The Bakersfield Californian from Bakersfield, California on September 18, 1944 · Page 14
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The Bakersfield Californian from Bakersfield, California · Page 14

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Mondoy, September 18, 1944 Cbitonal $age of JJafcersrttefo Califorman Entered In poet pfflc* «t Rakernfleld. California. n.« wcond class mail under th** act of Congress Mnrch 3. 1ST9- MEMBER OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Th« AcnoclHted Presu l» exclusively emulpd in ilip use for puhli<i\- tinn of all newt dispatches credited to it or nnt otherwi«« credited in thii paper, and also the local n«wa i>ubl!»h?d thririn REPRESENTATIVES West-Holiday Co.. Inc. Jv'ew Tork. Chlcairo. San Pranrisro. J,o» Aneclcs. Seattle. Portland. Denver WASHINGTON. D. r. BUREAU The Haskin Service. Washington, D. C. The B»ker»fle!d Califorman la also a rlient of (he United Tress and receives Us complete wire pprvice By carrier or mall (In advance) in postal znnr>c nnp, two. Hirer, per month. S5c: six months. 15.10; one yenr, J9.00. By mail in toslal zones four to eight, per month. $1.01. FOURTH TERM FOR MR. ICKES? M OST important to the nation is the verdict of the electors in November on a Fourth term for the present administration. For then there will likewise be a Fourth term for Mr. Ickes, and that thought is emphasized by the developments or threatened developments at Jackson's Hole where the government contemplates taking over additional areas wholly contrary to the views of stockmen and farmers who see in that threat lessened opportunities in the future as well as in increased taxes through the removal of a vast acreage from the assessment rolls in that region, meaning heavier taxation on resident land holders. And if the nation is interested in the plans of Mr. Ickes they are surely of vital importance to the people of the great central valley here in California. Years ago the project for conserving the waters of the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers for the irrigation of arid lands was conceived. Unhappily, that development passed into the hands of the Federal authorities. Then came Mr. Ickes. His interest was not and is not based upon impounding water for reclaiming arid lands. There is not at the present day a shortage of electricity in the area named. But no matter. Mr. Ickes is primarily for the creation of power irrespective of the needs of the farmers for water. And thus it is that plans for desert land reclamation have been stalemated at Washington in order to further the policy of Mr. Ickes to make government a competitor for existing power companies. Valley residents may well ask themselves what will happen to the agricultural interests if the Secretary of the Interior is kept in office in future years. And he will be if the Fourth term venture finds favor with the voters of the nation. We may be certain then that the Ickes policy of the past will be his policy in the fuluiv. Certainly the voters residing in the nation's greatest food producing area do not wish to see history repeat itself. And it will if the Fourth term idea is accepted by the country, and Mr. Ickes thus given another four years of authority to be utilized to prc- ''vent the consummation of plans for the conservation of water for irrigation, the original purpose of the enterprise, which has been handicapped by the Secretary over the years. Are Kern County readers, then, for a Fourth term or opposed to it? And by "readers" we mean the farmers, the business men and labor which depends for employment on development to provide water for irrigation. THE REAL ARGENTINE? year, according to the same authority, the increase in ducks resulted in more than $2,000,000 damage to rice and field crops. The United Stales Fish and Wildlife Service will spend $110,000 this year leasing land and growing rice and grain to attract ducks away from farmers' crops. Feed refuges have been established at Willows, Colusa and Suiter City and others will be created near Dos Palrts in Merced county and in Imperial county as well. Possibly others may also be opened in the delta regions of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Everyone wants game conservation and thousands of sportsmen have contributed money for this end. A problem is posed for the game management men to solve to the satisfaction of all concerned. RED H A R R E L L roi IND rciLiiH K - USE OF AIR CORPS TjHOMiNENT members of a bar association JL in 'he Argentine have issued a statement in which they declare that were the people of the Argentine to be permitted to express themselves they would be found friendly to the United Stales of America. This same bar association had been dissolved by President Kdelmiro Farrell for "taking an active part in the discussion of Argentine aH'airs." In other words, a fascist minority now dominating Argentine has the power to present a national front of fascism to the United States while the people of the Argentine, or a great many of'them, at any rate, are favorably disposed to the United States of North America. In a communication received from the Argentine expressing the opinions of ils bar association, it reported there is now a regular underground in the Argentine, just as there was in France during the (ierman occupation, and that the underground of our South American neighbor is functioning. News is received and distributed and the liberals and progressives in the Argentinian nation are down underground, but far from being negligible, just as were the underground members of France. There is a bitter opposition between the regime of President Edehniro Farrell and the people, but so far Farrell has the whip hand, even though he may represent what may be, numerically, a small number of Argentinians. CONSERVING DUCKS intercession of sportsmen in conserv- k ing ducks, coupled with favorable weather lor breeding conditions in the north, resulted In an increase of wild fowl estimated between 15 and 20,000,000 last year, according to George Lodi, of Arbuckle, chairman of the joint wildlife management committee of ttie California Chamber of Commerce. Last N ow that American troops arc occupying large areas of continental Europe as a result of their successes in France, they have had an opportunity to examine the results of their bombing operations over a period of years. Tentatively at any rale, an argument that raged several years ago over the value of strategic bombing seems to have been set I led. For years (iermany has been subjected to a terrific bombing. Week after week the great industrial cities of the Hcich have been pounded by American and British heavy bombers. Bombs up to six tons weight arc carried and dropped regularly. Incendiary bombs are used and missies called "block busters." The British have inclined to "pattern bombing" rather than the so-called "precision" type of blasting employed by our own airmen. The result of all this has been that most persons have concluded strategic bombing is invaluable in warfare as a process of weakening the enemy but it is insufficient to end a war in itself. American soldiers inspecting our bombing in France were pleased with the accuracy o our bombardiers and pilots, but they also learned that bombing itself is merely an auxiliary process and not a'complete end in war. In many ways, too, it has been learnec that aerial bombing has not replaced grount artillery. For a long time enthusiasts callec heavy bombardment groups the artillery of the air and in a measure that is a good description of such air corps work, but only in a general way. Actually, ground artillery'; role in this war has been accentuated as perhaps never before, largely through successful use by the Russians and because of the fact that General Montgomery of England is almost a fanatic when it comes to the tactical use of the field guns cither on tracks, tanks or carriages pulled by prime movers. Aviation enthusiasts have had some of their ardor dampened—not permanently but K) a degree by the lessons of the long and costly bombardment of Germany, extending now over a period of years. It is requiring land troops, artillery, engineers, and the modern version of cavalry— the tanks, to occupy Germany, and these branches of the service will be required to reduce the Reich to submission, along with the help of the great air corps. ROAD TO BERLIN F HO> ica than 350 IHOM the country around Mel/ the Aincr- •an forces are now some distance less miles to Berlin. From Warsaw, where the Russians at this writing were preparing further penetration of East Prussia, the Soviet spearhead is about 320 miles from Berlin. This is one of the greatest military races in history and the eyes of the world are on the outcome. Handicapping the Allied forces is the west wall, the Siegfried line, but the world has confidence that the Allies will be as adequate in solving this military hazard as well as the Germans, four years ago, ignored the Maginot line and flanked it to drive on into Paris and the occupancy of France. The Italian front of the Allies, it is interesting to note, is about 000 miles from Berlin. D 1 PENICILLIN i i; lo ils miraculous success in wartime uses, penicillin as a peacetime drug has captured the interest of the public, and correctly so. The iirst thing to know about the new medicine is the correct pronunciation, which, phonetically is "pcnny-sill-in." It is no cure-all but lias a remarkably versatile case history for a drug, or rather a drug- mold as it .should he called. It attacks germs causing pneumonia, blood poisoning, deep abscesses, bone infections and meningitis, as well as venereal diseases which in time may be completely controlled by this drug-mold. The drug must be administered by injection or by local application but it is useless taken internally, for stomach acids destroy (I. Among the greatest things to come out of this war in a constructive sense will probably be penicillin. Tke War Toil EDITOR'S NOTE—Until «uch time an Ernie Pyle'a column Is resumed following his vacation, thii ipace will be used lor war feature •toriei. By RUSSELL ANNABEL United Prens Staff Correspondent 11EADQU ARTERS. ELEVENTH ARMY AIR FORCE, Alaska, September IS. (UP)—six airmen of this command were safe here today following a series of fantastic experiences which began September 3 when the Liberator bomber In which they were riding with six other officers and enlisted men exploded 20,000 feet above the grim, ice-ribbed crags of the volcano, Illiamna, 150 miles south of An- The six survivors of the froak ac- ciiiont, none of whom had ever jumped before, were blown clear oC the bomber by the force of the explosion, and found themselves falling free among blazing pieces of wreckage. After a nine-flay trek without food .save for moss berries, through some of the roughest terrain in this territory, in bad weather, they reached the old Indian village of Illiamna and were flown to Elmendorf field where today, worn and haggard and suffering from exposure they told the story of their almost incredible experience. "We are okay—we just want to do everything we ran to help look for the rest of the Buys who were in the plane," one of the enlisted men .said. Tho.se .safe are Lieutenant Robert D. Moss, co-pilot (235 Laytrobe street), Chicago, III.; Lieutenant William .1. Grace, photographer (27 East Morrison avenue), Buffalo, N. Y., .Sergeant Martin Woogen, engineer (!)(>6 East One Hundred Eighty-first street), Bronx, N. Y.; Sergeant Robert W. Smith, gunner, Lafayette, Ind.; Sergeant Oscar Windham, instrument operator, But- Lieutenant Moss said an enlisted man glanced out the window as the plane passed the volcano and saw that the number two engine was afire, with a broken fuel line pouring 100-octane gas into the blaze. Flames were trailing 500 feet back from the plane like the blast of a giant blowtorch. Crew members at once shut off tWe fuel lines and the pilot put the big machine into a dive, hoping to extinguish the iire but, without power, the plane went out of control, start- Ing to spin. Moss had given orders that all board the big craft were to get into their chutes and as the flames began paling into the wing, the pilot rang the bell as a signal to abandon ship. Lieutenant Grace, a combat photographer, said he was helping other men in an attempt to open the escape hatch, but the violently spinning bomber kept throwing them against the side of he fuselage. They had Just succeeded in partially opening the camera hatch when they felt a terrible impact, he said. They thought the plane had glanced off the top of the mountain. "I don't know how long it was before I realized I was falling free. I yanked the ripcord and looked around for the plane, but saw only part of a blazing wing with an engine attached. The plane apparently had disintegrated from the force of the gasoline vapor explosion," Lieutenant Grace said. "Two pieces of metal screamed down and tore through my chute. I thought then I was finished, but the holes were small and the chute con tinned to function," he added. Sergeant Smith hud not thne to buckle his chute straps before the explosion hurled him through the top of the fuselage. "I jerked my ripcord and then pul both thumbs in my mouth and bit them to hold my hands together. In this way, and exerting all the strength I had in my arms, I was able to keep the chute straps on my shoulders," he said. Smith said he counted seven parachutes in the aj besides his own, which raised hopes here that two more airmen may be recovered from the mountain wilderness over which the plane blew up. The six hospitalized airmen, on being interviewed today, said It took them three days to get together after they landed on the wildly- broken mountainside. They then took stock of their equipment and found they had three sticks of gum four pieces of mint candy, and a limiting knife. There were no fire arms in the party. They followed down the precipi tons course of n stream in rain, snow, windstorms, and were estimated to have covered 150 miles in six days, a feat which would have taxed the endurance of professional Alaskan woodsmen. When they reached the Indian village of Old Illiamna on the ninth day, Bush Pilot Loen Alsworth, searching the area in a small float plane, sighted them and guided them to a lake where he landed and radioed for help. Lieutenant Grace left the hospital the following day to join in the aerial search for the other missing fliers. His mates said: "It was the first chute ju-.np for all of us, if you could call it a jump, and if we ever have to make another, we hope it won't be a deal like that." Holly wood Col omn --(By ERSKINE JOHNSON)Exclusively yours: Betty Grable is threatening to retire. Says she wants to stay home with husband Harry James and the baby. Now where have we heard that story before? But Fred Astaire IS serious about quitting greasepaint and hanging up his dancing shoes. He'll star in four more films at RKO and then turn producer. He's been talking about joining the executive end of motion pictures for the last two years. Best crack about southern California's heat wave was Jimmy Dorsey's: "It's so hot in San Fernando valley," he cracked, "that houses are selling for $4 with a copy of the song thrown in.' 1 Sudden thought: Despite the recent large crop of "youth gone wild" movies, Hollywood still hasn't discovered another Clara Bow. She typified the short-skirted flapper of the roaring twenties. There is now an official Hays ban on revealing celluloid hocus- pocus, since that expose of film- town camera tricks in a national magazine. Anne Shirley and Adrian Scott, the RKO producer, are planning on a Thanksgiving wedding. Susan Hayward is still under suspension at Paramount for turning down the lead In "High Above the Stars." Charles Boyer gets a new title in (lie Columbia, flicker "Together Again." In one scene a gal describes him as "wooful." It's chur.n, appeal, glamor—or something. Ann Sheridan will star in two movies, quick, now that she is home from overseas. One is "When Old New York Was Young," the other, "Calamity Jane.'' Irene Manning will sing "The Lord's Prayer" nn her forthcoming overseas tour. It's a G. I. request. The Olivia de Haviland-John Huston romance is colder than a cast ing director's heart. There have been more write-in ap plicants for the job of technical adviser on "The Lost Weekend" than any movie filmed in years. It's the story of a three-day drunk. Martha O'Driscoll and Eddie Nor- rls have discovered each other. They were a twosome at a night club. Eddie Cantor will m. c. a soon- to-be-aired non-partisan radio show urging 1 voters to register. Real-type casting for "G. I. Joe. Bill Murphy, a Guadlacanal hero, will play a soldier. News item: A new Hollywood mile stone was achieved with the filming of the first movie blush in tech- nicolor. The blush was by Rita Hayworth for her final scene in "Tonight and Every Night." Ho-hum! Sign in a Hollywood department store: "Please keep in mind that the customer's memory will last longer than the war." Hired to write one song for "To Have and Have Not," Tunesmith Hoagy Carmichael wound up writing several numbers and singing in the film. Director Howard Hawks just presented him with a wallet inscribed "For service far beyond the line of ditty." For the first (ime in 40 years on stage and screen, Sydney Greenstreet is in uniform. He plays an army colonel in "^illar to Post." Ida Lupino, who is more than an amateur at musical composition, has completed three new tunes in collaboration with Nick Arden. And it's Arthur Murray's definition of a Hollywood conference— "a group of men who individually can do nothing, but as a group, meet and decide that nothing can be done." (Copyright, 1944. NEA Service, Inc.) 1 Jke Readers' Viewpoint ABOUT DOGS Editor The Californian: Concerning "Tinker," the dog iilled in Lomita Verde, I can't .see vhy people who care so much for heir dogs let them roam the streets, >other all the neighbors, knowing hat at nny time .some car will kill heir pets. I have a dog but she lays in her own back yard and I (now she is safe there. People who :an't keep their dogs in their own •ard should never have a dog. There re so many clogs hero where I live, nd yet I can't see how they ever scape with their lives chasing the ars. A motorist has all he can do ooklng' after the children playing i the streets, besides dogs. So kecj> our dogs in your own back yard nd avoid feeling so badly when they re killed. A LA CRESTA RESIDENT. NEED EDUCATION Idltor The Californian: Your column on labor proves that ibor is the monarch of the world! And in America, a marvelous chievement, despite the strikes be- ween capital and labor; perhaps we hould call them just mere family uurrels. So long as the family don't et broken up things will be O. K. jut it looks like we will huvo to uve 11 better educated America, and ith It a better educated world, to ct rid of these little wars at home nd those big ones abroad. The ulcker we can do this the better or all of us are concerned. I hope am right in this, because If we are ot it will take a much longer time. ; we observe the way we started gluing the Japs and, as you fcnuvv, te HtarteU in the best way then pos- sible, which, as you know, too, was island hopping; but now we are hopping the islands. Now if we can speed up our education from island hopping to hopping the Islands would that not be a marvelous achievement, too? If we can do the one, we can do the other. It's Ihe pull- Ing together that achieved the one, anil so will achieve the other! So it's school again, and we had better stay there and keep on educating each other, to make a better America and a better world. So we should all be in on this and give of our best. It's a great big job! It lies with us to make ourselves big enough. 600 Roberts Lane, JAMES PEARSON. RIGHT TO VOTE Editor The Californian: September 17, Constitution Day, ft an anniversary dear to the heart of every Daughter of the American Revolution. Today we are faced with problems about voting, especially the problem of voting in the armed forces; therefore, it is doubly important that the women at home check up and register so that they may make use of the privilege granted to them by the nineteenth amendment, and vote. Mrs. Charles F. Lambert, state regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution, says, "The greatest safeguard of a democratic form of government against pressure groups, subversive minorities, and their ilk, is for every conscientious, independent voter to register his, or her, opinion at the polls." ESTHER A. CAMPBELL, Regent, Bakersfield Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. From the Files of The Californian TEN YEARS AGO (The Californian, this date, 19,14) Mrs. J. Harl Tener, program chairman for Bakersfleld Woman's Club, announced today that Mrs. Jack Vallely, lecturer, will appear this seson. Miss Dorothy Donahoe directed a play for presentation Monday night at the homecoming banquet of Business and Professional Women's Club. A. C. Ryder, of the fire department, announced today that Fremont School was awarded a banner for winning first place in fire prevention among Bakersfleld schools. Jack Lynch of Taft defeated Percy Chamberlain of Bakersfield, 7-5, 7-5, in tennis matches in Taft Sunday. The Dionne quintruplets, now 112 day old, are well on the way to recovery from intestinal toxemia which attacked all five on Wednesday. TWENTY YEARS AC.O (The Californian, this date, 1924) Headline: Chinese Wall Bombarded From Air by War Lord of Manchuria; Modern War May Shatter Battlements of Ancients. Kern River Golf Club voted last night to purchase a club site from Louis Olcese for $10,000. Each member present subscribed $100 toward the purchase price. Harvey Kilbourn will head a committee to formulate plans for a Wasco marketing association. The annual freshman rally will be held tomorrow at the high school playgrounds with the sophomores in charge. Glenn Lindquist is president of the freshman class and Milten Newman of the sophomores. T. J. West is in Bakersfield today in connection with plans to establish an office with T. J. West Company in Bakersfield. "District Attorney H. E. Schmidt, finding contraband liquor in the way in his crowded office, held a "dumping out" party today with Attorney Paul Garber in charge. THIRTY YEARS AGO (The Californian. this date. 1914) Headlines: Ireland Wins Self-Government; King George V Signed Home Rule Bill Today. President Wilson sees little prospect of peace in Europe and quotes Sir Edward Gray as saying, "Germany must first be crushed to earth before peace can prevail." Mrs. G. W. Premo was a pleasing hostess yesterday to members of Priscilla Club. Kent S. Knowlton has been elected a member of the board of directors of California Farmers Protective League. To celebrate the safe return from war-stricken Europe of City Trustee George Feister of Maricopa, members of the Bachelors Club and others entertained at a banquet Tuesday. J. G. Hartmann won the prize awarded for obtaining the greatest number of new members, offered by Talches Tribe of Red Men. FORTY YEARS AGO (The Californian. this date, 1904) Miss Frances Foran and E. L. Willow were married today. The Reverend William Mullen, preacher and horse-trainer, is now in Modesto conducting a revival service. He is the former pastor of First Baptist Church here. The new Widgeon Gun Club met Thursday night In preparation of duck season, October 15. A meeting of directors of Union Cemetery Association was held last night, members present including J. M. Jameson, F. M. Noriega, S. P. Wible, P. Galtes, and C. Brower. C C. Childress and T. W. Nelson have taken the lead In organizing a Shakespeare Club. Hamlet will be the first play studied. Three schools will open Monday, Emerson with Miss Virginia Jameson as the assistant principal and teacher; Bryant, with Miss Winifred Timmons in the same capacity and Lowell with Mrs. K. L. Jaynes as assistant principal and teacher. FIFTY YEARS AGO (The Californian, this date, 1894) Total enrollment for the first session of the public school was 301. This is again 50 over last year. Miss Flora Willow was guest of honor at a birthday party last night. Joe Mafford's six-horse team ran away this morning and made things lively for awhile. No damage was done beyond tearing down a sign post and ruining some harness. W. H. Scribner has commenced another cottage on K street. Miss Burr has arrived from Berk eley to teach in the public schools. She will live at the home of Mrs. Hiram Moore on Baker street. F. Cooke Caldwell addressed a Re publican meeting here last night. J. Aston who recently moved from Bakersfield to Kernville suffered total loss of his house by fire Sep tember 15. News JDenind ike News -(By PAUL MALLOW- WASHINGTON, Sept. 18.—An extraordinary public interest in the postwar compulsory military training plan has been evident in mail reaction to my suggestion August 31 that other more democratic means of raising and maintaining the needed army might be found. People generally appear to '.be thinking and searching for a plan, as indeed is the war department. There General Marshall has amended or expanded War Secretary Stlm- son's simple youth draft proposition with a hunt for a program to build the postwar defense on a small standing army with a citizen reserve. Marshall is unusually sensible and practical in his approaches to these problems (towit the excellent demobilization point system) but he also wants to draft the youths through compulsion for a year of training. The army bills in Congress call for taking the youngster at 17 or upon graduation from high school. Officers in charge say they want all youths drawn in, rich and poor, prospective clergymen, doctors, lawyers, technicians as well as poets. They think by taking everyone, under compulsion, they are following the democratic way. They are not. The compulsory draft is the theory of regimentation, dictatorships, totalitarianism. The voluntary inducement system is the democratic theory, and it always has proved more efficient when intelligently directed. The army seems a little sheepish on this point. Slyly, it shies away from the title "Compulsory Military Training" to describe the plan, and calls it "Universal Military Training." It is not to be universal. But it is compulsory. These military statesmen are just beginning to get into the problem. They know European nations, with their deficient manpower, have long required a year in the army for youths. They have Just jumped thoughtlessly (in my opinion) to the conclusion that this is the only way to get what they want. What they want—and what we ne,ed—is an army. It must be a sufficient and Efficient army, capable of defending the country, else we might as well not have one. It seems to me we have been doing it somewhat in General Marshall's way all along, and this has not proved satisfactory. We had a small army (74,000 at the start of the war) and a citizens reserve (the National Guard). In effect, we had nothing. The army was not adequate or efficient. The National Guard was a drill unit for parades (and a month In summer camp). Both together could not defend Long Island against an invading foe. That system will have to be declared obsolete and a ne .' plan adopted. » But will compulsory military training do the job? I think a fair, objective analysis of the facts will show that it will not, and furthermore that it Js not even important * or material to the job. Armies today are built on technicians. The foot soldier is not so often a fighter as a policeman. He mostly goes to the place led by the highly trained gunner, artillery engineer, plane combat pilot, tank driver for the last fighting. The point that war today is a complex cohesion of all the highly skilled scientific techniques needs no proof. A year in the army to make a soldier may have been all right In Napoleon's day when a man had " only to learn how to shoot a musket accurately, drill formations, etc., but not today (and not 17-year-olds either, then or now). . Not only are the combat men now. long-trained technicians, but so are the equally important men in radio communications, engineering, bridge construction, and practically every line. There were 1,081,852 males 17 years old in the United States in 1940. If all these had spent a year in the army, would they be what we must have or contribute materially to it? Do not these skilled technicians require more than a year of • application and more maturity than 17. In 10 years you would have from them a force nearly as large as the f military force we have in the field, but would they be an efficient army? Would yo not have to build the army with other means? For war your 17-year-old graduates would have to be trained all over again. Why they would be worse than the National Guard, only perhaps not as large when the unadaptables were weeded out. In short, a year in the army at 17 can be little more than a physical culture course, and is not material to the raising or maintaining of a defensive army. It will take me two columns to complete my demonstration so I will have another on this subject tomorrow. (World copyright. 1944. By Klna feature* Syndicate, Inc. All nclils reserved. Keprodurtlan in full or in part ctrictly prohibited.) Was king ion C o I IUL m -(By PETER EDSON)- SO THEY SAY Just as our outfil hit the beach with the first wave at Saipan, one of the men spotted a chicken and started after it . with mortar and artillery shells dropping all around him. Our squad leader yelled for lilm to go after the Japanese and "to hell with the hen." That night he ate K rations with the rest of us.— Marine Corporal Walter Zackowski of Dickson City, Pa. Our future greatness depends to an important extent on school and college classes which are Intimate numan societies in which the teacher is a leader rather than a lecturer, ind the student a junior colleague rather than a mental museum to be stuffed with factual furniture.—Dr. Henry T. Moore, president Skidmore College. Had German youth been educated n schools similar to our American ilgh schools and liberal arts col- eges, they would not have been as proficient goosesteppers, but they would not have been taken in by the swastika.—Dr. Carl A. Kallgren, Colgate University dean. Cartels are, in fact, trusts magnified to an international scale. If there is to be a free and productive economy in the United States, or a free exchange of goods in world markets, the power of the cartels must be broken.—Assistant Attorney- General Wendell Berge. A THOUGHT FOR TODAY Let my cry come near before thee, O Lord: give me understand' ing according to thy word. — Psalms 119:10$. ^ • * * The improvement of the understanding is for two ends: First, for our own increase of knowledge; secondly, to enable us to deliver and make out that knowledge to others. Locke. President Roosevelt's scheduled speech before the banquet of 1000 delegates from the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers, meeting in Washington September 23, centers more than passing interest on white-haired, bespectacled Daniel J. Tobin, president of the union, who has the necessary drag at the White House to haul in this prize attraction for his party. How does Dan get that way? To refer to him as the Sidney Hillman of the A. F. of L. would probably start a fight, but that's the general idea. The link which Hillman's political action committee provides between the Democratic Party and the C. I. O. is matched by Tobin's four-campaign position as chairman of the labor division of the Democratic jiational committee. Tobin's work is only among the A. F. of L. unions but he is supposed to deliver just the same. If anything, perhaps Tobin's link with the White House is even closer than Hillman's, for from July to October, 1940, Tobin served as one of those passionately anonymous presidential assistants. His assignment then was to secure greater co-operation from labor for the national defense effort. When he resigned, it was with the announcement that his job had been done. It has been common knowledge that Tobin has always wanted to be secretary of labor, in which ambition he has been thwarted by the presidential preference—somebody's preference—for Madam Perkins. Bill Green and the A. of L. general staff have consistently backed Dan for the cabinet Job, but have made no progress whatever. That seems to be the limit of Tobin's White House influence. To strengthen his claim on the office, Dan has several (times essayed and been assigned the role of peacemaker, to bring the warring A. F. of L., C. I. O. and United Mine Workers factions into one great big happy family. He has always been frustrated In that, too. Even though he is the great advocate of peace. Tobin has not been without his fights. He voted in fav^r of the suspension of John L. Lewis and the C. I. O. unions from the A. F. of L. in 1936. In 1937 Tobin's union had its worst fight with the west coast C. I. O. longshoremen's organization headed by Harry Bridges. Dave Beck of Seattle led the forces of the A. F. of L. In that fight, but Tobin still sees red every time Bridges' name is mentioned. In 1940 Tobin threatened to take the teamsters out of-the A. F. of L., but nothing ever came of It. Tobin has been charged with being a dictator in his own union, which holds a national convention only once every five years and is governed by Tobin and his executive board in between. Tobin, liking to refer to himself as an old-time teamster, has been president of the brotherhood since 1907. Whatever the truth about the dictatorship charge, It cannot be denied that the teamsters' union Is prosperous, with an estimated 725,000 members, 650,000 paid up. Local unions are highly autonomous and some have elaborate health and unemployment benefit insurance schemes of their own. From the 1-cent-per-day-per-mon dues paid into the international brotherhood treasury, Tobin has built up a $10,000,000 reserve, 80 per cent of it in government bonds. Dan himself U paid $25,000 a year salary. Dan was born in Ireland 69 years ago. He came to America at the age of 15. His first scene of operations was Cambridge, Mass., where he completed his education in night schools. He grew up with the labor union movement, was an inimate of the late Samuel Gompers. Like a good many Boston Irish, Dan took to politics naturally. H* threatened to get off the Democratic preserve only once, in an editorial blast in his union's magazine in March, 1943. Tobin seriously warned the Democratic party and particularly the southern Democrats that unless they stopped crucifying the trade union movement, the party would send itself back to where it was in 1921, a crawling, impotent minority. Maybe that's one reason the President is pitching Tobin's temsters a little woo with this banquet speech. Questions ana. Answers Q. What is the richest Negro church in the United States?—R. F. A. This has been said of St. Philip's Protestant Episcopal Church in New York City. It owns a great deal of real estate, and by purchasing apartment buildings and renting them was an important factor in the settlement of Harlem. The church building cost $250,000. Q. When were birds first banded? —W. D. A. The earliest definite date for a banded bird is that of a heron captured in Germany in 1710. One of the metal rings on its leg had been placed there in Turkey several years before. Birds are banded in order to obtain a record of their wanderings. Q. What Is the difference between a fungo bat and a regular baseball bat?—J. R. D. A. The fungo bat Is lighter and longer, allowing a more powerful swing. Because of the smaller diameter, a fungo bat would not provide enough hitting area to be used in a game. Q. Please distinguish between strategy and tactics in warfare.—C. M. A. Strategy consists of the planning of the campaign. Tactics Is carrying out the plans in actual contact with the enemy. Q. How long have American women had the right to vote?— L. E. T. A. The Constitutional amendment giving women the right to vote was proclaimed in effect August 26, 1920. Q. What Is a V. P. boat?—R. E. S. A. The navy department says that the initials "V. P." are the designation of patrol aircraft in the navy. Q. How does the commander of a tank give directions to the men with him?—E. L. L. A. A tank commander whose place is in the turret, used to give direc- « tlons by tapping the driver's shoulders with his feet. Now each man Is equipped with a microphone which picks up the sound of the voice. Q. When and where was the first jumping race held in the United States?—H. T. D. A. The first one was a hurdle race "for gentlemen riders" held at the Jockey Club Park, Washington, D. C., in 1834. Q. How much money has been Invested in war bonds?—N. E. S. A. Altogether 87.8 billion dollars worth of bonds have been sold In five war loon drives. Individuals have purchased 21.9 billions or 25 per cent of total sales. Q. Does the United States have a poet laureate?—N. D. A. There has never been a poet laureate for the United States but several of the states have appointed poet laureates. Q. If a rifle is fired from a horl- * zontal position, does the bullet rise before it is spent?—F. O. B. A. A bullet fired from a rifle starts to fall as soon as it leaves the muzzle. * -^Q. From which state have most of our vice-presidents came?—I. D. A. Ten of our 33 vice-president* were residents of New York. A lender .tin uti iti« toiwci ti> inj unntloe at net by wilting The Itektnflild Cillfornlin latotuwtioa Itiunu. 211 Kit *lr«t. jTlJ.. W.shlniton. 'J. U. C. PIMM wclow tbm 11)

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