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The Courier-News from Bridgewater, New Jersey • Page 6
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The Courier-News from Bridgewater, New Jersey • Page 6

The Courier-Newsi
Bridgewater, New Jersey
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A-6 Sunday, June 23, 1991THE COURIER-NEWS jfjfpmmmm. i wjmmhp WORLD v. -rsa .1 Soviet Union after leaving a Russian village in flames, accordina to German tanks advance into the information released by German invaded in perfect tank weather officials with this photo dated Nov. 8, 1941. Adolf Hitler's armies June 22, 1941, but the harsh winter brought disaster. Captured German troops struggle in the bitter cold near the ruins of Stalinqrad USSR Jan 31 1943 About 91,000 starving German soldiers were sent from Stalingrad to Siberia; 'only survived Operation Barbarossa The German Invasion of the Soviet Union Germans recall attack on Soviets 'Operation Barbarossa' anniversary marks barbaric acts of war 7 Finland Soviets remember 20M dead Baltic Sea I IMffil jrfr Sept' 1 i coSePt'30 East f5Sl JPjX Prussia MinskLF Warsaw A JtW I K' 1" Marshes Poland Cl 100 miles Rmania the Communist Party daily. "We Remember," a 2-inch headline in Rossiya, the Russian Federation government's newspaper said. "The Day of Sorrow and Mourning," the front page of the conservative Sovietskaya Rossiya said. In Germany, President Richard von Weizsaecker marked the invasion anniversary yesterday by laying a wreath in a cemetery of slain Soviet soldiers in Potsdam. The German president took part in the offensive as a young infantryman. The Soviets say they lost 27 million soldiers and civilians in the war, although Western historians generally put the figure at 20 million. Tass added to the grim statistics yesterday, quoting new government figures that the Nazis destroyed 1,710 towns, burned more than 70,000 villages, and blew up 32,000 factories and 40,400 miles of railway tracks. Gorbachev bowed his head in silence during the wreath-laying ceremony, also attended by his prime minister and defense minister. Born in 1931, Gorbachev was too young to fight in the war, but his native village of Privolnoye was occupied by the Germans. He made no public statement yesterday, but in a nationally broadcast television address Friday, he said the "cohesion of Soviet society" was the main factor in defeating the Nazis. Layers of bleeding bodies were piled on top of her and her mother, Sheila Polischtschuk said on the program. "When the soldiers went away, my mother pulled me out of the pit and BONN, Germany (AP) Heinrich Hollmann hauled a cannon into the Soviet Union as a soldier in Adolf Hitler's invading armies a half -century ago. The carnage he witnessed made him a pacifist for life. "It is the ugliest thing there is that people can let war happen, that they can let others be butchered," said Hollmann, 78. Yesterday marked the 50th anniversary of "Operation Barbarossa," Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. The occasion is reaching deep into Germany's soul, stirring up painful memories and guilty feelings. Numerous exhibits, special television programs and newspaper reports have been depicting how "Operation Barbarossa" inflicted immeasurable suffering on both the Soviet and the German people. Millions of Germans have been tuning in to a remarkable 6-part television documentary called "The Damned War," about Hitler's futile effort to master the Soviets. It is the first program about World War II produced jointly by Soviet and German television. Guido Knopp, the German co-producer, said fallen soldiers of both sides pictured in the documentary "are the anonymous victims of a war that even today is the most painful chapter in the history of both our peoples." Using real footage, the documentary shows disturbing scenes such as Soviet partisans hanging by their necks after they were caught by German troops, and the bodies of Soviet Jews executed by the Germans. One clip shows a German soldier shoving and kicking a Soviet Jewish woman while a young boy, apparently her child, beseeches the soldier to spare her. showed Radio Free Europe delivered more than 10 times as much information about Hungary as did the Voice of America, he said. In some ways, the Munich stations have become more like Voice of America, broadcasting features on the nuts and bolts of free-market democracy: how to operate a small business, how elections are run, how to maintain ethnic harmony in multinational societies. "There's limited convergence in that area," Pell said, but added that a Voice of America program would use American examples, while Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty draw from European democracies. "We have done a lot of bridging East and West Europe; VOA doesn't do that," said Pell, also a former head of the Voice of America. He said his two Munich stations "should be in the business of going out 100 km Source: Wars of the 20th Century Associated Prsai photos carried me away," she said. A huge exhibit at the Martin Gropi-us Bau museum in Berlin documents not only the military campaign but the decades of suspicion between Germans and Russians that preceded and followed the war. Despite warmer relations between Bonn and Moscow in recent years, the intense media coverage appears to be adding to the bitterness toward the Soviet Union among some Germans who lost loved ones during the fighting. Welt am Sonntag, a Sunday newspaper, published moving letters that were written by German soldiers sent to fight the Soviets. The Soviets recently opened up archives containing about 6,000 letters found by Soviet troops when they recaptured post offices that were being operated by the Nazis, the newspaper said. Many of the letters' authors never returned home. Some of the missives bear blood stains, and some stop in mid-sentence. One German wrote from Stalingrad, "Dear mother, I really want to come home." Another, named Peter, wrote to his mother in 1943: "The hunger is terrible. What I'd give to be at home right now, sitting at the table and eating just a piece of dry bread. I wouldn't want anything more." Hollmann, too, saw the horrors of "Operation Barbarossa." In 1941, he took part in Germany's failed attempt to take Moscow. "I was lucky I came back alive. Some of my friends didn't," Hollmann said in a telephone interview from his home in Sittensen, near Hamburg. Hitler's army continued to drive east until its defeat at the Battle of Stalingrad in February 1943, considered the turning point of the war. P20575R14 U1U DL ARKWAI I A PSOSf75R15 43.05 17570SR13 I P21575R15 45.05 H570SR13 46.95 I P22575R15 47.95 18S70SR14 50.95 I P23575R15 40.05 19S70SR14 53.95 1 Job costing $50 or costing S50 or mora Mill and National Braka Soaclallata location! wltti any otner oftar. CNS823 i NationanZA GREEN BROOK 752-0600 Rt 22 East at Rock Ave NATIONAL i i i mi TT German Thrusts Trapped Soviet forces Frontlines: Dean Caple costs about $450 million a year. "We know people in the United States wonder if so many 'voices of America' are needed," said Vladimir Matusevich, chief editor of Radio Liberty, which broadcasts 499 hours weekly to the Soviet Union in Russian and 11 other languages. He predicted "several decades" of turmoil in Soviet politics and the economy, during which Radio Liberty will be needed. "The ideal situation, in which the Soviet Union becomes a fairly civilized country, is a very remote prospect, to put it mildly," said Matusevich, who defected in 1968. Radio Free Europe broadcasts about 630 hours weekly in the languages of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and the three Soviet Baltic republics: Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The roles of the two stations are different from the Voice of America, which features American news, life and culture. The Munich stations call themselves "surrogates," providing local news to nations with no traditions of objective journalism. As an example, Gene Pell, a former NBC correspondent who is president of Radio Free Europe-Radio Liberty, cited a study a study of Hungarian-language broadcasting. It Call Fras Air For Your Air Conditioning Needs. We Guarantee Satisfaction! Now free Europe wants Cold War radio networks fSAVE in i li MOSCOW (AP) At churches, by mass graves, in border towns and on battlefields, Soviets gathered yesterday to remember more than 20 million compatriots killed in the 1,418 days after Hitler's armies burst across their border 50 years ago. President Mikhail Gorbachev, who is striving for full reconciliation with Germany and restoration of the national unity credited with helping the Soviets hold off the Nazis laid a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Moscow's diplomatic corps, led by German Ambassador Klaus Been, also made the solemn pilgrimage to the tomb in the Alexander Garden next to the Kremlin. In Brest near the Polish border, veterans who fought the Nazi invasion formed a human chain before dawn. Representatives of the first five divisions to battle the Germans lit bonfires as day broke so quietly that "only nightingales were singing," Tass said. Radio Moscow reported similar vigils in other towns at the precise hour that the 3 million German troops began their assault along the border. Soviet newspapers devoted full pages to the anniversary of the outbreak of what the Soviets call the Great Patriotic War, including a rare 4-page supplement to Pravda, The program also interviewed a woman who said she and her mother survived a mass execution of Jews near Kiev by lying atop bodies in an open pit and pretending they were dead. of business," but talks with eastern European leaders indicate a continuing need even in the free societies of Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Recent crackdowns on Soviet media suggest a long-term need for Radio Liberty to cover Soviet affairs, he said. If Radio Free Europe eventually folds, it will have to be done in coordination with the countries themselves, Pell said, and "when that time comes, there are options to be explored." "We are looking at ways of perhaps privatizing part of what we have done, perhaps transplanting it back into the countries," he said. "But it would be done without continued U.S. government underwriting." For now, the stations bask in testimonials from former dissidents who now lead their Lawrence A. Lubow, M.D. Joel E. Cannula, M.D. Arthur P. Fisch, M.D. Peter E. Gallerstein, M.D. Stephen B. Cusa, M.D. Richard I. Walaon, M.D. Audrey von Poelnitz, M.D. Everyone knows that new car sales are down. Tire manufacturers have overpowered and are swamped in original equipment tire inventory. We've made a great it's your turn to save! Outstanding All-Weather Traction for Cars and Light Trucks LIFESAVER XLM HT P15580R13 39 95 INSTALLED ALL 13" LISTED 95 INSTALLED P16580R13 P17580R13 P18580R13 ALL 14" LISTED 52 95 INSTALLED P17575R14 P18575R14 P19575R14 ALL 15" LISTED 59 95 INSTALLED P20S75R15 P21575R15 P2257SR15 MUNICH, Germany (AP) Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, jammed and condemned by Moscow during the Cold War, are seeming more and more like local stations for countries of the old Soviet bloc. The U.S. government radio channels claim 60 million listeners a week in eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, but all is not yet forgiven. There is strong evidence of a KGB spy in the Munich studios they share. Soviet politicians now give interviews to the American stations and they are allowed to use local transmitters in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Soviet academics visit Munich to use one of the world's best research libraries on their own country. Change in the east, however, may threaten the future of the broadcasters who disseminated the message of freedom for four decades. In April, President Bush named a commission to study international broadcasting by the U.S. government in the light of communism's decline. It will make recommendations on the Voice of America, the two Munich stations, the Worldnet television service and Radio-TV Marti, which broadcasts to Cuba. Some consolidation, at least, is expected in a broadcast operation that H1CH York Air Conditioner YORK. 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