Wednesday, September 13, 1944 Cbitortal ^ age of Pafeerstftelb Calif or man ALFRED H A R R E L L ID1TOB AND FUELI8HEB Entered in post office nt Bak?rsfielil. California. »» »Tond class mail under th« act of Omnir*-- .Mnnh 3. ISTn. MEMBER OF TH1J ASSOC1ATKL) PRESS The Associated Press IB exclusively •utitlort t" tin- IIHI- for i>ul.]i..i- llon of all news dispatch™ crrduoi in » «r nm i.ihciw -ire uedited in this paper, and also'the ln.nl news puMichnd therein. The Bakersflelrt CaNforn.an is also n . lient ,,r tlic United J'jcss and receives !is <.<mpli-ii "'ire sen H r r, E m K s K x 'c A T i v i: s Wcst-Hnlidny Co.. In.-. New York, rin<-ai.-n, San Knim-i-i n. l.os Anii-lis, beaulc. IVrlliiml. Uiiivei TV\SHIN<';TON. P >• . r.ri:i-;.\r Tile Maskin Serv.rr. WnfliMiKtfin. I), i' venlions, who formulaic policies and declare J'or principles which never found favor with the organization in the years behind us, it is no wonder there is growing concern over a regime which has accepted them and given them official prominence and the authority to emphasize views contrary to the popular conception of government. INSIDE OF GERMANY By carrier or mail <in ndvnmri ir p«Miil xnrie» ore, <«». Hire". rer month. S.'jc; Rix iTi^nths. s.,.l'i: ••>:•• \e:_n-. S:i no. Hy mail in poital zones four In eiBht. per m»rth. }!«.>. THE GROWING BURDEN A HOUSE or Hi-:i'ru-:sr.xT.\Tivi-s finding on Hie tax problem aflrr llic war embodies tlic view of llic a venire dtixen as well. Government cosls, Federal and Slate, will burden every family of four with $000 a year. How that load can be carried the committee does not say. The best it offers is that it will prove "intolerable." With the war in progress, the cost thereof must continue through the, weeks ami months, but Hie growing burden is not due wholly to the war. The domestic expenses mount with each passing day, nor is there any serious effort to lessen expenses. Each twenty-four hours add to the number of employes. New committees arc created and new high salaried heads appointed. Some Congressmen, including leaders, have wives, sons and daughters on the pay roll. Protests are unavailing. All the taxpayers arc told is that an intolerable situation exists. Wouldn't it be refreshing, and encouraging if a remedy were suggested and placed in effect? But perhaps the people who fool the bills can do something about il—and perhaps they will. Time will tell. JOVIAN BOLTS A iiuiiicAN boys at this writing are fighting inside of Germany. They stand on German soil, dig their foxholes at night on German land and as they fight near the city of Trier they have also portions of the Siegfried line under artillery fire, while overhead Allied planes strafe German targets at the behest of the land forces and their commanders. The Allied forces moved into Holland. General Patlon's Third Army moved through Aumclz and on to Thionvillc, fighting along a front of almost 50 miles from Mel/ to Nancy. Fighting was proceeding around Eupcn, Belgian city, and Aachen, in Germany. Remaining German elements in central France were doomed when the juncture was effected bctwen the Third and Seventh army near Dijon. Capture of the big port of Le Havre will facilitate our drive into Germany now that Ihe Battle of France is virtually over, with a success well ahead of schedule. SENATOR PEPPER'S HOT ONE E Kt; Jovian bolls from the sky, but far more devastating, Allied planes on two widely separated aerial fronts thundered home against Japanese shipping, according to reports previously made by the Japanese and now confirmed by our own news sources. The United States have struck the first carrier blow in the Philippines, damaging 89 ships, destroying G8 planes and damaging 5 Japanese airfields. No details as to the number of planes engaging in the highly successful attack were made available by our news sources but the Japanese, through Berlin, said 300 planes were used in the attack. On the easlern side of Mindanao, planes from 'the carrier task force destroyed an enemy convoy of 52 small ships, including sampans. As a result of this same prolonged raid, 60 enemy airplanes were reported destroyed on the ground. The lightning of the air forces often strikes in the same place not only once but time and again. Other raids will doubtless follow. The Americans were going back to the Philippines, scene of their bitterest defeat of this war and the altar of some of the bravest men known in the history of a belligerent world. The roar of planes over the Philippines was not the sound of despair for beleaguered American ground forces without air support, as in the days before Balaan, but was the percussion of American engines bearing our lighter planes back to the islands. While American air forces were bombing extensively in the Philippines, it was encouraging to learn that the British were making a successful attack on a Japanese convoy bound for Burma across the Andaman sea. This attack was launched with British Beau- fighters, a fast, powerful, general utility plane equipped with rocket guns. These Bcaufightcrs roared into 21 separate attacks on the convoy and continued the fight for 2,'i hours, scattering the enemy fleet over a wide ocean area. The reports from Mountbalten's headquarters in Ceylon failed to note whether any of the ships of the Japanese convoy had been sunk or damaged—probably not, as it merely conveyed the information that Ihe ships had been "scattered." At any rate, the British seem to have been "on the job" to the extent of breaking up the convoy. Whether il was reformed or not was a conjecture unanswered by the vague British report. SOME NEW LEADERS S KN.vron PICPPKH gives us a new reason for favoring a Fourth term. In a speech in Seattle he told an American audience that if our electors failed to so vote, Russia would not help us defeat Japan. Mr. Stalin is not bothered about Third terms or Fourth terms and it is possible, and probable, that he never will be. But it is quite likely, too, that the dictator of Russia will not be loo pleased by the argument advanced by the Florida Speaker—or slates- man, shall we say? And perhaps, too, it will not find much favor at Washington. Surely llic champions of sixteen years in Ihe chair of Chief Executive can find a stronger argument in furtherance of their cause than lo threaten America with what Mr. Stalin will do or will not do, either in the war or at Moscow. AT QUEBEC E xciii'T for the fact that it was formally announced that this was the thirty-sixth wedding anniversary of Prime Minister and Mrs. Winston Churchill, the conference at Quebec between the English leader and the President of the United States was open to anyone's conjecture and subject to no one's confirmation, for no official information was available. Generally speaking, we know that the two leaders have not met at Quebec to talk about baiting averages or the weather, but about the war, and equally justified as a conclusion is that which holds them to secrecy, for as at the earlier Quebec meeting and as at Casablanca and Teheran and Cairo, there will be no statement concerning the meeting beyond .the vaguest generalities. To reveal anything concerning this conference would be lo present the enemy with our battle plans in their strategic form. AMERICA UNPREPARED E XPRESSIONS and activities of individuals, - as such, attract but little attention from the public. Bui if those same individuals are recognized and accepted as factors in government, that is quite another mailer. Rex Tugwell, in private life, spoke only his own views on economics. But as an authorized official now of an important area, as one earlier given much prominence, he is presumed to represent the views of his sponsor. And so it is with the Harry Hopkins', the Sidney Hillmans, the Kellys, the Hagucs and on down through the list of leaders in the political activities of this day. The Democratic party has had and has enjoyed (he support of many sterling leaders through the years, but with this new type of politicians, men who name, delegates lo con- M •*' " AMI-IUCA is no more prepared to meet the 1"V problems of returning peace Hum the country was to meet the Japs at Pearl Harbor," Harrison S. Robinson, Oakland attorney and president of the California Stale Chamber of Commerce, stud in an address before California business executives. "The need of America is lo do something which we have never yet done. It is to use during times of peace in production and distribution the labor of all Americans who are able and competent to work." What Mr. Robinson said may be true. It seems thai there is a growing tendency among thoughtful persons to wonder why this country, with all its bureaus and planners during three administrations, depend upon a war to give full employment to the nation. We all remember the unemployment of peace time. The administration's postwar plan, if it has been announced at all, has not yet taken Ihe public consciousness as being a panacea for the troubles that are to come following the war. POOR CHINA W uiu: we are chopping away at the tropical archipelagoes on the seaways back to (he Philippines and Japan, the Japanese are culling up China. This week the Chinese high command acknowledged the capture of the port of Wenchow in Chekiang province, 225 miles south of Shanghai. Most of Che- kiang province is held now by the Japanese, The Japanese strategy is, of course, to prevent the Allies from getting a foothold on the Chinese coast, >and the capture of Che- kiang bolsters their position in this defensive policy. * TLe War JL odliflLY EDITOR'S NOTE—Until nuch time nn Ernie Pyle's column is resumed followinc his vacation, this space will be used (or war feature •lories. BY COLLIE SMALL 1,'nilcd Press War Correspondent BLACK WIDOW BASE, France. Sept. i:i. (UPl—The spookiest job in the air force belongs to the American youths who fly the new P-61 Black Widow night fighters. Those pilots sleep by day and fight by night—and It is no fun up thoro, shuttling back and forth all night defying German planes to try to run the gauntlet aftpr dark. I flew in a patrol last night with Captain Tafias Spells of Hartford, Conn., BInck Widow flight commander, and his radio operator. Flight Officer Lefty Eleftherlon of Elmlra. N. Y. It was eerie sitting In the upper cockpit as Spells—outlined against the soft green light of his instrument panel—warmed up the engines. Suddenly the jet black P-fil plunged down the runway and pointed its nose for the stars. We climbed like an arrow through fluffy clouds. Spells, who the night before had chased a. Junkers 1SS more than 100 miles before the pilot eluded him, headed toward Germany. He flew so many minutes in one diroction nnd then turned sharply again on another course. Somewhere in the vast sky other Black Widow planes were following' similar xig- znpr courses seeking enemy plnnps. Constant reminders came ovpr ftie radio from the ground control station as to our location. Suddenly the ground control operator called to another black widow pilot In our area: "ABC. There's a plane 3 miles ahead of you." "Roger," came the reply. , "ABC. lie's now 4 miles dead ahead. Increase your speed." "Roger. What altitude please?" "Twenty-three thousand five hundred." Seconds later came another call from the ground: "Aircraft is now 4 miles dead ahead." After a brief silence the pilot called: "Contact. Contact. I've got him." Every listening station on the ground and every Black Widow pilot aloft listened intently. Then* pilot ABC came in again, almost regretfully: "He's a big friend." meaning he had intercepted an Allied bomber. That's the sort of thing that wears the nerves of the Black Widow pilots. They can not afford to let even a friendly bomber see them. The bomber crews are justified in shooting at anything that looks like a fighter and since the Black Widows definitely are fighters the pilots find discretion the better part of valor. The rule is: "Don't Ipt anybody see you up there. Sneak up on 'em all." as liingf on Ool •(By PETEU EDSON)Problems of reconversion are being magnified far beyond their true seriousness, according to a new line of argument beginning to be heard in Washington. Up to now, all the emphasis has been put on how horrible this period of transition from war to peace is going to be. Everybody is going to be thrown out of a job, there will be long periods of unemployment while industry retools for civilian consumers' goods production, and a tough time will be had by all, according to the popular notion. A few people, however, insist this is a lot of bunk. Congress refused to believe it in considering its reconver- sion bill, consistently voting against unemployment insurance benefits beyond state limitations. And among the business men now in government service, particularly those in the war department procurement and purchases, the belief Is prevalent that reconversion won't be such a terrible problem after all. These civilians in uniform have been reluctant to speak out on their ideas for fear their expressions will be misinterpreted as an effort to sidetrack the movement to start reconversion right now. But all of these men will take off their uniforms after the -war is over and go back to private business, so it would seem foolish for them to do anything that would spoil their own future. Here is the way the situation spells out to them: Munitions industries will be shut down, yes. Shell-loading and explosive plants will be closed up, but mostly they are In out-of-the-way places which have no industrial future, anyway. Only about 5 per cent of the present aircraft production capacity can be used and-the ship yards will, in the main, go out of business. Estimates of the number of jobs which will disappear in the above industries vary from 1,500,000 to 5,000,000. That is the negative and bad side of the picture. Now look at the other industries. In the first place, the navy will not stop its present building program', which is planned to run beyond 1945. Next is a big group of industries which have no reconversion problem at all. Steel mills can go right on making steel. Sizes and shapes may change, but it will still be steel. The same thing goes for all metals production—aluminum, copper or what have you. Food production and processing will likewise continue. Sizes of cans and packaging may be changed for peace-time trade, but there is no re- conversion problem. The textile industry could use 100.000 more employes right now, if it could get them, and it has no re- conversion problem. Looms now making duck will go back to making carpet and the threads may be changed for consumers' goods weaves, but that's all. Building material, furniture and glass industries can keep right on going without reconversion. Service industries—hotels, restaurants, laundry and dry cleaning establishments and so on—could all use more help than they can get now. Transportation industries can also use more labor and have a big accumulation of maintenance and repair work to do. Locomotive and railroad equipment manufacturers, which made tanks at the outset of the war, have already been largely converted back, though they are still on war orders. Electrical goods makers will simply make different electrical goods. Problems of the automobile industry have been considered serious, but have been greatly exaggerated. Truck makers, now turning out 60,000 vehicles a month, can go right on making trucks for civilian use. Tire makers will go right on making tires. Only the passenger car manufacturers have a problem, but as it took them only six weeks to convert from peace to war, it should not take them more than two months to reconvert. Refrigerator, washing machine and vacuum cleaner makers face about the same thing. Adding all these things and subtracting this sub-total from the total employment and productive capacity of the country, you come up with a rough figure of 20 per cent of American industry faced with problems of reconversion. Which doesn't sound too tough. Flie Readers'Viewpoint CHILD DELINQUENCY Editor The Californian: In importance, Child Delinquency ranks next to war. The armed forces, with our home co-operation, are winning the war. But the armed forces can't help us "stay-at-homers" solve this major problem, Child Delinquency. The causes of delinquency are many In both parents and children. The only place to cure it is at its source, the home. To this end we are sending out educational literature to anyone who will road it and put it in the hands of others who will read it. We find it necessary to address people at meetings, so that we can go further into the child delinquency prevention program in detail. It is going to require the full co-operation of all Americans to conquer this delinquency plague. If you belong to a service club, lodge, uplift, religious or social club, arrange with your program committee for us to supply a speaker, day or night, at no cost to nny one. All workers volunteer their services. All anybody gets are expenses. But, so the necessary operation expenses can be met, we are compelled to give those present the privilege of donating what they feel they want to. If you have a rule that no free will donations shall be asked for, then please have your organization make a donation out of its funds for such purposes. Please UKO the enclosed self-addressed postal and ask for a speaker to be neiit to you on your curliest possible date. Sincerely, in tlic Cause nf Child Delinquency Prevention. ;u. e. SI:AI.\IEI:S, Managing Director, l.ii Verne. Los Angeles county. Calif, HELP SERVICE MEN Editor The California!]: The spirit of co-operation, that should ride along with every motorist, need not be confined to just giving the other drivers a break. That, of course, is a step in the right direction but a little more can be donn. I have in mind this matter of giving rides to service men. I watched a young fellow, a marine, trying to hitch a ride just north of Txyenty-fim street on the highway. Cap after car passed him up and many of them had only the driver. Finally a truck came nlonjr and stopped. Maybe the driver broke a rule by doing it but I think the service men should be an exception to such regulations. Now It is quite likely that none of. thoie cam were goiug out of town. But it is also likely that some of them were going to the circle anyway. And that much of a ride would have helped. On several occasions I have taken service men to the circle or out to California avenue where their chances for catching a ride were better. So the suggestion is that we help service men g*t to the outskirts, or to good intersections, where they are more likely to catch out-of-town transportation. Speaking of Intersections, it Is still best to obey the traffic signals, especially at Nineteenth and Union. I saw a service man come close to being hit by a truck over .there. He just started across on the red light. It pays to obey the signals, especially since the drivers do, and expect you to do the same. F. B. WILLIAMS. TINKER KILLED Editor The Califcrnian: Tinker, as he was known by his many friends and Playfellows in the Lomlta Verde re: identi il district, will be grieved to know of his death and how he died. Tinker was a mall tan Cocker Spaniel, wishing harm to no one and a friend to everyone. Tinker was hit by a car sometime Sunday, • September 10, on Jeffery street near his ho'.ne nt 2520 Alturas Drive, and left to die in the burning hot sun. From indications, "Inker did not die instantly, but a slow, torturous death, from internal hemorrhages as his body was not crushed or broken. Tinker was found by one of his little playfellows late Sunday afternoon and notified his owner, who picked him up und laid him to rest in his own back yard. This is a most inhuman and treacherous way for any person to treat even a dog. The speed at which some persons drive through this residence district is a menace not only to the lives of the pets but also the children at play. No one who lives In this district is In such a hurry that they cannot drive slow enough they could not stop for a dog or a child, at least give them aid if they did hit one. You better slow down or It might be your pet or child left to die in the hot 'sun. There should be some control over speeding and careless drivers in the outside residential districts. . Tinker was born August 13, 1942, died September 10. 1944. His father Is Cato la Siesta and his mother Is Madame Silk Smiling Up. BEN H. HENNEGJN. Bakemlield. From the Files of The Californian TEN YEARS AGO (The California!!, thli date. 1934) Elmer Goertz, as president of 20-30 Club is chief host to the International Association of 20-30 Clubs, which opened a four-day convention here today. Frank Harrison, chairman of the costuming committee for Frontier Days, announced today that 2000 glamorous costumes are to be brought to Kern county for the occasion. Sale of cars In Kern county la 72 per cent above the figure listed for the same period a year ago. Tom Burke has won two elections within 30 days, having been returned to office in this county and, late yesterday, re-elected state treasurer of California County Assessors at convention in Yosemite. Mrs. Helen Craig, who has been a member of Bakersfield High School faculty 36 years, received' recognition for her faithful service in an article written by Verba Lundy published in Sierra Educational News. TWENTY YEARS AGO (The Callfornian, this date, 11124) Headline: Fire Menaces Wilson Observatory; Pasadena Is in Flame Zone. First edition of the' high school weekly, Blue and White, is out. It is a freshman green number. Milton Phlnney is the editor; Margaret Seagar, copy editor, and Philip Wagy, b-isiness manager. The Reverend Phillip T. Dennis will leave Sunday to take part In a pastors' meeting and prayer conference at Camp Baldy Monday. A. J. Beveridge, cotton grower of Texas, owner of 100 acres of cotton in Tulare county, is conferring with local cotton growers here this week. George T. McReynolds, locomotive engineer on the San Joaquin and Los Angeles division, Southern Pacific Company, has been retired on a pension at the age of 69 years. THIRTY YEARS AGO (The Callfornian, this date, 1914) Miss Ruth Smith and Herbert Henley were married yesterday at the home of the bride's parents, Dr. and Mrs. S. F. Smith. Peter O'Meara has returned from a visit to Walser ranch. Parent-Teachers Association held a. reception last night at Washington School attended by 105 guests. Superintendent Nelson spoke of the influence of Germany on American education, saying vhat country for more than half a century had been the schoolmaster of the world. Eagles lodge will hold a dove feast Wednesday. A Belgian commission will be received at the White House Wednesday. Rowland T. Morgan, who holds a captain's commission in the Court artillery, British army, has left for Ottawa, Canada, where he will be assigned a company as his own regiment has already been sent to the front. FORTY YEARS AGO (The Californian, this date, 1904) Bakersfield will have a paid fire department. Trustees have instructed the city attorney to draw up an ordinance to that effect. Plans are under ivay for a building and engine house. Albert Wilkes returned yesterday from Lloyd Meadows, reporting that considerable timber has been destroyed in a fire started by lightning E. M. Ashe, Democratic nominee, is a strong candidate for supervisor in the fourth district. He has lived in the county a quarter of a century and knows the needs of the district. Laying of the cornerstone of First Baptist Church will be celebrated tomorrow evening. The respository will contain copies of the local daily papers and several religious publications. First Baptist Church in Bakersfield was organized In 1889 with six members who met In George Wear's building. Members were the Reverend J. C Jordan, Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Parker, R. W. Tooms, Dr. H. S. Pelton and Mrs. George Sergeant. FIFTY YEARS AGO (The Callfornian. this dale. 1894) Mrs. Florence A. Curnow will leave tonight for England to visit her old home. Kern City is to have electric lights and men are employed erecting masts. More installation is planned for the north side of town in the near future. The Arlington dining room will be opened in a few days by W. H. Morgan of the New York restaurant. Miss Rose Gregg and Arthur A. James were married at the home of J. F. Campbell at Poso yesterday. Miss Ora Brown was bridesmaid and M. J. Merritt best man. Frank M. Carrillo announces himself is an independent candidate for constable in the sixth township. SO THEY SAY It is hopeless to fight longer because more and more of their tanks and guns and troops keep coming against us.—German .soldjer to Frenchman in Brittany. The principle of balancing our diet Is sound, and it needs strength, but to balance an individual meal is not necessary.—Lord Horder, physician to King Georve VI. Nothing can ever undermine the Japanese from believing that they will never be invaded by the enemy. Toshio Shlratori, former Jap ambassador to Italy. PEN SHAFTS The blood you give will help our injured soldiers to believe in miracles. The odor of American food induced a Jap to surrender. Ah, another secret weapon. Being barked at constantly is enough to make a man go to the dogs. Most of us wouldn't mind If they rationed the ham we. get over the radio. We predict an early fall—for a lot of politicians. For buying war bonds and giving blood, tomorrow is just one day late. A THOUGHT FOR TODAY He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto the Lord; and that which he hath given will he pay him again. — Proverbs 19:17. * * • More helpful than all wisdom la cne draught .of simple human pity that will not forsake us.—George Eliot. .in ike N ews -(By PAUL MALLON)WASHINGTON, Sept. 13.—The Germans have nc more than 25 depleted divisions (probably around 300,000 men) bitterly trying to save their western border from us. This ia not enough to -maintain a Siegfried linc«>r any other kind of line for the long stretch from the Alps to the sea. If they last three weeks with what they have, they will be doing well. By that time, nt least, you should begin to see evidences of collapse and surrender of the troops in the field, if not of the government. Their retreat from France was rather cleverly conceived, or at least displayed the usual Nazi thoroughness in 'stubborn, conniving resistance to the inevitable. To date they have maintanied an escape corridor to Germany through the Belfort gap. Then also we had only one usuable channel port, Cherbourg, the one we took first, which was thoroughly demolished (It is now handling about twice its rather small peacetime traffic burden). But Cherbourg fell so -far behind our fast-advance force, that most of our supplies had to come in over the beaches. (A little came in by air). Nazi suicide squads left behind In Brest and Havre, the two.large ports we wanted most, did their work well, not only in resisting us but but demolishing port facilities to make them unusuable to us for days after capture. The others, Dieppe, St. Nazaire, Lorient, Ostend, Dunkirk, Calais, Caen, do not amount to much toward supplying our large armies. But the Germans held most of them throughout our journey through France and the lowlands. Our seizure of Antwerp practically undamaged was offset because the Nazfs for a time still held the islands controlling approaches to the port. > For their western Europe defense in the beginning they had around 1,250,000 men when we landed in Normandy. Since then they have lost around 450,000 killed and captured .the official figure was 325,000 captured up to a week ago on both the northern and southern French fronts) and the number of their wounded, Including those who escaped to Germany can be safely placed at 250,000 ti 300,000. Thus they lost more than half their army in France, probably far •-nore than half their combat troops, as 400,000 of their original 1,250,000 were administrative or noncombats. The only divisions which came out whole and prepared to fight were those few in Belgium and Holland, awaiting our threatening flanking invasion there. They have been trying to get troops from Finland and Norway, but these are too far away. While they have obtained some from Denmark, few could come from the Aegean (these were mostly cut off) and none from Hungary, where the Russians are now threatening. Their defeat In the two battles in Normandy was so decisive they saw immediately they could not defend the Somme-Aisne line or even Wie Belgian forts, so they ran for the shorter lined German border, with less than half their army, to plan a line on the Albert canal, Ardennes forest, Moselle river. They had time for real preparations only on the Moselle, where they mined extensively and used one old fort and some few new concrete pillboxes. On the southern front the Nazis fought hard at Lyon and Bescancon, delaying General Patch. Furthermore when you read of tw occupying a town, it generally only means our advance force has gone in. That force is- not prepared to fight against any sizeable resistance and must await the arrival of th'e main body, if it meets strength. Consequently confusing dispatches have come out indicating we had captured some of these towns four or five days after ent°ring them. In the face of resistance Patcli was just not able ta get up to General Patton's flank around Metz and Nancy soon enough to close the escape corridor promptly. (Although he had one good port, Marseilles, behind him Toulon having been ruined.) It may not have mattered much as most of the Germans from southwest France had passed that route Germany-bound many days before. Also our northern armies had "to sit around for a week and wait until supplies came in through the slow process of beaching. Daily after that we began accumulating strength, not only In material but in men, sufficient to wield safe attacking power, which we are now doing. These lines, like the Siegfried, are not the military obstacles today they once were. The British, for instance, passed the Albert canal against resistance, without use of paratroopers or any special devices, although this is supposed to be an important military obstacle. Coming westward, the Germans similarly had forced it with rubber boats. All in all, therefroe, the evidence adds us to a swift conclusion of the war. Probably before election, cer- taintly before winter. There are a few authorities who think the Nazis- may last into snow, but very few. (World copyright, 1!>44. by King Feature* Syndicate, Inr. All rights reserved. Reproduction in full or In part strictly prohibited.) ywoo -(By ERSKKNE JOHNSON)- Beverjy Hills' fugitive from a barber, Hoagy Carmichael, is doing just about everything but writing music these days. The composer of "Star Dust," "Old Rockin' Chair" and "Lazy Bones ' has turned actor in the movies and master of ceremonies on the radio. In his spare time he composes— and cuts hair. , Hair cutting is his real love. He's hated barbers all his life. "They scare me," he says. Prize piece of furniture in the Carmichael household is a barber's chair. When he needs a hair cut, Hoagy sits down in his private barber's chair and cuts his own hair. Does it with mirrors. He even has two little fugitives from a barber in the house—6-year- old Hoagy Bix and 4-year-old Randy Bob, his sons. "I've cut their hair ever since they were born. They've never been to a barber," he says. Hoagy is such a good barber even his friends drop around for hair cuts, but Mrs. Carmichael, a former New York cover girl, runs and hides every time Hoagy gets the hair snipping gleam in his eyes. No Hoagy trims for her. Hoagy Is appearing in the Howard Hawks picture, "To Have and to Have Not." He plays a singing pianist in a broken-down little night club and plays the film's theme song, "How Little We Know," which he also composed. It's the same type of role Dooley Wilson had in "Casablanca." 'The songwriter landed the role through his friend, Director Hawks, who for years has enjoyed his singing and piano playing at private parties. Hawks decided he would be great as an actor. "You make such a screwy face when you sing," he said. "I'm such a bad singer," Hoagy explained, "I have to make faces to make the tones come out." We wondered whether he was a good actor. Had he seen the picture? "Yes," he said, "and I'm very well pleased. I'd like to do some more acting." Carmichael Is the kid from Bloomington, Ind., who played ragtime for fraternity dances at Indiana University. His mother taught him piano and while studying law at the university he played with campus bands and had one of Ms own. Then he started writing music and hit the jackpot with such hi»s as "Star Dust," "Riverboat Shut- fie," "Georgia on My Mind," "Snowball" and scores of others. There's quite a story behind "Star Dust." He wrote the tune In 1928. But It was three years before he could convince a publisher that it was worth publishing. Then it became an immediate hit. During the last 10 years the sales have steadily been climbing. Hoagy's royalties this year were bigger than for any previous year. Hoagy has written many songs which reached the screen, but he has never gone in for entire musical scores. 'I can't write that way," he nays. "I can't just sit down and write six numbers in six weeks." Besides, Hoagy admitted, he was typed. "They always think of me as an individualist. They think I can only write stuff like "Old Rockin' Chair." He hopes to surprise the skeptics with a new number in "bambooco" rhythm. It's a cross, he says, between rhumba and samba rhythm. When he isn't cutting hair, or acting or talking on the radio or composing, Hoagy plays tennis and golf. He likes to tell about the fact that in his school days back in Indiana many people considered him quite insane. "I guess," he said, "all songwriters have the reputation for being borderline mental cases'." (Copyright, 1944, NBA Service, Inc.) u estions and A nswers Q. When did Henry Ford establish his model community in Georgia?— C. H. A. In 1925 Ford began the purchase of several hundred plantations in Georgia until he now has a total of 70,000 acres in Bryan and Chatham counties. There he is developing a model community and has established a school to train the local people in crafts and sciences. Q. Of what is plaster of Paris made?—R. T. H. A. Gypsum exposed to strong heat until about.75 per cent of Its water is lost yields a substance known as plaster of Paris, which when recom- blncd with water forms a hard cement. Q. What is meant by turnaround time in shipping?—E. R. M. A. This is the time required to load a ship, move it to Its destination, unload and reload, and return to its home port and unload. Allowance Is made for normal repairs. Q. What is a tlglon?—M. B. N. A. Tiglon is the name given to the offspring of a tiger and a lion. Such a hybrid was born 'n the zoo at Hannover, Germany in 1934. The father was a Siberian tiger and the mother an African lioness. Q. How many words are there in the Magna Chorta?—N. T. A. In the original Latin the document contains about 3500 words. When translated into Engltoh the number Is over 5000. Q. Does a centipede really have' 100 legs'.'—O. W. A. A. Some centipedes have as high as 173 pairs of legs and others have only 15. Thirty-five is probably an average number. Q. What per cent of the goods produced In this country is normally exported?—T. S. A. A. It is generally estimated that about 10.,per cent of our production" is exported. The latest figures, for 1937, Indicate that 7.8 per cent was exported. Q. How many cities in the United States are called Rome?—S. B. CT A. There are 10 American cities named Rome—in Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. Q. When was an actual attack upon a German submarine broadcast over the radio?—A. M. A. The Meet Your Navy Program on January 28, 1944, broadcast for the first time a recording of an actual attack upon a German U-boat. Q. Which country first used gliders during the Second World War? N. L. C. A. The Germans using gliders, brought in troops to reduce the Bel- gioif fort of Kbep Emael on May 11, 1940. Q, What flower does the fleur-de- lys represent?—L. A. Q. » A. The source of this emblem Is disputed. Somf authorities believe it to' be an adaptation of the Illy, others, the iris. 4 Q. How can one detect chicory in coffee?—J. A. A. Chicory can easily be detected in coffee by adding the ground material slowly to a glass of water. Chicory sinks at once. A ic*d«r an let Hi* inswer to my quentlon of net by writing Th« Htkfnftild Cilllor»l«a luforuutlon Uurnu. 81* Eire Slrwe, N. E., Wellington. 1, p. C. Flu** HHilUH tfc(*f (4. lor mil;.
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