Smoking damages human genes By The New York Times ATLANTA — A study of women who smoked during pregnancy provides strong new evidence that chemical compounds in tobacco smoke damage human genetic material. >~ Although genetic damage caused by tobacco smoke has been seen before in animals and cell cultures, the new study provides evidence that damage occurs, and can be detected, in living humans. ; Chemical compounds generated by burning tobacco are carried from a mother's lungs throughout her body via the bloodstream. Scientists say the compounds are probably also transported across the placenta to the fetus. The two-year study was conducted by Dr. Richard B. Everson at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in Research Triangle Park, N.C., Dr. Robert C. Cefalo at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, and scientists at Baylor and Columbia universities. Results from the study do not prove a direct cause-and-effect relation- ship between smoking and cancer. But they do show that damage to the genes is occurring in smokers, and because such damage is believed to be a critical early step in the cancer process, the results reinforce the link between smoking and cancer. "There were indeed chemical changes in the DNA that were linked to smoking in 16 out of 17 mothers who smoked, as opposed to only three out of 14 who did not smoke," Cefalo says. "There is something in the smoke compounds that has induced these changes." Scientists still don't know which of Evening meal of pasta gives runners headstart Dear Dr. Donohue: Everybody seems to have their own pet meal to eat before a long run. One of my friends loads up on pasta and takes a sugar snack right before. He tells me this keeps his energy up. He also snacks (on sugar) along the way. So far the results haven't been that great for him. I just eat regular meals in the morning and also the day before. Can you give me some idea as to who is closest to being right?-R.S.G. I get many letters like yours. Let me just say there are elements of both truth and fiction in both. The only way I can unscramble all these claims is to start from scratch. The question to ask yourself is this: How do I get the maximum amount of stored sugar to last me longest under the energy-consuming conditions I am to face? First of all, the most important meal in terms of storing energy is not one you eat in the morning, say, before a long run; it's the meal you have the evening before. That meal is best if it's mostly carbohydrates, like pasta. The breakfast on the day of the event should be eaten three hours before. That is so the food can get out of the stomach and not be in the digestive stage during the physical exercise. An important point in all of this is that it takes 10 hours to store sugar. That's why you begin doing it with the evening-before meal. Also, there is only three minutes' worth of sugar in your blood at any given time. As •you use up that with exercise, your -liver storage tank delivers a bit ;!more. ;';. Now to your specific questions: Your friend's sugar snacks before -and during a run are not a good "practice. When the sugar gets into ithe blood it triggers insulin release -and that can cause a rebound in blood •sugar (hypoglycemia). This is not 'What you want to happen. Doctor Donohue NEWS AMERICA You ask (an edited part of your longer letter) about fat, like bacon, as part of the breakfast before an event. That's not a good idea. It takes a long time for fat to leave the stomach and you might end up exercising and digesting food at the same time. Better stick with pancakes, for example. Dear Dr. Donohue: I use a stationary bicycle for my wintertime aerobics, until the weather breaks to permit my resumption of jogging. I thought I would forego the thrill this year of running into glaring car headlights on dark country roads. How can I convert my exercise values from running to biking?—J.F.P. The charts that do this for you can be misleading. They may not take into account your body weight, a definite factor in energy expenditure. And there is the matter of bike pedaling tension, if it's adjustable. As you are interested only in fitness and not so much in muscle building, you can use the same ABCs of aerobics no matter what your exercise is. That means getting your heart rate up to your target for the required 20-30 minutes a few times a week or as frequently as you were doing your summer jogging. Whether you are jogging or biking you are satisfying the other requirement — the use of large muscle groups. Just to give you an idea, though, a 120-pounder running six miles in an hour burns about 450 calories. The same person cycling at 10 mph for an hour burns 370 calories. nutri/system KATHY ROBERTS TELLS: "I LOST 100 IBS on the Nutri/System Weight Loss Program. I made my New Year's Resolution and Nutri/System helped me keep it. Call today!" Kathy Before Call now and take advantage of our special offer and save 33%. Let Nutri/System help you keep your New Year's Resolution! Call today for a FREE CONSULTATION. i33%"6"ff" Kalhy Present mil coupon at any parlcipaliig Nutri/Syslem Weight Use Medical Center and you'll receive 33% on ttw con ol youi program. 'Oiler valid lor new clients- only. One discount per person. 1913 South Ohio Oak Park Village Salina, Ks. 823-9223 E&a nutri/system weight lots mtdical ctnUrs Mon.-Thurs. 9-7 Fit 9-1 _ ^^ m Offer expires 1-31-86 Qy ^^^ 'Special does not include the cost ol aiclusiva Nuln/Syslem foods or cost of physical examination As people vary, so does an individual's weigh! loss. Over 673 Cenleri In North America. the thousands of compounds in tobacco smoke damage genes, Cefalo adds. The genetic changes arise when the chemicals in DNA combine with some components of tobacco smoke. Changes in the DNA caused by chemicals may inactivate genes, or alter their normal activity, sometimes giving rise to tumors. Research has shown that chemicals known to cause tumors have a tendency to form compounds with DNA. "The differences were dramatic," Everson says. Almost all smokers showed DNA damage. The Salina Journal Sunday, January 26, 1986 Page 17 BALLOONS for Valentine's Day Be sure to get your order in now for those "OUT-OF-TOWN VALENTINES! Send them a MAIL-A-BALLOON! It's easy! We do all the work. Give us a call at 827-1379. "The Original Balloon Shop" Balloon Menagerie 1415 S. 9th Salina, Ks. 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