THB lOLA PAILT BJBCHSTEB. SATPBDAT ETEMETfl, JAITUABY fl; im. ,News«f the County WEST OF THE BITFR. A very pretty and quiet home wedding occurred on Wednesday evening. December 30, 1908, at 7 p. m., at the home of D. E. McFann. when their dauj?htf>r. Miss Nellie M., was united to Mr. W. 1.. Wenner of Gronola. Elder J. M. Preston ofliciated. There were only a few present. Supper was served as a lap sui)per, consisting of sandwiches. i;irljels, pie. calie. oranges and bananas. They went to Franlilln county on Thursday for a short visit, then to Grenola where they will make their homt-. Friends wish tliem a ionp and happy life. The following presents were reeeived: (". .1. Preston and family, set of jilates; (t. A. Smith and wife, piekle di:di; J. >r. and Panili I'restdii, set of jilates; Mr. T. Ihiwsou :inil .Mr.s. .lones, K-.ups and SJIIIOTS: Frank iiiul Free 'Prestpn, slass pitcher and tumblers: Mr. and .Mr.«. .Mcl-'ann. CIIJJS and siiucers: .letia .I-'iison and family, platter, pitcln-r. salt and pt'iiper set: Mary Preston, bread iilait-: Fred Ueatty. <'ake (date; Wni. Preston, salld l)owI. . C. P. Clark had a barn rai;dnir Wednesday, lie liad tioimht a mill in <;a.s City and tore it down. broiiHht It here and not Betting it np Wediu-s- day several of tlie lui -n went I)ack Thursday to put the roof on. Stella Bale vi.-;itfd her parents on Thursday. We an- sorry ttev. Uruwn is not so well at this writiii;;. We hojie tiiey will hav-- a nice time at the punirisf on Rev. Wood. Mr. Shockey is lu-pinj? on Mr. ,• Clark's barn. Mr. YimiiKer was iK -lpiaj; .Mr. Clark pet ready to raise his barn Wednes- daj*. . C. .1. Pr >-si.in dill not inipnue as fast as tie e.\|Meted tci mie liis la.st trip to Mis.sdini. Ruth and .liiti .Inm s ar.- spending this week in .Missouri with relatives and friends. Ella and Ira Peek and the oliildren visited at Walter Crook 's I'liesday. Clifford .McCarli -y. wife and si.ii are at C. U. Flake 's at this writ ins;. Lots of folks have found out they want I D talk m l-'loyd Flake since he has moved to Pinna and tiiey cannot get him. Howard and W;tlter ^.hv^ and Frank Preston helped Harry Crocker kill hogs .Monday. He delivered iln'in in lola Tuesday. Mr. .Maxwe'.I has se.in.'.! work on a ranch lifieen nilbs fn ; i . len I 'islier llvis. Frank .Marks is i |uiie I-. .ilins off hi.-' lainlloid 's pari of ilii- 'I'lien- Was a man from Oi.i'.lioinn looklnu' ov .-r iln' .1. C. U1 ^KS farm With a view of tiuvliii; Chrisimas Morning. Chesier Sniiih. wlfi- .-ind daughter not gelling here. Hpolled the family reunion ilie Prestons )iad planned, Howevii iliiv are enjoying the visll WM) 'I '-o Sinlili and wll'c. T. 1.. li.iw .-o !i arid .I<).-.ie .lorifs vi.--U- ed al 1> iv Mcl'ann's Sumbiy. .1. .M. and Sarah Preston visiter Ix)U Osborne in I'iiina Sunday. .1. C. and Itora lliggs and Clara Hli .-!s of lola took dinner ai C. P. i'eck 's Christ m ;is. Everybody remunilH>r there will be a DiaiJ on .\ew Ye .d's Day. As we are seiidinsr in our items too •soon lo teV of our l)arn raising and weddintr. we are to have this week, yon may cxjieei to hear from lis agiun this week. TO rri!E COLD IN 0>E OAT. Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets. Drusrsists refund money If it fails to cure. E. W. GROVE'S si^'nature is on each box. 2^c. ^'as'^ll^'by fiehnan'laadw^ eiVUie of iterUnBT liability bill was advanced by the New York St««tt^s;tftim«. , the ntajbritr tfwl paned tMiiUo»^^ July 28, at Cincinnati. Taft deUvffvd i,oth houses. This holds Interstate his speech oC acceptance. -He frankly • ...... J .-_ accepted -the role of "me too" by de- carriera liable for. injuries *o employ— — ees and abolishes the rule barri^ fending the HoOeerelC policies In tlieir compenifttion whetf the negligence i Bnef bot Compreliensive Review of tbe Important' ''^'^^^^ elecuonoi senators-and Events and Tendencies of tlie Year Past For Busy Readers Who Want to Be Well Informed. - By EDWIN S. POTTER. Editor Universal News Analysis. Despite the Depression, Republicans Retain Control. V- .o Mrs. I.on Scott, of Baldwin, is visiting Mr. and Mr.s. ,\rthur Scott. Mr. and Mrs. Walter Daniels of lola were visit inn with Mr. and Mrs. }^yi Robinson Christmas <!ay. Mr. and Mrs Gravi.'s of .Xenslio Falls were visiting with Mr. and .Mrs. S. W. Case recently. Wm. Sigler formerly of Ibis iila-'"*-. has returned from Indiana and is KtoppinsT with bis son. Lntlur Si^I''r. Mr. and .Mrs. .Arthur .^coil and daughter spent a f>w davs at Hald- win. and atteiubil rln- w.-iiiliiii.' of .Mr. Scott's sister .\iiiber on t'iiristnias day. Miss l.ola Smith visit.il i.-laiives at lliimbolilt a ffw days las; week. Marinii and .lulia Cox .•ire home from Wichita. Kas.. wlie .-i- they are attending school, and spending vacation with home f<dUs Cnrl Sniiili. Clifton Oiiart ami Miss lU'ssie Nailbr who are alleiniiiig Inisi- nesH college at lola, are K|ii -iidlng the hollilays ill their r '-.<|iect ive Imnies. ..\ voung folks imriy was glviii at the home of Mrs. M. ,1. Illli.'iis in honor of Davi' Mlli.iis and Ml ^sei< Cora tiiid .N'eilie HIIMIJS. \NIIO are spending ttii'ir li(dlda\« at IIOIIM '. .\ largi- mini- ber of VdMllg [leoji'e WiTe lu-eselll allll a general goo.1 time was enjovi'd. The Chrislmas !-.e ;ii Diamond church was well all'-iuled. a nice jiro- vraiii was carried out, and tlie children received their usual treat. The tree was beaiiiifiiny derorated; and bore many nice gifts e.\pr'>ssing the good will of tliw giver, and a merry Christmas seemed to be extended to all. 1 entirety and explaining that his 'work, if elected, trould be to carry on those reforms In detail. Aug. 12. at Lincoln, Neb., Bryan «ra«t notified of bis nomination and sounded the keynote of his campaign in the question, "Shall tbe people rule?" In . 8ubse <iuetit speeches he gave great I iiromlnence to tbe bank guaranty plan ' to the popular election of senators aai to campaign publicity before election. He mttde a special bid for tbe hibor rote on the Injunction plank. He would destroy all trusts controlling over 50 [ler cent of *an Industry-. Kegarding the depression as the be- giiiuinj; of the bmilcdown of tbe cap- KallKt system and claiming the army of Idle workers as their asset, tlie So- ilnllsts «f .^nt'Hca went Into thecani- (iiii ^n with lN *tter weupouH than ever lM>fore. On May 10 tbe 8o <du|ist convention met at Chicago. For the first lime tbe Socialists of Ainerieu affirmed their iH'xItloa on xpeeltlc ques- lioiiM of policy. The convention noHi- iiiate<l on tbe first ballot uiinnliuously Eugene V. Dcbs-for president und Den- Juinin Hunford for vice president, the sunie ticket put up by the Stx -lnlists in I'JOJ. The Prohlbitii nists, conscious of the great strides their cause bud made on tbe liH -al option Issue in many states, niiiulnated Eugene W. Chafln of Illinois and .\aron S. Watkins of Ohio July !.'> at Columbus, U.. on a platform containing many rndicul proposals besides that against the sale or manufacture of intoxicants. On July at Chicago the first national eouvention uf tbe Independence liarty. ouigrowlli of the league organized by Editor Hearst, named Thomas L. Hisgen of Massachusetts and John Temple Graves of Georgia on a platform contHiniug most of the radical Ideas of the l)erao <Tat3 and some more radical. Opposition to Bryan was its keynote. The People's party AprU S at St. I .ouis again named Thomas E. Watson of Georgia as its standanl bearer along with S. W. Williams of Indiana, although It did not put a ticket up in all of the states. On Sept. 13, at Columbus, 0„ Hearst stirred up the hitherto calm current of the ciiuipnign by reading into bis spe<;ch the Qnt batch of a series of letters whli-h bad been stolen from tbe tiles of the Standard Oil company and wtaich threw u kinlsler light on the ac livliles of various public men. notably Foraker, Bnlle.v, Mucl ^urlu, Sibley, fcrliiln Poiiuityivanla Judges and ex (Kivernor Wone. who was urge <i to up point them. .Most of thu iotters were wrldt'ii i)y Vice Prexldent Arciil >old of tlie lru«t and contaliieti divers certlll cates of deiWHit for. large sums of money. At tbe snine time Hearst re (ii -aied the Story of the allegc <i attempt to bribe former Attorney General Mon- neit of Ohio wherein Haskell, the Democratic treasurer, was made to figure. .\s governor of Oklahoma Haskell also was accused of protecting a legal branch of the Standard. Foraker at once withdrew from the campaign, and the president Issueii n bot statement e .iiideinning the Obioau and gave out an fdd letter showing how Tuft bad refused to deal with Foraker; then com- partHl this course lo that of I^ryan nnd Haskell. Br.van replied, demanding n hearing for Haskell, and then ensued a bitter verbal duel on personal and imrt.v issues. Haskell resigned, but protesting innocence, as did also Du I 'ont, tile powder trust head, from the ehalrumnsbip of tbe Itepublicaii spQpk- er.s' bureau. Both the president and Taft look the ground that publishing names of contributors before election would be to invite unfair and partisan criticism of candidates. GoMipers appealed to all. unions In ..\ crwliil!iii;i- I 'li .iority of lis delegates' th.^ A. F. of I., to give monil and flnan- v.eru i ;lei!;.eil io the nomination of Wil-j tial suppbrt to Pryan. Speaker Cannon l.ookiug.jiow calmly and di.siiassion- alely back iicrons the field of conflicting Inleresis and balancing forces wliicli shaped the American presiden- iirtl campaign of ItXkS, one iiicouiest- aiile conclusion forces itself on the oi'eii mind. It is that a majority of the peoide became convinciil in one way or another thai it is •lietter to bear the evils that ihey have than lo lly to others that they know not of an^tUi jjive the trust regulating \>oU- d'es oT President Roosevelt a longer and fairer trial In the hands of bis favorite advl.ser. Wlllliuu Howard Taft. How the people be<-anic so minded is a question to which no answer can be found to suit all kinds of partisans. The salient facts can. however, tie recounted briefly and with historical luipartlallty. On Jan. 31 was Issued the cbatlenge of ^the dominant jHsrsonallty Jind official of the party in power which was to determine in many ways the plans of l .atUe of the different parlies for the ca[iture of the American electorate —iiaiiicly, the niessjige of I'resldent Roosevelt lo congre.<»s advocating his program of radical legislation. On June Id at Chicago the Hepubllc- ans got together. They cheereil forty ininuies when t.'hairnmn Lodge eulogized the piesideiK and seated all the I'aft contestants. The thoroughness of Ibis opernlinii caused It to be desiribed us Hie ndinlnlstrailon "sieiini roller, of which I''r.ink H. Illlchco'k was the englueer. The only fight was on the ••oiiri Injiinciluii plank, .Samuel lioin- pers. head of the A. F. of L., and other leaders of organized labor, coiifronted wiih numerous court decisions unfa- vonilde lo their methods and faclug lower wages or lack of work for many workers. Iiud decided lo fighl in the open for the iiarty whose labor plunk suiioil I hem best. Despite the warn Ings .if the Oomiwrs "'ablnel" before • he platform commillee the plank finally ailopled nt Chicago was not to their liking. Van Cleave. Cannon. Crane ;i!!il oilier itepnbllcan leaders in.sisted i :p •!; r.jdiflding the Integrity of the • ••iiMs. Iiiit as.serHng that the rules of l ;:.;ini --iioii prociHlure be '•more acen- r :iU -ly deline.l by statute" and that no iij.!!'eitiei! sbeiild Issuc wIthout duc uo- lie -.xecpi where irrcparalile injury wi.r'l res;:II from delay." William II. i-f Ohio was nominated for presi- rcu' «.n thi- tirst ballot and James S. .<!i<yn:ui of New York for vice presl- r!cT;l. <in July 7 at Denver tho national con- \ention of tbe Democratic party as- sei.il,!iil witii llie Uni>wledge lb :it un a fellow employee can be proved. The. Democratic fllibmter waa met by a gag rule and daily recess until the majority had accomplished its purpose. This included provision for two netr battleships instead of tt>e four urged by tbe president, higher pay for army officers and privates aitd a iiabiiity law to protect employees in the service of the government. The house failed to pass tbe nnti-Injunc- tion and anti-trust amendment to the Sbennan law desired by tbe president In the interest of labor. "In God Wo Trust" was restored to the gold coins. The total appropriations of the ses- sUm reached the record figure of $1,804.000 .804. • Congress reassembled Dec. 7 and received ibe final Roosevelt message, in which exocuflvo control of legalized trusts was advocated and Judges were urged to heed the will of legislators according to present day standards. A hitter controversy arose owr one passage which intimated that congress had confined tbe secret sen'ice to tbe treasury department because members did not want to be investigated. Tbe senate UIOVIHI an investigation of tbe secret.service, and the house demanded proof of the president's assertions. Ham .1. iJiyaii cif .Vebraska. The big g.ilhering bnke ali recunisfor contiuu- oiis cheering wlieii tlie blind Oklahoma seii.-ili.r. ic, eulogi7 .e<l the .Xehrnskan. llie deiiiousiivilioii lasting eighty-.-ieveii iiii .'iiites. Itryan w.-is nominated on tbe nrsi iiallot. although the names of .felinsiiii ai:(l Gra.v w.'re presented. .I' I I JII \V. l \'i-rii of Indbma. Willi the np- pioviil of Hryiin. was nameil for 8e <-oud pl.-ice. .\.-- In the Uepiibllciin coiivenllon, the iii.iln ciiiiicsi had I 'l do wllh tin- wiird- III'.' of the liijuiicii'in or labor phink of the plaiform. GoiiiiperM was present ."'1.1 CMC liN .•i.'<.eiii lo the plank finally w,is the special target of the Gompers battery, and •'(.'anuonlsm" be<-ame a national Issue, many candidates for <'ongress being pledged against Cannon as the next speaker. On Nov. 3 tbe v<iters of the nation had their .«ay. The extent of the Republican victory can Ix? best reinem- IxTed by tbe statement that Taft carried every .state that Roosevelt did In I'.tiil e.\<-ept Nebraska, Colorado and Nevada. Furlberinore, Taft invaded the solid siiulli with small pluralities In .Maryland and Missouri and large gains In other Houihern states. The popular vole slmid: Taft. 7,tK57,0 "iI; •i-rc- 1 iiiion While asserting Ihnt tlie ' llr.van. (l.aOXlHi:; Ihdm, 447.«r.i: Cliafiii. •vouris of Jnsi are bulwark of •J4l.-.'.VJ: Hisgen. KUWl; Wutsoii.SJWi: fiiir llbeiiy. Il deiiuind 'sl u iiKtlltlca- lion of ihe liijuncilou law so as to pro- vld.' for a trial by Jury In cases of In- •llieci coiileinpl it dislared against treulliig lalMir organl »illoiis us illegal «;ilhaiiH iSix:lallHl-Luburi, 15.4'^!; total, 14.M.VJ'jail. The total vote in 1904 was 1.3..''.lii.7i>H. Several states In the Tnft column electwl l^emocrullc governors Hnnuon In Ohio, .Mursball In In- 'coniblniilions In rcsiralnl of trade, fa vored the elghi hour day and promise*! ii itciieriil einiiloyers" llaliilliy law. Hrvan at once Induced his executive diami and Johnson in Minnesota. Taft captured the Demo<'ratlc stronghold of New York city. The Republican major ^ Ify in congress wos reduced to 47 'comiiiiitee to say that It would reject'the total being 219 and the Demo- all forporate gift$, would limit Individ-, «-ratlc 172. Tbe senate's Republican nal donations to (10.000 and would complexion was uucbanged. pu!>)i«h on Oct. 15 and daily thereafter ' The early months of tbe long session tlie names of givers of $100 and up- j of congress were devoted chiefly to the ward. The final total published after. Republican wrangle over tbe terms of Iplecilon was $(r-'0,044 from 75,000 con- f a currency bill. The Aldricb relltf Itrlbutors. Although the Republican louventbm had rejected m publicity Hank. Taft and bis matiagers decided Ho work under tbe New York law and Jpuldisli names and amounts of contrib uiea.sure finally went through the Ate March 2S despite the ail night fill- buster of IJI Follette, to propitiate whom the railroad bond feature had been cut ^ut. La Follette named an iifors after the election. Their funds' oligarchy of fourteen wealthy mea totaled $l.(»'i.'>.518. I who. be said, actually mled tiie na' I'nink H. Hitchcock, who had engl-' tion. The Vreeland bill. In wUch :ni>er «Hl the Taft canvass, was chosen cieaj-ing house associations were made ichalriuHn of the Bepublican national the channel of the new cnrr^nry iflsne. joomniittee, and George B. Sheldon was was passed by tbe house, and then a ;made treasurer. The Democrats elect icd Norman E. Mack, the BufTalo news- jpoper proprietor, as their national [chairman and Governor Haskell of Oklahoma as holder of the purse. Whes. treasurer Haskell resigned. Us place coiuiirondse between that and the AM- rlcbi bills, with provision for a Jolat corouilsslon to report on permanent re- fori^s, was adopted by both branches Von BuioW ~to account, and 'Wiilbim jnade coDcew&OK, ' ° ^ ! TTJRkET.-JThe leaven o£ democracy showed signs of working even In the European stronghold of antoeratlc Islam. The sultan of Tufkey saw his army tnmlas from tiim under the influence of the Yoaaff Turk party ud thus powerless, he pnt into'effect* the ^therto dead letter cuutltutloii of 187G and called into being a natlbnal parliament at Constantinppie. T£la body met amid rcjoiclug Dec. 17. THE BALKANS.—On Oct 5 the whole status of southeastern Europe as fixed by tbe treaty of Berlin (1878) was suddenly altere^. Bulgaria proclaimed lu independence, \fUh Prince Ferdinand as Its cxar and at the same time by concerted arrangement Austria announced to the 'powers that she proposed to annex completely tbe former Turkish prorlnces of Herzegovina and Bosnia, while the Turkish island of Crete moved t6ward a union with Greece. War seemed unavoidable then, and tbe clouds stiii lower In tbe diplomatic sky us a gloomy omen of what the new year may hare In store. Tbe promjit action of tie powers ou motion of Russia In agreeing to hold a confereuce to readjust tbe balance In tbe Balkans, tbe opening of negotiations between Bulgaria and Turkey and tbe military Impotence of Servla and Montf negro combined to- prevent an Immedia'te outbreak. Later Turkey began a boycott of Austrian goods, and all the Balkan states prepared for war. PORTUGAL.—The ferment of Re publlcanism In the Portuguese monarchy after long restraint fouud vent in tbe assassination of King Carlos and Crown-Prince Luis Feb. 1 while they were riding In the streets of Lisbon The younger son, Manuel, who was slightly }vounded, succeeded to the throne, and the hated Premier Franco fied the country. Subsequent elections showed the Conservatives still In large majority. MOROCCO.—On Aug. 24 tbe oft repented story of tbe defeat of Sultan Abdul Aziz by the forces of tbe pretender. Mulai Hafld. proved to lie tnie, and the latter demanded recognition of the powers as tbe sultan. That was where tbe German emperor made a peck of trouble by recognizing Hafld without.consulting the nations in the 'Algeclras conference. France firmly ob- Jected, Spain seconded, and the kaiser "came down." Then they all iwwed to Hafld together. PERSIA.—Tbe Radical first purlia ment at Teheran under the constitu tion granted in 1007 wos wiped out of existence in a lilooily battle with the shtih'M soldiers June 23. AW persons being killed in the streets, the parliament buildings battered down and some of the Radical leaders executed. The rer oluttonists captured and held Tabrlx. JAP.XN.—The Japanese govornment gave the American fleet n wonderful reception, the mikado and tlic president exchanging most cordial greetings. CniN.V. — On Nov. in Emperor Kwang Scu and the dowager empress, who had been for a generation the real ruler of China, died. Pti Yi, the infant son of Prince Chun, bad been designated as heir to tbe throne, nnd the regency was seized by Prince Chun. CENTRAL AMERICA hovered on the verge of war. but finally the Issues were laid before the new Central American court of Justice, which was set up May 26 at Cartngo, Costa Rica, with all the states represented. VENEZUELA added Holland to the list of her "don't speak" neighbors by expelling the Dutch minister for some indlscretioii. and the Dutch were hot for coercion. They begm war Dec. 13 by capturing the Venezuelan coast guard ship. Allx. Sleeper, the American minister, finally broke off relations nnd quit the country owing to tbe failure of the Castro government responding to the overtures from Wtisblngton as to a settlement of claims. Tbe Venezuelan minister later was' recalled from Washington. President Castro sailed for Bnrope the last of November. CUBA rose to her new opportunity with orderly elections In December. Jose Sliguel Gomez, the Liberal leader, being chosen president. H.4.ITI was torn by two revolts, that led by Juneau and Firmin in January being crushed, but the second, under lAntoinc Simon, resulting in the bloodless capture of Port au Prince and the fall of tbe Nord Alexis government Dec. 2. As the forces of Simon approached the capital the officers of Alexis deserted and the people tunted against him, so that he was barely able to escape with bin life on board >n French worship. Bimon took |»OSSM- iilon of the city and on Dec. 17 was ^•lected president by tbe Haitian con- igress. Uncle Sam Insists Upon Carrying a Big Stick. The administration's foreign policy has exemplified well this year a favorite saying of the president. "Speak softly, but carry a big stick." This nation has preserved good feeling toward other nations, but at the same time has sent Its battleship fieet to the antipodes and devoted much thought and money to navy and army lietter- ments. March 11 ut Magdalena bay the fieet ended Its voyage around tbe Horn. In command of Evans, and was wUdl^v welcomed all along tbe coast to San Francisco. Evans then gave up the command to Sperry, and on July 7 the fieet sailed from San Francisco on Its record breaking naval practice cruise, visiting Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia, Japan, China and tbe Philippines l>efore the- year's end. The war department changed beads- July 1, Luke E. Wright succeeding Taft. On May 5 the state department con- cludwl a five year arbitration treaty with .Tupnn. Ou Nov. 80 notes were Kignod coutaining an agroemout with Japan for concert of action In maintaining tbe status quo in the orient, a virtual alliance. Tlie tronsnry in January hod a deficit tif lio.ono.ooo, which grew to $00,- OfiO.OOO by the end of the fiscal year. The postofflce department, liy order of the president, ruled thnt jiapcrs In foreign languages must submit translations and authorized postmasters to exclude papers containing incitement to murder, arson and treason. In May the parcel limit to England was raised to eleven pounds, ond Oct. 1 tbe postal rate to that country was lowered to 2 cents. later the same to Germany. On Aug. 14 the president appointed a commission, headed by Professor L. H. Bailey of Cornell, to gather data looking to betterment of farm life. May 1.1 to 15 at the White House the first conference of state governors and noted men met tbe president to dis- -uss tbe conservation of national resources, the conference making a new element of national unity. This body reassembled Dec. S and approved a great .scheme of waterways by a bond issue. Old World Ralers Had a Nerve Racking Year. GREAT BRITAIN.-The government of King Edward began the year with I program of radical legislation, In- -•ludjng old age pensions, frankly intended as a sop to socialism, which showed signs of: rapid growth along with the increase of the vast army of 'be uneinploye<I. Asquith took tbe reins April 5, when I'remler Banner- inun retired on account of continued Illness, .\squlth curried through the | age t>enstoD bill July 20, the plan of which is Sl.'J.I a week to all over seventy years of agi* whose Income Is under f 160 n year, to take effect Jan. 1, UKKl. The Asquith government encountered a tsilstorous campaign for woman suffrage, the autfragettes orguniz- iug huge parades and rushes on the parliament tjo attract attention, luany women choosing prison terms rather than give b'onds to keep tbe iieace. Alarm over the signs of coming revolt throughout India has Increased, with numerous acts of violence against tbe ruling Britons. CANADA tilt tbe effects of tbe American depression In decreased exports and In a bait in her indvstrlal development. The general elections Oct. 20 sustained the Laurler goTemment. A great historical pag- 'eant marked the tercentenary of Quebec, the Prince of Wales attending. GER.AL\NY. — The Oernian people will remember tbe year 1^08 as mark- fbg the end of their kahmr's abeolnte, personal rule and the 1)eglnning of ministerial responsibility to the relchs- tag. This revolution thsoogh the ItTfiin The railroads were between th« deft U of reduced trafic and tM «My iiHr of a tbreiteaed saieral strike. Their only apparetot relief;.If tiiey hoped to paj Maries and diTidends, was to niae' fielgbt rates. He^ they AWt ttw oiv^^UUon of tbe shippen bficked by the preliminary invest ^tlon of the Interstate commerce coniission. Tbe Soathwestem asaochition did advance rates In Joly, and some soathem lines reduced wages, while nearly all lines laid oft men. In Deoember came tbe senentl amioancement of a 10 per cent increase to take effect Jan. 1, 1909. E. H. Harriman In March took fall possession of the Georgia Central, which with a new connecting link gave him a cross continent system. On April 28 Cleveland's three cent fare municipal street railway system went into effect, but bardly waa It started when a bitter strike was called to enforce a former contract for wage Increase. RloU and car dynamiting tied np tbe lines' for weeks, but the cify Anally won. A deficit tbe flnt two nidnths gave way later to a sor- plus. but tbe public, dissatisfied with the service, voted in the Oct. 2 referendum against the municipal franchise, and a few weeks later tbie company was thrown Into a receivership. Secretary Wilson reported tbe valne of all crops to the farmer tcl be47.772.- 000,000, a new record, com beading tbe list with 2.643,00,000 busheli Jan. 9 New York celebrated the completion and operation of It^ first East river tunnel and of ite fli^st Hudson river tunnel from Hobokeh Feb. 25. Philadelphia's |2O.000,00O Market street snbway was opened JTaly 30. The ocean speed record was lowered repeatedly by the big British turbines, the .Lusltnnia finally doing the best western trip in 4 days 15 ininntes. ITtine tbey were MnflMed^fd •mA Om Itmr 7 WaUm: err. cashier of tbe AOegbany ^„ 'iMUdc, was •cenaed'of dirersfcHW Qttiaiatelr » np to |l,35aooo^i tag Mine atate funds. He war teaeed to flftees jtan in pris^ik: . Kentncky's tobacco Night JBtiv* Aads additional rfdds in spite of troops sent ont to cl^Mk them. JuadTM ----- ..--J ji,: mZZST- Oct aO a baod of dlQMssessed mtut- teis on Beelfoot Iak«; Tennessee^ naped Captain Bankln and ColMd Tiyktr of Trenton. They hone lb* former, bnt the letter escaped fej aWlmmlns tbe lake. Troops were cHSU •d: oQt, and many, arrests were m «d4 Tbe: most aerioas race riots of tlw yeiir occnrred at Bpdiiclleld. HI, ^mg. 14- and 15, wben^.a wild mob kUlad nine persons, Injuiied elgbty and baaed toases occupied by aecroes^ Ttoaga w«re called oat and tbe - leaAm brought to Justice.. The last of the Idtiio cases agalast minera' oflclals ended with the ae- quilttal of Oeorse A. Pettibone lit Jannary. Harry Orchard, the confMied murderer of GoTemor Stenaeabori; whose testimony Implicated the ers, received a death sentence^ irhleli later was commoted to a life term. Caleb Powers, fonr times tried la eight yean for tbe murder of Goraiaor GOebel. was pardoned by GoTsmor f^iUson of Kentucky. | Regalation of Trusts and Pursuit of Grafters. Rays of Hope Follow Year of Business Distress. Everything Is relative. While business conditions In this country are still far from what they were two years ago, the end of 1908 presents an encouraging outlook in comparison to that which capital and labor faced, last January. Then 338,000 freight can were Idle, tbonsands of mills and factories were>- closed, at least 2.000.000 jivage eamen were unemployed; other miUions worked on part time or at reduced wages, goods on band could not jbe sold at a profit, railroad and Indus- ;trfal stocks were battered In price al power of public optolon voiced In the j .most beyond recognition, and at bl|^ Vates of interest little money could be fentlced from hiding. Fear possessed the business community on the eve of a presidential campaign in which both tbe old parttes were considering radl- I cal measures for scaring off the bogy radical press and In parliamentary action of nearly ali parties came to a head In October, the oecaslon of the ontbnrat being an authorised interview In tbe London Telegraph In which the kaiser told of his rafusal to and I signed by the president. rider the iwealdeufs prodding tbe Join a secret cofditloa against Engiand i of socialism. Processions of the oa- duriug the Boer war and of sending '• employed .marched in the larger cities war plan.s to the queen. It wois like ! and gave authorities a case of nerves, the last straw. The reicbstag called j large somber of strikes resulted The American smile of 1907 when Judge Landls fined the oil trust |29,240,000 for taking Alton rebates certainly came off July 22 last, when Judge Grosscnp and associates of the court of appeals at Chicago revereed Lnndis on the assumption that the fine was excessive and hot tiased on good law. What tbe chief hunter of the big octopus bad to say of that particular tuni in tbe road was that the merits of tbe case had not lieen touched and be would "repird It as a gross miscarriage of justice If through any technicalities" tbe quarry shotikl escape. The president at once hod.tbe motion for a rehearing made. .This was denied, and tbe famous case goes up on appeoil to the snpnme court But la tbe meantime the government pack was la fnll cry along other paths, tbe chief of wblcb led toward tbe dissolution of tbe Standard Oil company. Sept 10 at Philadelphia Judge Gray and associates on the circuit bencb sustained the right of railroads to own and operate coal mines, holding the commodity clause, of th^ Hepburn blU to be despotic and confiscatory. Fedoal suits were tlfio started agabut tbe Harriman railroad trust and against the powder trust while numerous flues were Imposed on railroads and other corporations under the Elklns law for rebating. On March 23 tbe supreme court, 8 to 1, Invalidated the Minnesota and North Carolina rate laws, holding ttiat federal courts bad the right to review and to stay execution to protect stockholders. The Alabama rate law was held np by tbe circuit court pendlnjg InrAtigation of reasonableness of rates. Pennsylvania two cent rate law was Invalidated by tbe state supreme court. On NOT. '31 the United States supreme court ruled that the order of the VIrginbi railroad commission fixing a two cent passen ger rate was subject to review jtnd must be tried before the hlgb^ state court before seeking federal Intervention. In December tbe circuit court of appeals enjoined tbe tobacco trust from continuing interatate traffic. Early in January the supreme court knocked . out tbe employera' liability law because it was not confined to interstate corporations. On Jan. 25 it rilcd tbat membership In a union might Justify dismissal of luterstat* railroad employees. On Feb. 3 In the famous Danbury batten' boycott caaa It decided unanimously tbat tbe boycott as a method of fighting capital Is Illegal when declared against goods' in Interatate trifle. President Gompen and other A. F. of L. oflclals -were eo* Joined from pubUsblng an "unfair list" On Jlarcb B tbe California suprome court yacated tbe conviction of former Mayor Ichmlts, and be was freed on heavy ball oorertag other charges after bavtor been confined ten months. >rben in Korember bis pal, Boss Kaef, waa brought to trial the desperatloa' of the graft.forces showed itself In the act of one discredited saloon' man, -Haas, who shot Heney in court Tboufta Heney was seriously Injnred. be recovered to continue tbe fight vltb Increased pabllc sympathy. Bncf was convicted Dec. 11 and faced a priaoB term. Fonr of PennsylTante's oipltol graften were convicted In Febroary and sentenced Dec. 18 to two yean In prison and 9IS00 fine each. On NOT. 6 at New York Charies W. UorK. the millionaire whow niegal banking ptactlces wen beliered to bsTe started the fiaaaUal panic of 190T. was brongbt to stem JoaHc^e witb cont-Iction and a fifteen year sentence. At tbe same time sentence for his banking associate. President Cor- tls of the Bank of Nortti itawdeai was suspended. Ptttsbarv was shocked by a sctlw of baokfiag explosions and diCiIca-' tlons. two of which Stand oot as^e^' tossal Crimes. On March 2S Henry Belber. teller, and John TooBg; aodt- tor oC tbt jtonMia' ^Dopoftt KattoiM iSc'ence. Sociology. ReUiion and (Mier Paia. Continuous mechanical flight as a human feat has been publicly d«itDD- strated to tbe satisfaction of Hw world by the two American aTldhira; Wilbur and OrvIUe Wright glTiapr^as- surance of new military weapooadlA' promise of practical commeielat..fp« plications. Having finished tbelr^lia* cret trials at Kill DevU bill, Noctll Carolina,: last May and having rMiBlr-; ed patent protection here and abNMt tbie Wrights made public the da &mi of their work. Wilbur then took OM machine to Le Mans, France, and Ol^ vine another to Fort Myer, Ya., for official trials In September. Or^llo scored firat makbig a record fllgbiof 1 hour 14 minutes 20 seconds prior t» the fatal trial of Sept 27, when tiM aeroplane, carrying the Inreator-aaA Lieutenant Selfridge, fell wltb" a broken propeller, killing Selfridg* nd breaking several of Wrighfs bcaSS. litter WUbur sailed tbe air aloao 1 bonr and 31 minutes and on Oct 10 took along one man for 1 boor 9 .HAH utes 45 seconds, winnliif IKX ^OQOMftf the Invention from a Freoeh lyMl* cate. Farmnn and Delairaago *aiM niade, successful aeroplana -flgbll «te France, tbe former winning tba i «Bh> Deacon prise for tbe flnt elMfbr mile, while the tetrahedron martwio of Bell and Baldwhs at HammiiBA^ port N-1'., was flown sbwt dlstaaeHk Count Zeppelin of Germany^ led the world In tbe dirigible ' field, although his series of culminated Aug. 1 In the bnrolnr eC his huge rigid gas alnhip at UaysB6% where he bad paused In a storm itr repaira alter a contlnaotw joaracij of 281 miles in 11 boon. Witb popolir aid be bnllt another ship. In vhlebrbo tiade more flights in NoTember. mttr nlng the kaiser's praise and selling Up invention to the government ' jThe dirigible balloon built by Tho» as W. Baldwin on ofllclal trial Ct ^ort Myer. Va., in August attainada speed of 19.10 miles anhonr on m.tmo_ hour trip and was bought by tte nir (Apartment for ^000. Both tbe pan-Anglican confereseeaatt the Lambeth conference at Loadba went on record for socialism. Ttm Methodist general conference at Bald"more took advanced ground for'lnddR- trial reforms and prohibition, bu ^tlB- ftised to change tbe code of dtscltfBils. The Episcopal diocese itf'New Tofk made a working arrangement wltb OK^ Ionized labor. On the other tmai, tto American Catholic society shaiply'4 demned socialism. Tbe flrst blbig of the Catholic bo«t¥ lo country took pUce In Chicago la Ms- rember, tbe occasion belnc tba ctl^iiir ain of the transfer of 4^ Imld Btateii from a mission coaatry Vwxat^ with an independent nataMiOi; chnreh. Signs of a comlnc nntfeattoB o|;,riI. Cfanrcbes were seen flrst la ito— latercbanges between tba ItsC Bplscppal conference at Baltlmofyi tbe Methodist Protestant f—"—^- Plttsburt, in- tba unite tweantba Utter and tba ai and TTnited BratbftB, ta fSTond by tbe Presbytfrian ciMftrsBca at Kansaa-titty n BaMrmed cbnreb and flaallr IB flrst nastlafof tba irsot fMsral dl of tb» Obarebos of Ofaiist^ i lea at PbUadalpbla la Perppiber. ;^ cooacll also took adraacad ^toanf^l •netleal social refonaa. 'American athletes won a asajoil^'^ tba oTsets m tba Oljrapl^ ipfmai pt LondonJla Joly.'Jotin^aivtabif^tlw ICaMtboa irinner; b mhwbmt ha liras bitetea by Doraddd' fi^ Uatkiim: BQoare Qarden. New Tocli^ aiid vatdk. rs at the aaae pjiiea JMraado van beaten by Longboat;' tba Canadian m* dhuL The baaebaU leaders waa tita CUcago Cubs and ttaBetndta. Faawos peiaoaia'who- died ta were: Charier Xmory'gmtt^ C. Stedmad. Kdwaid A. kid. AOgost WllbelmJ, Loolsa _ iRamee (OtddiO. Bedfleld Preetor.- jafor from Vermont; William ~~ mr "Wbyte, aenator from iWBllaa B. AlUsoo. sena^ 1.. . !Fnne6ls Coroee^'.Henry-<)i ^J ^Corat Halsted. Joti CbandlarT ItooBsm Hdwa(«l ba n. qaafei^ h# Oott,«flniaa. Cliirlpa ] l^ald O. UttehiM,at&nt:C iHanry- CampbdI-Bannarmiv tKlta Sacdoa.
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