'Journal Home Edition — 25 Cents Sallna, Kansas MONDAY January 27,1986 114th year—No. 27— 16 Pages Falling oil prices could have wide-ranging effects By The New York Times LOS ANGELES — Plummeting oil prices suggest that the world may be crossing a threshold, marking the emergence from a dozen painful years in which expensive petroleum skewed economies, geopolitics and national and individual priorities. If sustained, the drop in prices would affect everything from Sunday driving habits to solar energy projects, from the Soviet Union's economy to immigration from Mexico. In the last few months alone, crude oil prices have fallen by one-third, to less than $20 for a 42-gallon barrel. Today's prices are roughly half what they were at their peak five years ago, and some analysts are talking about $15 oil. "We went from economic slavery to economic freedom," said Pierre Rinfret, who runs an economic consulting firm in New York. Rosemary T. McFadden, president of the New York Mercantile Exchange, where oil futures contracts are traded, said "20 percent of world commerce involves oil." "It's the single largest commodity in the world," McFadden said. "There'll be ripple effects everywhere." Of course, predictions of oil prices have gone awry repeatedly. For example, in 1975' many American oil experts predicted that oil would settle at $6 or $7 a barrel in the 1980s, while in 1981 the consensus was for oil in 1990 to be priced at about $75 a barrel in today's money. But now some oil experts say that with the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries crumbling, oil prices will be set largely by the free market for the first time since the Texas Railroad Commission moved to regulate oil prices in the 1930s, when oil had fallen as low as a nickel a barrel. "It's a tremendous threshold that makes the oil markets different from any time in the past," said Robert Stobaugh, a professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration. The decline in oil prices — particularly in the past two weeks — was sparked in part by a decision OPEC made in December to try to protect its share of the world oil market by reducing the prices its members charge to secure sales. As part of this policy Saudi Arabia, OPEC's largest producer, decided to increase its output, saying it could no longer afford to be the organization's "swing producer," varying its output to balance the world market and support the official OPEC price of $28 "a barrel. The consequences could be manifold. Car trips and plane rides should become less expensive. Inflation and interest rates should drop. People are likely to buy bigger cars. Probably fewer people will insulate their attics. Products made with petroleum, such as plastics, synthetic fabrics and fertilizers should drop in price. "Your fertilizer bill can run a pretty penny, so if the price drops on that, it would be great," said Shawn Skiles, a wheat farmer with his father near Wasco, in north central Oregon. While Skiles relishes the drop in petroleum prices, many others do not. Oil exporters such as Mexico, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia will face serious economic strains — and maybe political unrest as well. Their bankers, and perhaps the entire global financial system, will feel the pressures. And young men from Bangladesh to Egypt, who previously found oil industry jobs in the Persian Gulf, may have to remain in their villages. On the other hand, a poorer Mexico could cause many more Mexicans to seek economic opportunity in the United States. Craig Chandler TANKING A CLOSER LOOK — Lynne Marwah, Belleville, peers inside the turret of a M60A1 Kansas National Guard tank on display as part of an open house at the Salina armory Sunday. A similar open house is planned for Abilene's armory at the fair grounds on Feb. 8-9 from noon to 6 p.m. each day. Rebel forces claim victory in Uganda Bizarre moons of Uranus startle scientists By The New York Times PASADENA, Calif. - Detailed images streaming back to Earth from the Voyager 2 spacecraft have revealed the startling features of Uranus's major moons, and awestruck scientists studying the photographs on Sunday described the findings as bizarre, exotic, and extraordinary. In particular, the moon Miranda — a 310-mile-wide object that was once only a faint point of light in the sky— was emerging as an icy world unlike any other ever seen in the solar system. In the Voyager pictures, taken Friday 2 billion miles from the Earth and made public Sunday, the surface of Miranda is seen to be a rugged mix of valleys and deep fractures, long ridges, and a multitude of craters, glacial flows, broad terraces like uneven stacks of pancakes, and puzzling features that resemble a racetrack and a bright chevron. "It's all the strange places rolled into one," said Dr. Laurence Soderblom, deputy leader of the photographic interpretation team. Soderblom, who is with the U.S. Geological Survey, said Miranda seemed to be a "bizarre hybrid" of the geology of the planets Mercury and Mars and some of the large moons of Jupiter and Saturn. "If you took all the bizarre features in the solar system and put them on one object," Soderblom said, "that would be Miranda." Project scientists were so astonished and elated by the discoveries on Miranda that they had not yet turned their thoughts to pos- sible explanations for what they were seeing. The scientists could not speculate on whether the moon's valleys, ridges, and fractures were the result of internal or external forces. The moon is presumably too small to have sufficient internal heat for the kind of dynamic forces that cause volcanoes, earthquakes, and other crustal movements on some other worlds, including Earth. But it is possible that the gravitational pull of Uranus, the third largest planet, and the larger moons nearby could cause tidal forces that act to expand and contract the icy crust of Miranda. Miranda is the closest to Uranus of the five major moons. Similar tidal forces at Jupiter were found to have been responsible for volcanic activity on lo, the innermost of the large Jovian satellites. The presence of many "raters, presumably gouged out by colliding meteorites, was the least surprising of the discoveries, the scientists said. Voyager 2, which made its closest approach to Uranus on Friday, is now 1.9 million miles beyond the planet, speeding away at 33,000 miles an hour on its way to a rendezvous with Neptune in 1989. Flight controllers said that the spacecraft was continuing to perform flawlessly. In other reports on data gathered when Voyager flew by Uranus, scientists described evidence of what may be 10 more rings around the planet, radiation belts more intense than those around Saturn, and a cloud of hot hydrogen extending thousands of miles beyond the planet. By The New York Times NAIROBI, Kenya — Leaders of a rebel movement announced Sunday that they had overthrown the military government of Uganda after seizing control of Kampala, the country's capital. Leaders of the rebel movement, the National Resistance Army, said at a news conference in Nairobi that their group was now the legitimate government and vowed to take control of the entire country. Maj. Gen. Tito Okello, who became Uganda's head of state after staging a military coup in July, was reported by a Kenyan newspaper Sunday to have said that he would mount a counter-attack and fight on. Western diplomats and other sources said, however, that thousands of his troops were surrendering, others were retreating north toward Sudan and east toward Kenya, and still others were fighting among themselves over whether to stage a counter-offensive or to lay down their arms. The whereabouts of Okello and his army commander, Lt. Gen. Basilio Olara Okello, was unkown. Some reports said the military ruler was in Jinja, about 50 miles east of Kampala, where thousands of government soldiers have fled since fighting began in the capital on Friday. But the National Resistance Army leaders said they had been told that the soldiers had fled from Jinja. Major General Okello arrived Saturday at the border town of Busia in a military helicopter for talks with Kenyan government officials, but was reportedly ordered back by the officials. Both Kenya and Tanzania have stepped up security along their borders. The rebel army said it attacked in reaction to repeated human rights violations by government troops, which have a reputation for being undisciplined, ill-trained and poorly educated. The leader of the rebels, Yoweri Museveni, has repeatedly assailed Okello for failing to curb his soldiers. Eriya Kategaya, the rebel army's secretary for political and diplomatic affairs, said at the news con- ference that the insurgents had captured the "whole of Kampala" by late afternoon Saturday, including the Parliament buildings, the radio station, post office and three army barracks. A fourth barracks, in a suburb of the city, was still resisting, he said. Sunday night Museveni, who began his insurgency in 1981, made a victory statement over the Uganda radio in which he said he would form a broad-based government and punish criminals from previous regimes. According to the Tanzanian government radio, Museveni led his troops into the center of Kampala. The insurgents called on Ugandan citizens to cooperate with the rebels in restoring normality and said government soldiers who surrendered would not be hurt. A senior spokesman for the rebels said Sunday in an interview with the British Broadcasting Corp. that the guerrillas would hold power until a new constitution was put into place. The spokesman said the new government's first priority would be the rehabilitation of essential services, including schools and hospitals, and that there would be no recriminations. The attack on Kampala Friday culminated a weeklong offensive, one month after Museveni and Major General Okello signed a peace accord in Nairobi that was designed to end years of bloodshed. After more than two days of hand-to-hand combat, fighting in the capital reportedly eased dramatically Sunday after government troops retreated overnight. Crowds of cheering Ugandans took to the streets for the first time in days to show their support for the rebels, according to diplomatic sources. The sources said that hundreds of soldiers and some civilians had been killed and that the streets of Kampala, which is without water, electricity and telecommunications, were strewn with bodies. No foreigners appear to have been harmed, diplomats said. But Western missions were still advising foreigners to stay indoors or to leave if the roads seemed safe. Today Inside IN ELECTIONS IN Portugal, Conservative candidate Diogo Freitas do Amaral runs well ahead of three leftist rivals in voting for the country's first civilian president in 60 years. But he falls short of victory, prompting a runoff. See Nation/World, Page 5. Classified 13,14 Entertainment ;.... 16 Fun 15 LdvingToday 6 Local/Kansas 3 Nation/World 5 On the Record 7 Opinion 4 Sports 9-11 Weather 7 Weather KANSAS — Mostly sunny today, with highs in the low 20s northeast to the mid-40s southwest. Clear tonight, with lows about 20 west to 10 to 15 east. Mostly sunny and warmer Tuesday, with highs about 50 west to about 40 east. Chicago fans bear good news: They're world champs! t CHICAGO (AP) - Chicago fans, denied a major sports championship for more than two decades, erupted in delirious celebrations from one end of the city to the other Sunday as their beloved Bears won the Super Bowl. "They're the best team ever," exclaimed Kirk Zaranti, 31, of Chic- More on the game, Page 9 ago, who was at the Hotsie Totsie Club in the crowded Rush Street bar district to watch the Bears trample the New England Patriots 46-10. "This will make this city better," Zaranti said. "It's already the best city. It's a city of real people—a city of Germans, a city of Italians, a city of Greeks." Hundreds of happy fans, many wearing Bears headbands, gathered in the bitter cold to watch the Super Bowl on a 20- by 30-foot outdoor television screen at downtown Daley Plaza, renamed Bears Plaza for the day. "All the real Bear fans are here," said 7-year-old Jeremiah Winns, who carried a teddy bear wrapped in winter clothes as protection against a wind chill that registered at minus 36. At one point, the crowd reached nearly 1,500, but it began to thin as the game progressed and the cold Chicago crushes New England/ 46-10 NEW ORLEANS (AP) - Quarterback Jim McMahon dived for two touchdowns and "The Refrigerator" rumbled for one more as the Chicago Bears set Super Bowl records Sunday for points scored and margin of victory when they crushed the New England Patriots, 46-10. Chicago's defense, led by end Richard Dent, held New England to minus 19 yards in the first half. Dent was named the game's Most Valuable Player. .William "The Refrigerator" Perry, the celebrated 308-pound defensive lineman, joined his team's offense several times, as he had during the season. After losing one yard when he unsuccessfully tried to throw his first pass ever, Perry scored a touchdown from New England's 1- Bears coach Mike Ditka is carried from the field by Chicago players. yard line. McMahon, despite sore buttocks that were treated by an ac- upuncturist during the week before Super Bowl XX, scored on two short runs and completed 12 of 20 pass attempts for 256 yards before leaving the game with a sprained wrist. McMahon, who was fined $5,000 during the season for wearing a headband that carried a brand name, sported several hand- lettered headbands during the game, including one — "JDF Cure" — promoting a foundation fighting juvenile diabetes, and another — "POW-MIA" — referring to servicemen missing in action in Vietnam. After the Bears had turned the game into a rout, McMahon wore a headband with "Pluto" printed across it. took its toll. Shopping centers closed early. Re- frigerette cheerleaders — as unabashed about their bulk as 300- pound defensive tackle William "The Refrigerator" Perry — rooted for their team at a downtown fitness club. A high school band staged a parade. But at game time, normally busy steets were deserted, leaving much of the city with the aura of a ghost town. Thanos Grigoricju, 36, of Myrtle Beach, S.C., and oo Anne Baboulas of Chicago began their wedding cere- mony at the Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church just as the game kicked off. Grigoriou said he "didn't realize it was a Super Bowl Day" when the wedding date was set four months ago. In suburban Bloomingdale, Sheldon and Barbara Sherman faced the same problem at their wedding. Rabbi Arnold Kaiman, who kept an eye on his two-inch television, said he had hoped to time the service to coincide with halftime. "It was the pre-game festivities that threw me off," he said. Most Chicagoans count 1963 as the year of the city's last major sports championship, when it captured two. Loyola upset powerhouse Cincinnati 60-58 in overtime in the NCAA basketball final. Then the Bears defeated the New York Giants, 14-10, in the NFL title game. In pre-game festivities Saturday night, Bears fans jammed Rush Street, where police early Sunday arrested 30 people on disorderly conduct charges. All were released on bond. In New England, Patriots fans consoled each other over the loss. "They made it to the Super Bowl," said Bunny Evendoll, manager of the Cloud Nine lounge at Boston's Logan International Airport. "The Pats did their best," said Gary Burnett of Durham, N.H., who watched' the game at a party in Concord, N.H. George Panagiopou, owner of Casey's pub in Worcester, had one word for the Pats' loss: "Outclassed."
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