Wednesday, September 6, 1944 Cbitortal $)age of Californian ALFRED H A R R E L L EDITOI AND rUBLISREl Entered ui post office at Bakerffield. California, «» wond <\i mall under the act of Congress Man-li 3, 1 s -'MEMBER OF THE ASSOCIATED IMIKSS The Associated Prens is exclusively entitled tn th" use for i'"' 1 '^ tion of all news dispatches credited to ii or not ot!i*r« *? r tic'ir In this paper, and also the local news published then-m. The Bakersfield Cnlifornian IP also n rlieni and receives Its complete wire MT REPRESENTATIVES West-Holiday Co . Inc. New Tfirk. <*hicapo, Han Kranci Seattle. Portland. 1> WASHtNfiTON. D The Haskin Servire. e) in By carrier or mat! (in advanc per month. S5c: six rrmnths. J.'t.Hi; on' 1 v n r, 'I'- 1 postal zones four to emlit. per rmmlh, H <> '*. two, thrr By mail ON THE HOME FRONT ALSO Continued Frnm Pap* < 'no women as are included in the armed forces of the nation. It has resulled in unending quarrels among leaders in the nalional Capitol, resulted in the discharge or the resignation of competent executives and has maintained in office the incompetent who have sanctioned that unbridled spending calling for ever-mounting and destructive taxation which is even now menacing the future wellbeing of both the business of the land and the labor which finds employment therein. Only by popular decree can the democratic processes that have served this nation so long and so effectively be restored. Devotion to America—not to a given political party—makes possible that restoration; and emphatically that is true when the party of Jefferson develops "New Deal" machinery -whose policies and practices are far removed from those favored by the wise leaders who have enjoyed the respect and confidence of loyal Democrats through the generations. A consistent champion of the national Democratic organization for nearly a half century, THE CALIFORNIAN could not, and did not, favor the re-election of President Roosevelt when he sought and won a third term. It cannot, and does not favor his re-election for a fourth term. Voters may well conceive that such election might establish a precedent for some ambitious leader of a future day to justify his own candidacy, not only for a third and a fourth term, but for a fifth term, thus possibly opening the way for the kind of control here that prevails in some other areas, a control that is responsible for the war which we arc fighting now—a war to maintain free and untrammelled government. Popular rights do not depend upon a single individual, nor upon a party name, and particularly when that party itself has drifted far from the teachings of our forefathers. Here is something that must have the thoughtful consideration of the voters. There is menace in dictatorial rule as it has existed elsewhere, and as it might be created here at a future day if the standard of executive service, as decreed by Washington and Jefferson, is not maintained by the electors of the land. We are naturally concerned over the proposal for World Peace, but a problem of prime importance to us, with the end of the war in sight, is victory on the home front— victory which means the perpetuity of that freedom we have enjoyed through the years, for which we are now battling elsewhere, and for which there is no substitute in government. BATTLE OF GERMANY nf ihc n.;<••<! 1'ress _ i man of imagination. I made Ihcm work though they were underfed. "We did a nice job in Greece, too, when .100,000 persons, thousands of them children, died of hunger last winter. "You will remember our concentration camps in Norway—better yet—the manner in which we captured Norway. "In Poland I am the man responsible for 100,000 deaths and mass expulsions totaling at least 100,000. "Yugoslavia? It is another lustrous name in my path of conquest. "The world will not forget my slaughter of the Jewish population in Warsaw and the f)8,000 Jews that perished in one camp alone, Oswiecum, in Poland. "My emissaries tutored Bulgaria in atrocities and Hungary, loo. "Now if we are not given conditional terms of surrender, I'll liberate poison gas over England with robot bombs, I, Adolph Hitler." This is what Hitler might have said but did not. At any rate, it serves as a reminder of a few of what he chooses to call "episodes" in his career in international crime. WORLD RELAXES AGAIN W ITH "bated breath" the world learned today that Gertrude Stein, missing for two years in France, is reported well fed and sound in Culoz, France. Miss Stein is the person whose work could well be forgotten, though this is not to be construed as an ill wish against her person or happiness. She it is who in days when a literary lunatic fringe could read such stuff, wrote something after this manner: "A rose is a rose, is a rose, is a rose, is a rose," etc. Gertrude Slcin kept her identity secret from the Germans who probably would have found her art "decadent" if not unintelligible. At any rate, the world can resume its rotation and place in the solar system again, for wilh the liberation of France Gertrude Stein has been found and publicized to the extent of half a column of newspaper cable charges. The liberation of France has been a fine thing and it is nice that Miss Stein is well and happy, but it would be even better if her matchless prose had not been revived. When interviewed by a press correspondent, Miss Stein said: "Everybody in the village cried out: 'The Americans have come, the Americans have come, the Americans have come'," etc. It would be too horrible and costly to invoke another occupation of France to end this sort of drivel, but it is true that while the Germans were there the world was'sin- gularly free of this sort of thing. That is one thing we can't hold against the otherwise unspeakable Nazis. WAR ON BULGARIA T HE Battle of Africa has been won long since. The Battle of Italy is in its final stages. The Battle of France is over except for technical cleanup operations. When the first G. I. stuck his foot down on Strasbourg soil on the Rhine this week, the second phase of the Battle of Germany was begun. The first phase of the battle has been, of course, the strategic bombing of German industrial cities for many months, as well as the strafing, bombing and general disruption of German transportation. The strategic bombing will doubtless be continued, but now the army of the ground is moving in on Germany and its advent should speed the concluding battles of the war. Germany at sea is •virtually through as a power. Germany in the air still presents dangers but nowise as formidable as of two years ago. Germany still has large armies but they have a growing complex of fear, of having been beaten on both eastern and western fronts. They are no longer the armies that marched into France and the Ukraine. SUGGESTED SPEECH I N i)i;ci.,\niNti war on Bulgaria, Russia finally decided to cease overlooking a pro-German partisanship in a country professedly neutral. V. M. Molotov in his note to the Bulgarian minister ending relations with Bulgaria wrote: "For more than three years Bulgaria in reality aided Germany in the war against the U. S. S. R. The Soviet government took into consideration that the small country was not in a position to resist the powerful armed forces of Germany at a time when Germany held almost the whole of Europe. The Soviet government put up with this situation. "The Soviet government even tolerated the fact that Bulgarian governing circles helped the Germans evacuate the Crimea and save remnants of the defeated German forces in south Russia." Now that Bulgaria had the chance to end a partisan neutrality and failed to do so, she can face the mighty armies of Russia. Thus another Balkan state fails miserably in statescrafl and even now will rue the decision of expediency over that of principle. It was a cosily decision that of playing with Germany and giving lip service to neutrality with Russia. Bulgaria has had its tune and the piper she is paying is not Germany, which furnished the original martial music, but Russia. FINLAND THROUGH H ITLER failed to deliver his speech this week, the speech he was to have made. In lieu of this address, we suggest the following and call it the "Last Mile": *'I am the hero of Rotterdam and Amsterdam. I am the man that revived the idea in modern times of executing a man's entire family as well as the accused,. "You will remember me, Adolph Hitler, as the man who ordered the wholesale executions of hostages at Nantes in 1941. "Don't forget my mass deportations and my slave labor, millions of jpcrsons. I am a R i SSIA now has an opportunity to make a peace settlement with Finland that will not be too burdensome or onerous for that little country. As a matter of fact, it is reported from Moscow that the Russian peace terms will be mild and fair and will emphasize the policy attributed to Russia of establishing peace and security in the Baltic urea. Russia has not demanded unconditional surrender of the Finns. It is believed that Finland will retain its independence. German soldiers and civilians have been ordered to clear out of the country by September 15. There were reported to be more than a thousand German civilians in Hels- inski. The Swedish government is planning to resume trade relations with Finland, which is badly in need of many foods and commodities. ERNIE PYLE JX FRANCE (By, Wireless)—The last time I was with the front-line medics—a battlaion detachment in Ihe fourth division—they showed me a piece In the Stars and Stripes about Congress passing the new $10- a-month pay increase for soldiers holding the combat infantrymen's badge. This cc.mbat infantry badge is a proud thing, a mark of great distinction, a erign on a man's chest to show that he has been through the mill. The medical aidmen were feeling badly because the piece said they were not eligible for the badge. Their captain asked me what I thought, and so did some of the enlisted aidmen. And I could tell them truthfully that my feelings agreed with theirs. They should have it. And I'm sure any combat infantryman would tell you the same thing. Praise for the me«llcs has been unanimous ever since this war started. And just as proof of what they go through, take this one detachment of battalion medics that I was with. There wore 31 men and two officers. And in one seven-week period of combat in Normandy this summer they lost nine men killed and ten wounded. A total of 1!i out of 33 men—a casualty ratio nf nearly fiO por cont in seven weeks! As one aidman said, probably they have been excluded because they are technically noncombatants and don't carry arms. But he suggested that if this was true they could still be given a badge with some distinctive medical marking on it, to set them off from medical aidmen who don't work right in the linPs. So I would like to propose to Congress or the war department or whoever handles such things that the ruling be altered to Include medical aidmen in battalion detachments and on forward. They are the ones who work under fire. Medics attached to regiments and to hospitals farther back do wonderful work, too, of course, and are sometimes under shellfire. But they are seldom right out on the battlefield. So I think it would be fair to include only the medics who work from battalion on forward. I have an idea the original ruling was made merely through a mis- understanding, and that there would be no objection to correcting it. You must hear about my new stove. You may remember that last winter in Italy we mentioned how practical and wonderful the little Coleman gasoline stove was for soldiers in the field. Well, that remark had repercussions. It seems the employes of the Coleman Stove Company, in Wichita, Kan!, were very pleased. It made them feel that they were doing something worthwhile for the war. So in appreciation they decided to make up a special stove as a gift for me. We kept hearing about it over here for weeks, and waited for it the way children wait for Christmas. The other correspondents were as excited about it as I was. At last it came. Boy, you should see it. It is an exact duplicate of the regular stove, except that this one is all handmade and chromlnum- plated and has my name engraved on it, like a loving cup. One of the correspondents said, "you can't light that, it's too pretty." An army colonel said, "They should have sent a fireplace and a mantle along for you to exhibit it on." For days there was a line of soldiers and correspondents at my tent waiting to see the stove. Twice we got ready to light it while photographers took pictures, but at the last minute we couldn't bear to, and put it away. The boys all kidded me and said they bet I never would light it. Necessity finally drove rne to it. That was in Paris. 1 had given my old stove to a friend, thinking I wouldn't need one any more. But the eating situation in Paris was drastic at first, and we had only the rations we brought with us individually. So at last I had to break down and light my stove in a hotel room in Paris. Some of the boys had joked and said it was so beautiful it probably wouldn't work. But it did. It practically melted the hotel walls down. So to all of you who had a hand in the stove, my thanks and gratitude. But if this keeps up I'll have to be careful about admiring in print any Baldwin locomotives or steam shovels. (By ERSKINE JOHNSON) Katina Paxinou, the black-haired lady from Greece, won an academy award nine months ago for the best supporting role of 1943 as Pilar in "For Whom the Bell Tolls." She hasn't seen a motion picture camera since. "The Greeks," she said, "haven't a word for it." Katina was knitting a pair of socks for her husband, Alexander Minotis. The Oscar she won in her first moiton picture was on a mantel a few feet away. Alex was there, too. "I guess," she said, a little sadly, "Hollywood has me in mind as Pilar and can't think of anything else. But I'm not complaining. The studio (Paramount) has been very nice to me. But I'm an actress and I'm not acting. You'd think they could find some kind of a role for me." La Paxinou, the heroine of Hollywood's latest success story—in reverse—stuns you a little the first time you see her in person. Her portrayal of the homely hag Pilar was a great makeup job as well as a great acting performance. "We keep telling them at the studio," her husband said, "that Katina is a female Humphrey Bogart. Cruel yet tender. But they are too busy making money these days to worry about writing such a role." Katina nodded in approval, then looked up from her knitting end-said: "I'm an actress—not a glamor girl. I didn't drop from the moon to play Pilar. My background Isn't a phony one. • I've been acting all my life in Greece. My husband and I were the biggest stage stars in the country. But they want glamor these days in Hollywood—not acting. "But now," Katina said, "when they think of Pavinou they think of that old hag Pilar. 'Katina,' they say, 'you'll have to wait until the right role comes along'." She started to knit furiously. "I have to knit," she said, "to keep from going crazy." You probably know the story of how Katina and her husband fled from wartorn Greece, went to Lon- and then to New York, where she made the screen test for the role of Pilar. Before release of "Bells" she worked in another Paramount film, "Hostages." Then came the Oscar—and celluloid oblivion. Part of her disappearance in the movies has been bad luck. She was all set to play a role with Ginger Rogers in "Tender Comrade." Be fore she could start work she became seriously ill. "I almost died," she said. Then RKO signed her to a con tract for the title role in a movie based on "Mama's Bank Account." But the story was sold for a Broad way play and the film canceled. There was a role Paramount wanted Katina to play. The role of a 74-year-old woman. "I turned it down," she said. "I couldn't play a 74-year-old woman—even with a ton of makeup. Besides, it was only a bit in a stupid picture." But, please, Katina said, don't get the idea that she's complaining about her treatment at Paramount. "They were very sweet to me after my illness," she said. Katina Paxinou looked up at the Oscar on the mantle. "Some days I (eel like throwing it in the ash can," she said. "Some day," her hsuband said, "Hollywood is going to wake up to the fact that Katina is a female Humphrey Bogart." (Copyright, 1944, NEA Service, Inc.) like Readers'Viewpoint KIHTOU's NOTE— Iftien bliuuld be limited to 150 words; ma; attack Ideas but not persona: urn-,! not be abusive and should be written Irglbly and on (ine side of the patter. Ihe California!! In nm irapomlblf! tor the crntlments contained thtratn and reserves tbe rtabt to reject any lettera. I/ttlers must bear an authentic address and signature, although these will be withheld If desired. FOR NEW YORK Editor the Californian: Although I do not wish to enter into a discussion on the relative merits of New York City and Bakersfield, I would like to present my views on their respective ell- matPK. First, let me say that I have lived in New York for 23 years of my Hfe. On your editorial page, under "Random Notes" you spoke of "high humidity and record- breaking temperatures" of New York and tho hut dry climate which distinguishes Hakersfleld from New York. You neglected to mention the green parks and clear lakes readily available by public transportation, In and about New York. A New Yorker may be uncomfortable for a day or two, but » thundershower brings tho cool, crisp sweet air of an autumn day. llulf im hour's ride brings one to the <;o«l benches and tho pleasant buy. The Hudson river n ml Long Island sound do not dry up in the summer, Certainly, it is hot on .summer duys, but we have not found occasion to Install coolers in our homes. Mow many natives of the San .Toaquin valley know the glory of a day in spring in New York, when all life seeniH to begin anew, the soft winds of May, or the beauty of the Hudson valley when the foliage turns to a myriad of red, gold and brown. The cool, bright days of a September school room remain my fondest memory. The white, cold snow of winter stirs the blood and enervates the mind. In conclusion, let me nay that when my military duties are complete, I. shall hie myself off to New York, and leave forever your enchanting desert. A NEW YORKER. ON RECONVERSION Editor the Californian: What is all this scare about the war going to be over before we are ready for it? Did it not start before we were ready for It? Have we ever Been Congress or the states ready for anything? It would be hard to recall If ever Congress or the states of the nation have had that much vision! Was it not Paul who said, "Come and reason together"? What politicians do is often to sneer at each other. We will give them credit. Some are clever at that, much more so than reasoning together! Perhaps they have learned what Shakespeare said, "Where ignorance is bliss, it's folly to be wise." But this writer says, when it is not this it should be otherwise! The editor is trying to put a bug in the ears of Con gress. Hope he is successful. They need to wake up. He further states "the military forces will have the war over before Congress has solved the problem of demobilization and re conversion." We'll have some 11,000, 000 men and women to be returned. But what is that to worry about? We have had about that many unemployed before have we not? The only difference they did not have to return from anywhere: they were right here in the United States of America. Of course, it may make some difference by the 11,000,000 being away. It seems they could not see that many when 'they were right under their very noses. Per haps we are short-sighted when they are at home, and long-sighted when 11,000,000 are to be returned. Is it for want of vision or resources that we have so many unemployed? Some say our resources are unlimited. Frankly, I don't know. But it does Heem our vision is somewhat less than our resources! JAMES PEARSON* fiOO Roberts Lane, Bukersfield. FOR HODSONH Editor The Californian: Three cheers for Highland Park Mother for starting the comment on tho wonderful work of the Howard Hodsons! I,i for another, think It is a grand gesture. And from what I hear from- the "fellas" and the "gals," they, too. are most thankful and appreciative. May my thank* be added to Mr. and Mr*. Hodnon and the Woman's Club. AN OILDALE MOTHER. From the Files of The Californian TEN YEARS AGO (The Californian, thla date. 1934) P. F. Latta, Instructor at Shatter High School, has returned from a busy summer spent hunting material for lectures, museums and other proejcts. A can containing the names of local persons who journeyed to Mt. Whitney summit 51 years ago has been found. In the party were the first • two women ever to reach the top, Mrs. George P. Landers, (Ella Roper) and Miss Virginia Jameson. The men were Charles Roper, J. M. Jameson, Jeff Carver and Samuel Allen. Oldest of the six was Samuel Allen, then 23. All are surviving except Mr. Jameson. A pure bred Guernsey heifer of Bobby Dickson, son of H. K. Dickson, already declared champion female of future farmers division, today was proclaimed first prize junior yearling heifer In the open class of California state fair stock show. TWENTY YEARS AGO (The Californian. Ihls date. 1924) Headlines: Germans Deny War Responsibility; Chancellor Marx Proclaims for His Country Refusal to Accept Blame: Retracts Admission of War Guilt; Allies' Ire Aroused. Mrs. Ellen Tracy, co-founder with her husband, Colonel Thomns Baker, of Bakersfield in 18fi3, died last night at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Charlotte E. Jameson. Vacation is at end for more than 5000 city pupils as Monday will see school doors open. Leigh H. Irvine, secretary of Kern County Chamber of Commerce, yesterday was elected vice-president of the Exhibitors Association of California. Immense throngs crowded AVeed Patch district fairgrounds today as that community's fair opened. THIRTY YEARS AGO (The Califcji-nian, this date. 1914) Headlines: Paris May Escape Siege from Kaiser's Guns; Great Battle Now Being Fought, Final Test in France; Huge Armies in Mighty Struggle at French Frontier; Germans May Repeat Historic Coup of 1870; Battle Now on at Y ei-( '' jn to Decide Victory in France. Dr. and Mrs. Fred J. Crease, who spent their vacation at the beaches, have returned home. The grand jury is looking into a Taft election asking officers of that precinct to explain muddled returns. School is being held in several temporary places on the West Side until the buildings are completed. An enrollment of 500 is reported. A well drilled on the S. A. Johnson ranch is flowing a stream of pure water 18 inches wide and four inches deep over the casing. Mrs. Rowen Irwin and little daughter, Mildred, have been spending a few days in San Francisco. FORTY YEARS AGO (The Californian. this date. 1904) The sum of $240 was cleared in Bakersfield's Labor Day celebration. The Armenian uprising against Turkey is becoming serious, advices from Paris revealed today. Miss Bell Cherry had a narrow escape from drowning in the surf, local friends learned today. A well 150 feet deep has uncovered an ocean of water on the Rosedalc farm of W. E. Dargle. A model pumping plant is being installed. Methodists in conference at Pueblo renounced Mormonism and favor an anti-polygamy amendment to the United States Constitution, The Chicago stock yards strike is nearing an end. One thousand union men have applied to go back to work. Timothy Spellacy of Kern river is on the committee to draft a plan of organization of oil producers. ieLincl tke News -(By PAUL MALLON)- WASH1XGTON, Sept. 6. — The story of what happened on the vice- presidency at the Democratic national convention may be a long time coming out in full. The perplexing: series of events which eliminated Vice-President Wallace who bore Mr. Roosevelt's fresh benediction, strangely caused the unexplained -.vithdrawal of the president's right hand man Jimmy Byrnes at a time when he had more delegates than anyone, and then suddenly brought Truman out of nowhere for the prize, will require a lot of personal explaining from the participants who are not yet ready to talk. But most of it can now be told with the necessary assurance of competent anonymous authority, to wit: Precisely the same thing happened as in 1940 when the President told a number of possible running mates that he favored them, but this time apparently he put much of it in writing. The President's public endorsement of Wallace in his letter was marie with the full knowledge that Wallace, unquestionably, could not be nominated. About two weeks before the convention Democratic National Chairman Hannegan had advised Mr. Roosevelt that Wallace either should not or could not win—I think it was "should not." The liabilities of Wallace were well recognized. Naturally then, official thought turned to Byrnes, who had retired from a life job on the Supreme Court to function In fact as Mr. Roosevelt's vice-president without the title, handling all economic and many political war matters from the White House and already authorized to handle postwar demobilization. In private conservations, Mr. Hannegan quoted the President then as preferring Byrnes to any other man mentioned, a natural consequence of the way Mr. Roosevelt had seemed to be grooming Byrnes to take over. Several of Byrnes' friends also heard the same thing directly from the President. Upon these overtures, Byrnes became interested and privately became a candidate. I think Kelly and Hague worked for Ijim, as well as many congressmen with whom he was exceptionally popular. But at that time (a few days before the convention) New York's Ed Flynn went to the President and opposed Byrnes on the ground that the Negro voters would object to any southerner on the ticket and this would impede his campaign for Roosevelt in New York state. I think eh said the acceptance of Byrnes would lose New York state for Roosevelt. Now the Byrnes people knew of the coming Wallace letter but knew FIFTY YEARS AGO (The Californian, this date, 1804) Under the caption "To Bust the Trust," a suit against American Tobacco Trust to annul Its charter, was commenced today. Arthur Goldberg left last night for Los Angeles where he goes to try his fortune. Louis Charles of San Francisco has arrived to take a position in the clothing department of D. Hirshfeld & Co. Work on the new courthouse annex will be begun in two weeks. Delay was caused by an order for iron work. C. N. Beale left last night for Kansas to complete preliminaries In connection with construction of an electric power plant In this city. Miss Marguerite Peery and Will Haigh were married in Tehachap! last evening by the Reverend Father Bannon. Grain and hay crop at Cummings valley is small this year but of good quality. SO THEY SAY As sure as it is that we are fight- Ing today, so,sure is it that another war, more horrible than human imagination can ever visualize, will break in another 10, 20 or 30 years if we do not see to it that Germany and the other aggressors are kept under strict supervision and control. —Wilhelm Morgenstierne, Norwegian ambassador to United States. If our ehemies believe they can triumph in view of the present situation, they may do so. It is, however, certain that the pleasure they express derives from the belief they have come nearer to the end of this war, which is weighing on them as well with a heavy strain.—Lt.-Gen. Kurt Dittmar, Nazi radio commentator, We have repeatedly warned the Germans of the certain consequences of inhuman acts. Those guilty of the present outrages againat the civilian population of Warsaw will not escape the justice they deserve. —Secretary of State Cordell Hull. The clear common sense duty of every union officer and member Is to assist the employer by regarding the business as something of a cooperative enterprise.—Bishop Francis J. Haas. A THOUGHT FOR TODAY The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptation*, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished. — // Peter 2:9. It la advantageous that the gods should be believed to attend to the affairs of man; and the punishment for evil deeds, though sometimes late, is never fruitless.—Pliny the Elder. nothing of a Truman-Douglas letter which was written by the President the same day, July 13, before start- Ing on his secret trip west, although this Truman-Douglas endorsement was dated six days later, July 19, the day the convention was to open. The Byrnes people thought they » had direct assurance the President would not express a preference for anyone except Wallace. Knowing some of this I wrote n column at the time assuming Byrnes' for the job, but just as this column was reaching print Byrnes had un- explalnedly withdrawn. My assumption had been based on knowledge that when Mr. Roosevelt secretly went through Chicago and had his pre-convention conference with Hannegan out In the railroad yards (a conference not divulged for days because of voluntary censorship on Mr. Roosevelt's movements) the President told Hannegan that he and his friends could go ahead and support Byrnes for the nomination, but adding that before publicly announcing their support they should "clear" the matter with C. I. O., particularly Hlllman. Flynn came into Chicago storming amongst the leaders against Byrnes. President Murray of C. I. O. as well as Sidney Hillman of C. I. O. po- liitical action told Hannegan then that Byrnes would not be acceptable to C. I. O. because he had used his influence to hold the line against further increases In wages (in accord with the President's announced policy.) Hannegan telephoned Mr. Roosevelt on the Pacific coast about the . stand taken by Murray and Hillman, and Ed Flynn also phoned the President reiterating his views. The President then informed Hannegan that Byrnes would be a political Ha- • bility and should not be nominated and that Hannegan should go ahead with Truman. The Byrnes people were so Informed, and he withdrew. These facts will come out officially when the participants start talking. Personally I have been Interested because I had been caught on a limb predicting Byrnes, a unique position I never enjoy. But the story explains much of the recent news—the reported dissatisfaction of Mr. Byrnes, his statement that he would not be postwar demobilizer although he already is It, a printed report that he will retire after election, January 1, and return to private law practice (after having given up the Supreme Court for Mr. Roosevelt, a fact which makes me doubt that this will come to pass) and also the rise of Senator Truman out of nowhere. (World copyrlcht, 1044, by Kiug Feature!* Syndicate. Inc. All rlulitu reserved. Reproduction In full or In Dart strictly prohibited.) asliiiigiom *L/o 111 m -(By PETER EDSON)In writing legislation to control the disposal of surplus war property, both Houses of Congress crashed through with proposals that all receipts from these sales should be applied against the public debt. To the man in the street and the women and children on the sidewalk, this proposal sounds good. In Congress the proposal was made to sound even better than it really is because it was bandied about that there were 75 or 100 billion dollars worth of surplus stuff to be sold and the impression given that the national debt would therefore be reduced by that amount so that the cost of the war would be cut a third. But the picture isn't nearly that rosy. Bureau of the Budget estimates that the cost of the war, by June, 1945, will be $289,800.000,000. This is just the American taxpayers' and bond-buyers' share. It divides roughly as 30 per cent pay and subsistence, 10 per cent construction and 60 per cent munitions, including ships. The pay and subsistence are not recoverable, the munitions will have been largely shot away or will be of future use to only the armed services. The salvageable part that can be resold as surplus property won't bring 20 cents on the dollar, and if the government gets $15,000,000,000 net from these sales it can call itself lucky. But even a mere 15,000,000,000 bucks isn't to be sneezed at, though it's only a fraction of the total national debt. So the question is, do you want to earmark this estimated $15,000,000,000 receipts from the sale of surplus property for reducing the national debt? That proposal apparently made sense to a majority of the congressmen, but United States Treasury and Bureau of Budget officials say it's no good, for reasons which will be gone into presently. The average guy not versed in the intricacies of big money bookkeep- ing will probably say that Congress has the right idea. Sales of surplus property represent a reduction of capital assets. To take money from such sales, put it in with general receipts and spend it as operating expenses would certainly be bad business for any individual or any corporation, particularly if the individual or corporation had any debts that might be paid off. Furthermore, the psychology of the thing looks good. After the war, the heat will be on to reduce government expenses and reduce taxes to the greatest extent possible. Keep, ing taxes high to appropriate money for the reduction of debt won't b» popular. The smart political thing since the debt has to be reduced some time, is to take all the easy money you can get and apply it against tha.t awful deficit. The mere interest on that indebtedness will amount to $3,750,000,000 this year, so any reduction would mean some, saving in interest. To all such arguments, however, the executive ends of the government turn up their noses and turn down their thumbs. The only time the government can reduce itsj debts, they say, is when receipts are greater than expenditures. That condition has not existed during the war, so the debt has gone up. But to take any special postwar receipts and earmark them for debt retirement simply means that Congress will have to appropriate that much more money and levy that much more In taxes to run the government, and that the national expenditures will therefore be increased by the same amount that is put into debt retirement. It is like the old trick of spending your money out of two pockets instead of one. Now cooking in the treasury is a big plan for postwar debt retirement. Until that is presented to Congress, says Assistant Secretary Daniel W. Bell, the treasury is opposing any other legislation on debt retirement. Questions and! Answers Q. What was the original name of George Washington University in the national capital?—S. A. N. A. George Washington University was chartered as Columbian College by act of Congress in 1821, and the name changed to Columbian University by act of Congress in 1873. The title of the George Washington University was authorized by act of Congress of 1904. The senior college of letters and sciences still bears the name of Columbian College. Q. What kind of a vehicle is the Weasel?—R. K. Y. A. This is the popular name for the army's vehicle, M-29. It is designed to carry personnel and supplies over mud, snow, sand or paved highways and is more versatile than any other vehicle. Q. What type of men were Included in Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders? H. S. A. Included in this regiment were a number of eastern university men, men from the New York police force, hunters, cowboys, mining prospectors, and a few Indians. Q. What is the prevailing religion of Finland —S. E. D. A. The national church is the Evangelical Lutheran, but full liberty is granted to those professing other faiths. Q How are fish tagged?—H. R. A. A. There are several methods, such as clipping the fins, inserting tags through a cut in the body, and clamping metal or composition tags on the fins. Q. What are pelagie animals?— S. O. A. This term is used In reference to those animals whose life is spent in mtd-ocean, either at tbe surface o» at varying depths. Q. How large a space is required by a ton of chestnut coal?—M. E. S. " A. A 2000-pound ton of chestnut- size anthracite coal under usual storage conditions will occupy a space of about 48 cubic feet. This . figure is based upon tests of sized anthracite passing a 1%-inch, round- hole screen and being retained on a 3/16-inch, round-hole screen. Q. Were there many Loyalists In the American colonies at the time of • the Revolution? J. McK. A. John Adams said that a least one-third of the population did not want independence and another third did not care one way or another. Q. How many persons have served as Archbishop of Canterbury?— K. A. R. A. The Most Reverend and Right Honorable William Temple, recently nominated, Is the ninety-eighth Archbishop of Canterbury. The first was St. Augustine, 597 to 605. Q. How many people do not have access to libraries?—M. S. T. A. Notwithstanding the increased library aid, there are still 35,000,000 people in the United States without library service; most of them in rural areas. • Q. What state first adopted a political primary election? L. H. A. The first state-wide primary election was held in Wisconsin, Sep. 4 tember 4, 1906. Q. How many electoral votes 'are needed to elect a President?—S. L. A. Electoral votes total 531 and 266 are needed to elect. A reader can set tbe answer to any quettioa of fact b» writuu The Bfkmfield C'allfomlaB Jjformatlou Bureau. SKI Kjr* Blreet. N. K.. Wubuuton. i, p. C. Pie*** ancle** tbr** (3) •'. cents for reply.
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