair of lace panties on a rooftop clothesline for a scene in a movie but the censors ordered them replaced with a pair of stockings. And speaking of stockings, a studio wanted to dress a line of chorus girls with black silk stockings on one leg, none on the other. The censors screamed. Two bare legs were all right. Two legs with stockings were all light. But one of each—never! We'll never forget, either, a little whim of the censors which left a small native boy in the picture "Hurricane" standing in white belted swimming trunks after the wind whipped away his sarong. Once a censor objected to some photographs of Betty Hutton. "You can't get away with those nightgown pictures," he said. "They're impossible." "That's no nightgown," argued the studio, "it's the latest thing in evening gowns." "Oh," replied the deflated censor, "then T guess it's all right." One of M-G-M's educational short subjects, "The Courtship of a. Newt," caused as much trouble in celluloid censorship circles as Betty Grable's negligees. A newt, you probably know, is .lust a fancy name for a salamander. Well, the short was titled, "The Love Life of a Newt." This sent the censors into mild hysterics, so the studio changed it to "Courtship." All went well until the short was shown to the Ohio state censorship hoard. The board passed the film except for this bit of whimsy by the narrntor: "The courting season of the newt opens on the tenth of March and extends on through the following February, leaving about 10 days of general overhauling and redecorating." TLe Readers' Viewpoint KDITOH'S NOTE— Letter* should be limited to ISO words; may attack Ideal but not persons; must noi he abusive »n<l should be written leciblv «nd on on» side «.f the p»per. The California!) Is not responsible <ar tbt> sentiment « rontsincd therein and reserves the right to inject any letters. Lc'lttrs must bear >n authentic addrui and signature, although these will be withheld II desired. FOR MINORS Kditor The Californian: I've got something to say about the boys and girls going the wrong way in their fun. Not only minors but adults too. There are too few places in Bakersfield where minor* can't buy cigarettes, drinks, and gamble. If you don't believe this, open your eyes and look around. I. for one, know because 1 am a minor and have done these tilings often. In practically every cocktail bar and joint in Bakersfield there are boys who look older and girls who look older drinking, smoking, and dancing freely. 1 think a lew of the reasons are: Work permits are given without proper investigation; places like the bowling alleys, dance halls, public amusement places, and cocktail bars are not kept a careful watch on; liquor stores aren't cracked down on often enough for selling liquor to minors and a chance to learn .safe driving habits isn't given the boys and girls. Too many boys learn to drive through the help of other boys who know little more. Something smells bad in Denmark or rather Hakerst'ielil when gambling. drinking, and the wrong road Is wide open to ull who are looking for fun. Who is it that is supposed to restrict gambling and drinking, and .see to it that all drivers have licenses? A MINOR. DEMOCRATIC DEI'RKSSIONS Kditor The Californian: In the September 2n issue of The I'alit'ornian, "More Cold Logic" got his history mixed up, especially on the birth of the Republican party, uud that depressions came in Republican administrations. The panic of 1837. caused principally by Jackson's doing away with the United States Bank, instituting "wild cat" banking and wild speculation, came in Van Huron's administration, a Democrat. The panic of 1X57, caused by wild speculation In western lands, railroads, etc. came In the Democratic administration of Buchanan, a Democrat president. The Panic of 18i»3, came when Cleveland was president, another Democrat. The panic of li<32, or we may call it the "Depression," happened to come in a Republican administration, but Its causes lay back in the Wilson administrations, where the advocates of disarmament, and unpreparednesM had us it were, put the nation to sleep, and when we did finally decide to fight, graft followed graft, and unlimited spending was the order of the day. The national debt rose some four billion in 1912 to some 27 billion In 1920. In 1918 we tried prohibition, which proved detrimental to the nation. I do not argue tills case, but students of economy know these things are true. This national debt of 27 billion in 1920 is chicken feed to the more than 300 billion, which will hang over the American people before this war is over. Who Is going to pay the interest, and how? and yet have a decent living and keep the functions of government going. This indispensible man business is all bosh. We have had great leaders, men of foresight, but somehow we get along without them when their career Is over and they die, and the while world seems to forget them, except for some monuments, etc. Roosevelt, like any other sensible man, had he been in Roosevelt's place, has done many good things for the people of the nation. He only did his duty. All his experiments didn't work. The American people will try anything once, and it better work or these same Americans will find some way to change it. • Hitler is called a dictator, and perpetuates himself in office, because he has all power, and his will is law, but not so In America. The American voter attends to such things, and if they will wake up to conditions and her trend of events and register, and vote for the good of the nation instead of just party, no one should doubt the destiny of this United States, rny country and yours. Let's vote for Dewey and Bricker and turn out the bureaucrats. A VOTER. 1JM)OI» BANK Editor The Californian: I just heard an appeal over the radio for people to give their blood to the blood bank. I have been wanting to give a pint of blood, maye more, but where do you go to do it. I heard you have to go to Los Angeles. As large as Bakersfield is, and all the surrounding towns, why can't Bakersfleld have their own blood bank? If they have any place here please let me know. AIRS. AUDREY MUCKLOW. 4 Woodrow, Olldale. * From the Files of The Californian TEN YEARS AGO (The Californian. this (lute. 1934) Headlines: Earl Warren New G. O. P. Chairman, Former Kern .Man to Lead Republicans; Succeeds Louis B. Mayer. at. Francis Church parishioners welcomed their new pastor, the Very Reverend Father Joseph Howard, formerly ot Merced, at a reception at St. Francis School hall. Miss Daisy Austin was the guest of honor at a party given at the home of Airs. Jessie Stokes Friday afternoon. Koss C. Miller today loft Bakersfield for Carmel-by-the-Sea in Monterey county, where he will take over editorship of Carmel I'ine Cone. Elks ritualistic team will seek championship honors at Fresno tonight. Harry Thomas is the coach for Bakersfield's aggregation. County Clerk Frank Smith estimates that there are 2000 new registrations in Kern county. TWENTY YEARS AGO (The Californlan, this ilute. 11)24) Four generations of the family gathered at the home of L>. t>. Weir on Jackson street Saturday evening in honor of Mrs. Kitty Wells on her birthday anniversary. Unofficial word reveals that the Reverend Oeorge A. Warmer of First Methodist Church will take a southern California pulpit this year. L. E. Blackmere delivered a talk on the Red menace before Boosters Club yesterday. Kern County Real Estate Board was represented by T. W. McManus when valley realtors gathered to make plans to invite the state convention to Fresno in 1925. Mrs. C. W. Walter of Long Beach was badly hurt when her automobile was destroyed by fire on the state highway Sunday. Gloria Swanson and Ian Keith are cast in "Her Love Story" at California theater this week. THIRTY YEARS AGO (The ralifornian, this date. 1S14) Mr. and Mrs. Rowland Morgan of San Francisco arrived in Bakersfield yesterday. Mr. Morgan is en route to Ireland to join his regiment of the British army, and Mrs. Morgan will remain for the present with her mother, Mrs. Holtby. Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Hughes re- 1 turned to Bakersfield yesterday from San Francisco, where Mrs. Hughes has been spending the summer. joined by her husband three weeks ago. Kern river wells have been shut down for the duration of the war. Andrew Weir. English magnate, is expected from England soon in connection with oil deals here. The eslate of Mrs. Frank Leslie hn a been bequeathed to the woman's suffrage cause, it was announced today by Mrs. Harry Chapman Catt, international Suffrage Alliance president. FORTY YEARS AGO (The Californian. this date. 1H04) Japanese Capture DaPass and Attack Russian Flank; Alain Fighting Expected to Take Place Southeast of Mukden: Russians Silent About President's Peace Conference. Robert Pile has been elected secretary of Eagles lodge, succeeding J. P. Carroll. Architect B. G. McDougall announces plans complete for the Harrison building which will cost $30,000. City trustees will convene tonight to consider an engine house. Congregation Church is organizing a Bible class to prepare leaders for church work. Crime is rampant in Bakersfield. Thomas Rowland was set upon by footpads on Eighth street and cruelly injured and another man was sandbagged and robbed in the heart of the residence section. Sheriff Kelly is seriously considering hiring several new deputies. FIFTY YEARS AGO (The, Californian, this date, 1894) British Club is holding its annual meeting this afternoon in the Arlington hotel parlor. Police are still looking for a sneak thief who entered the home of Mrs. Nunez of Kern City and stole $300 worth of jewelry last week. Contractor Coverdale will begin work on a large scale on Poso district canals next week. From San Francisco Bulletin: Judge Coffey today ordered the estate of Judge Edward F. Beale settled. This turns all of the property over to Mrs. Beale. The other heirs-at-law are Truxtun Beale and two sisters. The property consists chiefly of several hundred thousand acres of land in Kern, Tulare and San Bernandino counties. The celebrated Tejon ranch and pass over the Sierra is part of this property. Operator Merritt of the Western Union is very low from an attack of typhoid fever. _ SO THEY SAY If we can build up the other American nations, we are building up our ability to sell to them the products we manufacture and our ability to buy, as a result, the products of the other Americas. — Co-or- dinator of Inter-American Affairs Nelson Rockefeller. German artillery is shelling German villages even before the inhabitant have left. In many places German civilians are crowding into the slit trenches beside the Americans. — British radio. When the Krauts quit, they will quit — and not a minute before. That is something all of us should understand, here and back home. — Army newspaper Stars and Stripes. Don't believe rumors. Rely on German war communiques. — Berlin newspaper. _ _ PEN SHAFTS Both Bologna and Boulogne have been taken by the Allies, but Hitler still has his baloney. It's .about time for the big fish caught this summer to stop growing. M'hy is it men like to brag about how bad they were when growing up? __, _ A THOUGHT FOR TODAY Avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.— Romans Then let the good Thy might name revere, And hardened sinners Thy just vengeance fear. — Scott. News —.-.'— f Rv lind PA1IT. \TAT.1 fHie .ONI News WASHINGTON, Sept. 29.—All officials have been more than a trifle timid in commenting on the Morgenthau plan to cut the Industrial segment out of the postwar German map, as well as upon the earlier plans to divide her into three or more parts. Congress, however, seems to be generally opposed to both, as far as sentiment among the absentee leaders has been canvassed. Briefly, their average unexpressed thoughts run about like this: There will be 30 to 40 million people in Germany, or into whatever parts it Is divided and these people will have to live or be disposed of in some other way. If they are unable to make an existence at home, you could dispose of them by following Nani custom, and allow them to be carted off to Russia as slave labor, or you could follow another Nazi custom of shooting them. Things like that might bring on future wars. They brought on this one. They cannot or should not be considered. The economy of Germany was tied to her industry, not to her agriculture. She never raised enough on her farms to feed her people, and had to import much of her grain, fruits and other foods. Rut she existed, and largely through the resources of her industrial production in such a restricted way as to give Hitler an excuse for being. Therefore. I believe the average congressman would favor pome plan to keep her at least on a self-sustaining basis. If she can be kept demilitarized, assuredly so, it would satisfy them. If Allied commissions have access to inspection or some means of that nature is devised to guarantee no future revolts it could no doubt get congressional approval where any simple dismemberment scheme would fail to stand the test of full debate. Another point, you hear from Congress, off the record, is this: We will have to -occupy Germany, perhaps for a long .time. If she is not to have any industry, a WPA will have to be created to feed her indefinitely, and presumably at our expense or at the expense of the Allies. These are the prevailing sentiments as I get them ami thoroughly sincere, not in any way subject to ,i chui-ge of sympathy for Germany. The justification is purely In our own self Interest. The scheme of Republican Candidate Dewey for internationalization only of the Ruhr valley also might fall in Congress to the same objections, although It seems to me to ba in a different category, especially if the proceeds from Rhur industries were used to rebuild the damage which the Germans have done In Europe and thus help to -pay the cost of reconstruction. What to do about Germany? Shall she be maintained in a reasonable separate coherence, as little burden to us as possible'.' Should she be all taken and divided and thus reach some degree of economic sustenance for her remaining people? Or should she, indeed, be built up our way economically and crushed only militarily? No one here yet seana to have an answer to these questions which others will agreeably accept. I (World lOpyrlKht. !!»<. «. v Kln« F"'»«« s> : n " dlcnle. Inc. All Hunts reserved. lleproduclioo In fill] or 'n part strictly prohibited.) f YV a sluing ion -(By PETER EDSON)Biggest political bust of the pres-1 is proudest of is his claim to hav. ing played a leading part in organist- ent campaign is apt to come from the call for a meeting "to recapture the Democratic party from Sidney Hillman," sent out over the name o£ .Senator Cotton Ed Smith of South Carolina. This meeting, scheduled for a Washington hotel, seemed doomed from the minute it was announced. No other Democratic revolution has succeeded this year, and this latest one seems particularly ill- starred. Peppery old Cotton Ed is merely the front for this particular rump revolt. After 36 years in the United States Senate. Cotton Ed was repudiated by the voters in the South Carolina primary last July, when they chose Governor Olin D. Johnston to succeed him. The real agitator behind the last gasp, the move to "recapture the Democratic party from Sidney Hillman," is one Ralph Moore, a big, grinning, glad-handing Texas cotton farmer. Moore was for five years master of the Texas Grange, but for the last couple of years he has been operating around Washington as secretary • treasurer of the National Farm Committee. Main purpose of the committee has been to lobby against OPA regulations. Moore is a familiar figure around congressional hearings on agriculture, but the actual amount of his influence has r.lways been questionable, as his organization has been somewhat nebulous. It has no connection with the Farm Bureau Federation, the Grange, or the livestock and dairy farmers' groups, and Moore operates pretty much on his own, reserving his particular peeves for tho National Farmers' Union "and all the other communists out in the Department of Agriculture." If it is possible for anyone to hate Franklin D. Roosevelt more than Cotton Ed Smith does, Ralph Moore is the man. The accomplishment he something. ing the anti-Roosevelt fight in Texas last summer. In trying to organize a new revolt by putting out a call for a meeting in Washington, Moore'a idea was to set up a committee that will "get out the so-called labor vote." That this can be done is, to Moore, demonstrated by the fact that it was the farm vote of Michigan which defeated Democrat Prentiss M. Brown for the Michigan Senatorship in 1940, in spite of the big labor vote polled for Brown in the cities. Moore claims that since this was done in Michigan, it could also be done by getting out the vote in up-state New York, down-state Illinois, and the rural vote in other key states like Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, to offset the pro-Roosevelt advantage in industrial centers. Moore's line to get out the farm vote would be to expose what he calls "agricultural socialism" of the New Deal. By opposing Roosevelt, Moore of course Implies that the vote will go to Dewey and Bricker, though his literature emphasizes only the angle of "recapturing the Democratic party." AVho gets the farm vote in the November election is of course as big a riddle an who will get the soldier vote. Census bureau has calculated that out of a total potential United States voting-age-populatton of 88,000,000, an approximate 63 pep cent, or about 55,000,000 will go to the polls. This 55,000,000. strictly on the basis of the 3340 division of the f population, included approximately 12,000,000 farm votes and 11,000,000 rural non-farm votes. Population migration during tho '*•'. war years has been decidedly toward the cities. So the idea of getting out farm votes to offset urban votes is decidedly thin. But if anyone could get hold of those .13.000.000 likely non-voters, he would have an d A nswers -(By The Haskin Service)Q. Please give some facts about the Blue Star Mothers.—M. B. A. A. The Blue Star Mothers of America was organized in 1942 as a non-profit association. A Blue Star Mother is one who has one or more sons or daughters serving in the armed forces of the nation. The object of the organization is "patriotic, educational, social and for service." The National Blue Star Mothers of America has for its purpose "to retain our republic • and our constitutional form of government." Q. Does intelligence increase with age?—M. C. N. A. From the results of many experimental studies, psychologists have drawn the conclusion that basic intelligence increases little if at all after the age of 16. Apparently it is only experience that Is added after this age, not actual increase of mental ability as a basic trait. Q. What courthouses In the United States are built on islands?— C* C* ^ A. Public Administration Clearing House says that the courthouse of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, is one. It stands on an island in the Cedar river. Manhattan island has several court houses. Q. Is the Indian population of the United Stales increasing?—F. N. R. A. The 1940 census disclosed the fact that the American Indians are the fastest growing population group in the United States today. The Indians registered larger population gains than either whites or Negroes. Q. How far north do birds live?— B. L. B. A. The Ivory gull has been found in the polar sea at 85 degrees North, less than 350 miles from the pole. This is believed to be the most northerly record of any bird. Q. What is the lowest temperature ever recorded In Alaska?—L. L. T. A. The absolute minimum is 76 degrees below zero, recorded at Tanana Crossing. This is only 10 degrees lower than the absolute minimum in the United States. Q. How large an area Is included in the calm center of a hurricane?— W. R. S. A. The "eye of the storm or the calm center averages about 14 miles in diameter, though there are wide variations In Individual cases. Q. What states subscribed the most to the Fifth War Loan?—W. D. A. West Virginia, Georgia, Maryland, and Florida led with oversub- scriptions In excess of 80 per cent of quotas. Q. Who wrote the Acts of the Apostles?—M. F. I>. A. Evidence points to St. Luke as the author. He was Paul's companion and probably his physician. Q. What is meant by a Fleet Marine Force?—H. AV. A. A Fleet Marine Force constitutes a pait of the organization of the United States Fleet and is included in the operating forces plan. This force consists of such units as may be designated by the command, ant of the Marine Corps. It is a composite force of infantry, artillery (including antiaircraft artillery), aviation, tanks, and signal, engineering and chemical troops. Q. In the recent statement concerning the space occupied by a ton of chestnut-size anthracite coal, wasn't the figure—48 cubic feet—too large?—L. \V. A. A. It was a typographic error. The bureau of mines says that tests give weights of 52 % and 56^ pounds per cubic foot for chestnut- sized anthracite, which are equivalent to 38 and 35.4 cubic feet per 2000 pound ton, respectively. Q. What causes the difference In color between red and white wines? S. B. R. A. In making white wines, ths grapes after being crushed are kept away from contact with the skins, since it is the pigment in the skin which is responsible for the color of the wine. Q. What became of the Monitor and the Merrimac?—S. D. L. A. The Monitor was lost in a gal« off Cape Hatteras, December 31, 1862; the Merrirnac was sunk by her captain after the Federal troops had gained control of Norfolk on May 9, 1862. Q. Do Manx cats ever have tails? K. E. D. A. Ida Melleh in "The Science and Mystery of the Cat" says that the tailless Manx cat after four or five decades of careful breeding still produces some tailed offspring. Q. What is the extent of Germany's Siegfried Line?—M. W. E. A. The Slepfried Line is a defense zone about 250 miles long and 35 miles deep, covering an area of some 8750 square miles. Q. Did Cardinal Wolsey really say the famous word of farewell that Shakespeare includes in his play Henry VIII?—L. E. T. A. Wolsey's farewell speech In Shakespeare's invention. Q. Why do tires lose air faster In summer than In winter?—B. S. A. Hot weather causes the expansion of pores in the rubber. Q. What is the term used to describe an object shaped like a foot* ball?—F. K. J3. A. It is prolate spheroid. 4,. A reader can Bet th« answer to any Question of fart by writing The Hakcnfleld ('allfurnlan Information Hureai'. 318 E)« Street. N. E., Waibhuton, 3, D. C. Pkau encloae tnree (3) cent* for replj.

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