Iola Daily Register And Evening News from Iola, Kansas on October 5, 1907 · Page 5
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Iola Daily Register And Evening News from Iola, Kansas · Page 5

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Saturday, October 5, 1907
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President Roosevelt's Address DHLIVERED AT MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE, YESTERDAY, BEFORE THE DEEP WATERWAYS eONVENTlON, Un(]?r any circumKfances I should welcome thn chance of speuking at MemphiK in the old historic State of Tf-nnesspp. rich in its gloiions pav.t and in the cenaimy of an oven great. €-r futur.i; hut I especially copKratii- late myself thai I am able to speak here on an occasion like this, when 1 rao<t not only tlio citi/«>ns of Tennessee. I)iit many ni" th'' citixons of MlRSlRsl).pl at :il Arkansas am! of other States as .v <>II: aii<l when the chief exectilivejp! nf so inany Slates an> Jtafhernl io f<)nsi<!«'r a siilij'ct of'mo- menloiiR int'-nsi to all. The .Mississippi Valli-y .i iiiaKii.ficoMt enipin^ In sizo and firiilitj-. It is hiMior adapted to tIiiMli 'Vi 'lo|iini»iii of Inland navi , gatlon th.-in any mho- valley in either,; henilsphei'o: for ih <'rt> aro I2.rtiin miles' of wafer\vay now more or I'-ss fully navlRabli'., ami ill • conilitions are so favorablo-that i; w 'U 1).^ easy lo increase th. r-xtf-iii 1,1 navi'.;ahli' v .;M '>r ways to almost any '.I'tpiircd li.^^^rc. hy cananlizaiinn. Knrly in our industrial history this v:ii:.y was tli;- seat Of the lacsest d -'velopmon: of inland oavisaiioii in th<> riiitfd Siatrs. and perhaps you will jianioii niy lu'iit'.on- Injr that tho first sto.-utiho.ir «i-st of tiie AlleKhen--s was luiil; hy a [{oovc- velr. my ; ;.'r<>af-:;t ;iiRll 'aih<^r"s lirnihor. in ISU. for ihc N'w (>r!<•;iIl^• trndp and In that year iiiaile ihi- trip t'ren' PittsburK'lo New Orl-aiis. Hut from variou.s causes riv .M- and i-anal li-niis portation dceliu '^d ail OV.T tlif I'nitod States as the- railroad sysi.-ii>> e:im.'' to their full di 'velopment. |i is.our business lo see that tli.'> decline is not permanent: and it is of interest "o remember thar nearly a century igo President Madison advocatid th" -analizaiion of the Mississipp. The Wealth of the Oroal Valley. In wealth of natural resources no kingdom of Kuroiif can compnio wiih the Mississippi Valley and tlie rt'jjion araiind the (;.-.:u lakes. ii.Uen to ^rt-lher; and in iiipulaiion this hug'.' . fertile plain .-ilready su.-pas.-..-'; all .t -ave one or two <u" :he larsrest ICurnpeaii kingdoms. In ;h:>; em ;i :re a pvuliarly stalwart and m:;st"rfiil jieojile finds it.«elf in ;lie stirrounMnss best fitted for the full development of its power:; and faculties. There has be.-'n a great growth ii> the valley of manufacturing centers: th- movement is sood if it does not go too far: but I most earnestly hojie that this region as a whole wifl remain pr.>dominaiit!y agricultural The piHiple wl;o live in the coun'ry ^iistricts. and who till ilie small or medium sized faruis on-whleti ihty livel make up what i^' on th.' wljole thi? most-'valuaJjle asset in cur national lif.-. Tliere <uii lie JUST as real jiro;:ress ••ind culture in the cutiu. try as in the eii\: .specially ill these days of iiiral fiee delivery, trolleys, bicycley. teleidifin'.'s. crood i-oads. and school iinprov'mnis. The valley of the .Mississippi is politically and commercially more imiiortanf than any other valley on tlie free of the ylobe. Here moi-e than anywhere else will he determined the future of I.'niled States and indeed of the whole wksi- ern world": and the tvpe of civilizatioii r( ached in thi? m'-hty valley, in this va?t streteh of countiv lyine b.'twi.*ea the .Allechenies and f'le Kotkies. th--» Croat Lakes and the f.ulf. will largely fix the type of civilization for ih*" •whoK"> Western Hemisphere. .Mready .OS on.'- history shows, the West has determined our national political il.""- velopment. and the fundamental principle of pYesent .-\UT >rican politics, pol- ' itical eqdaliiy. w .is originally a wi -sf- em idea. The Manv Uesourres. The wonderful vari-ty of lesoui^ces in different portions of the vallev make th.> demand for transi.on.iioiii altogethet- exceptional, foal, luitilifr. corn, wheat, coiton, eaille the , Kurfac: t .f the soli an I b.-neatlr th.- soU the ra .'die.^ uie gr -ai. Tli.-iai ' already evidc-ni strong leii uii'-ir ? \n increase liie cariyiiii; of fi.-!^!;' fi 'Ui! iho rionhorn part of the valh .. i(> tlu' (iiilf.' Througho.it tile val!'-y the Ian ' is sc. fertil.> as to make ili.. ti .-ld for the farmer pecniiariy ai!ia<-:ive; -M'. •whfe'f.! in the w<-;;i the diiuat.. he eontf -B dr.ver we enter 'i (.on the r.iiich iiig (country: while in addition to ill." products of the so 1 ihei'.. are also tli*^ nianufacttires supplied in inumerahl > ma.hufacttirini; cen'ers. ;:reat and Fmall. Cities of astonishing growth are found everywhere from thi. (lulf to the f;i;eat Lakes, from the All -^he nies to the Rockies: most of them being situated on ilu. gr.-at river which flows by-your drxjrs or upon some of Its Sliimeroits na\iKah!e tr:bul,'iries. New mineral fields are discovered ev- er.v year; aii<I the cousianily ititreas- ing use all the devices of extensive cultivation stea lily .irlds Ut the pro ciucllVe power of the farms. Above all. the av.-iraKe mat; Is hon«-st. Iptelli- gent, self-reitant. and orderly, and therefore a g .wd ri'iz.n; ;nid farmer and wageworker alii;.!—in tlie last an- aly.sls the two most imiKirtant men in the community—.->njoy a standard of living", and have .ieveloped a standard of selt-r-spectin^. self-reJiant manhood, which are of good augury for the future of tl!.> entire Ilepublic. No matt .can ff)rse.> ihe limit of the possibiliiv of d' vidspiiieiit in ill.- .Mississippi Valley • I'se the Itirers, Such beimr the case, and this valley being literally the heart of the » United. States, all that concerns Its welfare must conce-m likewise the whole coimtry. Therefore, the-Mississippi River and its tributaries ought by all means to be utilized to their un- iiiost possibilii.v. Facility of cheap tiansportation is an essential in our modem :civiIization, and we can not aJTord any loneer to neglect the great Ughwaye which nature has provided fbr 1UU Tbjese natoral highways, the vaterwajTsJcan ncTcr be monOppUzed »Bjr .coifporatlon. They b^oag to all the people, and It is in the power of no one lo take Ihem away. WSiere- cver a navigable river nms beside railroails the probl;in of repiilatin-; the rates on the railroads be-comes far easier, iiecaiipe river r- giilation l.s rate r;'sulation. When the water rate sinks, the land rate can not be kept ai an excessive heJRht. Therefore it 1; of national inip'ortaiice to d<\velop these streams as highways to th.-* fullest extent which is geni'ilnely proflla- ble. Yiar by year transponaiion probl. ins become more acute, and the t 'liie has »'om • when the rivers really fit IO serv.' as arteries of lia.le shouM be piovid.-d with channels ijeep enoM::li aii.l wi .lf enough to make th" iuv.'.'.tm"-nt of the necessary money profitable to public. Th.> .N'ational gov- <ianient shoiilil undertake this work. Where the Immediate abutting land i.< niarlcedly be.^efitte/l. and this benefit c:!u be .lelinitely locnnze.i. I trust that !lier.» will br. careful investiga- tiiiii ti> sec wheihcr som. way can be I'eviseil by wh:ch the inmiediat" bene- c.ari<»s may jiay apportion of the ex[lens .i .s—as is now 'he custom as re- cards c riain cla.=:ses of improvements in our iiiiinic paliii."5: and inea.-^ures shoiiM be taken i" s.'cur-" rroin the !<>c:'!iti"s specally b»ii .-(ii f - ,| proper t.>rniiual laciliries. The <-\pe !isi' to 'he iKi!ii;:i lif enteriti!; tipoti such a >ch .'n ;e of r ver 'niprovenieiii .-is that which I bei :ive il shoiiM undertake will necessarily be :!'-.-:it. .Many cnii- ti .ius and i-ou.-.ervai:vi< penid • will look a.-l ;:i !ici> iiliou the pr .ijeci. ami from I'very standpoint it is neces-sary, if we wish to make it succrssful. that we should enter u|)on it only under conditions which will guarantP.-> th" nation a.i:ainst waste of lis money, and which will insure us auMin^f entering iip '.u any jtroj.ct until after the nuisi elaliorat'. expert e \:naiiiatIon. an. I reliable calculation of the proportion h'-Mv -e'l cost and bcr.cllt. In any projei I Hi;.' this th.-re -shoulil be a de finite [lulicy. and a resoliiti' puri .o--. to keep i:i iiiiiiil that ilie only iii .|>r <ive!- mejUs iiiaiie should In- tii<". • really national in their ciiaractrr. We "ihou'd act on 'he s.ime princii>lo in Improving our rivers that we should follow in improving our harbors. The qreat harbors are of consequence not ^ler.'Iy to imniediaie . localit'e -s. but to imni.'tise stretche.;; of country: and tin- same is true of the. great rivers. !• is ;lie.-.e .jr.'at rivers and threat har- l.<.rs the improvi'iii.-nt of which is of primar.\ national ititer .'st. The main >-treaiiis should be iiiii .r 'ive.l ti> the hiithi-'^t practical decree- of .'ffi 'dency Vefori' iiiiprovenionis..are niteinpted on Ihe branches, and work should be iiii 'i. riaken only when c.iiii|det:on ts ill sii -'ht within a r.'tisoiiable time, ^o th .-i! as--ui.-il result-: may b.- rained and the cominttniiies affecte.i depend iljion the improvenif Ills. Moreover, 'as an Incident in caring for the river so thr!' it may b.->come an ellicient c!;ann'-l of transportation , the I'nited States Governmear should do its full "art in levee buildiri'.:. which, in the 'ower reaches of the river, will not ^nly aive a channc-l for commerce. 'i;i' will also give protection TO the adjacent bottom lands. Inim.'npe sums have already been spent upon tli.? .Mississippi l )y the States and the nation, yet much of it r-mains practically unused for commerce. Ti;e reasons for this fact are many One is that the work done by the National flovernment at ieasi has not been based upon a definite ami continuous plan. Apnropriaiions by fon^r ss. inste-ad of asstirin.e the si .-a.iy ))rogress anil timely comple- lion of each i.iece of work as it was undertaken, have been irreciilar and •iiicertain. .-Vs a direct consequence, far-reaching plans have been discour- aee.i and cemiinuity in execution has bee-i made impossible, it is .-liiogMii- iiii 'il:.""!.. tliat b .-lier r.suirs will be fdiiaineil >o losig as the met hud is fol- lowe.i e.f miikiuK i .ariial appropria- •e .ns at irreijular interval-: for works wiiich should never be undertaken un • il lie.! li i-: e<-rtaiii that they ean be c.ar- •orjii >letion within a d-finite -rel •Ml!"' 'I:.- r'-a:-fitiaiil.' tiiii.'. flaiiiieil and \\- i!.-v.-loj.meni Is ess.nti.il to '.•-t i; ,(• of c-very ii;iiural n- -••iiire. . and to none more ihan ft the i;.-,. of otir inland wa.t "rwa .\'S. In til.' i .ise of trie waterways it has b<'-n CO! •:p:cuotisly absent. Ri'cause srch foresight was lacking, (he inter"S !s of our riv. r.,- liav> bi^en in fact •nerlook '/d. in s |i 'te of t 'n .e immense sum-; siient irjion them, li is evident 'hat their n :<)st urni-nt need fs a fnr- ^iglifd and coni|irehensIve plan, deal- 'ntr no; with naviL 'ation alone, nor with irrlcation alone, but ronsi-.lerlntr our inl:inU wat 'Twavs a.; a wi ole. an'i •vith. leference to every ii.-;e to v.'hich "'ey ran !). lui!. T'l • central motive if such ;i pltMi should be to eel from he streaiiis of Uie I 'nited .Slates not •Illy the eiiii,.st but alsi*> the most le-rmanent service thev are catiabl.-' of r< aderini; to the nation ns a whol-. Kallrnadv Want ranul«. The industries developed un'ier the stimulou.s of the railroads ar.' for the most part permanent industries, and therefore ihr-y form the basis for , future lievfdopment. Hut the rail- I roaiis have shown that they alone can not me-t the vleman .is uf ili.' country (or ira::v:i)oriation, and where this is tiue the rivers should be:;in to suple n-e-nt the railroads, to the b-nefit of loth by relieving them <if certain of the I'-ss profitable cla>ses of freight. The more farsoeing railroad men, I am glad to te!l you realize this fact, and many of them have become earnest advocates of the improvement of the Mississippi, so that i: may becom-j a sort of inland sealioard. extending from the. Gtilf far into the interior, and I hope ul^^imately to the Great Lakes. An investigation of the proposed Lakes-to-tbe-Gnlf deep water .way is npw in progress under sn ap­ propriation of the-last Congress. We shall await its results with the keenest imprest. The decision is obviously of capital importance to our internal development and scarcely less so In relation to external commerce. The Plans Limltie ^N. This is but one of the many projects which it is time to consider, al- t!ioiish a most important one. Plans for the lni(itf)vera<nf of our inland navigation may fairly begin with our. .greatest river and its chief tributaries, but they can not end there. The lands which th.» Columbia drains include a vast area of rich grain fields and fruit lands, much of which is not e.asily reached by railways. The removal of obstructions in the Columbia and its chief tributaries would o |ien to navigation and inexpensive fndpht transportation fully I'.OOO miles of channel. The Sacremento and San .loaipiin rivers with their tidal oponinirs into San Francisco Ilay are partly navisrable now. Their navigation should be maintained and improved, .so as u> o|)en the marvelously rich valley of California to in- exiensive tratllc. in order to facilitate both rate- re.^itlatitiM and the control of till w:;ters for 111 her pur(ioses. .\iid many oiher rivers of the I 'nited States demand improvement, so as better to meet the reiiuirements of increasing iiroditction from the soil, in- creasiuK mantifaciure. and a rapidly growing population. The Wafer .Sanittitioii. While thus the itiiprfaveni. at of inland navi;;aiio!i is a vil.-il problem, there are other fiuestions nf no less consequence connected with our waterways. One of these relates lo the purity of waters used for the supply of towns :ind cities, to the prevention of iKilliiiion by nianiifacfitrin.g and oiii.-r industries, and to th.- protec- '.ion of draiiiago areas from soil wash ihroagli forest covering or judicious c'jitivation. With our constantly la- i .-reasi:ig population this question becomes more and more iiressing. because tiie health and safety of great volved. .Vnother important group of questions concerns the Irrigation of arid lands, the prevention of floods, and ihe reclamatioti of swamps. Already many thousands of homes have been established on the arid regions, and the population and wt-alih of seven- ii-en Hi.ites .-ind Territories have been laiijely increased through irrigation. Ye; ibis means of national development Is still in iis Inf.incy, and Ir will doubt li-j^s lopK com lone lo multiply homes an.l iiicr .'ase the productIve- aesM and fwiwer of ilie niitloii. The re- clanuiiion of overflow lauds and marshes. IM.III )II the interior and ahmg the ceiasis, has tilready been on with tidmirable results, but in this Held. too. scarcely more than ;i gi)od beginning has yet been made. Stilll mother fundamentally important ques tion is that of w:iter power. Its significance in the future development of our whole country, and especially of the West, Is but just beginning to be understood. The plan of the city of I,os .\ngoies. tor example, to bring wnier for its use a distance of nearly I'.'.ii miles—pi^riiaps the boldest pro- j. cr of the kind in modern time.'— promises not only to achieve its purpose, but In addiiion to produce a water power siifiiciently valu.?ble to pav large interest on the investment •if over $23.(i0O.<J00. Hitherto such opportunities for using water to double purpose have not always been ^eized. Thus it has re- rent'.y been shown that-water enough ;.s llowing unused over Government dams, built to imiirove navi;raion, to produce many hundreds of thousands of horsepower. If is computed that Ike annual value of the available but unused wafer power in the I'nited States exceeds the annual value of the prod'icrs of all our mines. Furtfier- tiKJ .re. ir is calculated that under judicious handling the power of our str<>ams may be nitide t<» pa.v for all the works reqiiire'd I'or the complete development and control of our inland waterways. Fiiresis Prevent Floods, Forests are the most eiYnctive pre- veiiif-rs of Hoods. e -:i,ecially whe'ii they i ^row im the hi.nher mounuiin slopes. The national forest policy, inaugurated primarily to avert or mitigate the timbir famine which is now beginning to be felt, has been effective also in securin.ij partial control of floods by re'ardiag the run-off and check- in;: the erosion of the higher slo|)es within the national forests. Still the loss from soil wash is enormous. It is compiued ihtti one-fifth of a cubic mile in volume, or one billion tons In weight of the richest soil matter en 1 ill sioiai rivuleis. washed intothe rivers, and borne into the s>'a. The of the I'nited States. Is annually K-Th- los .i to the farmer Is in effect a tax ir.-atcr than allother land taxes combined, ami one yielding absolutely no re'urn. The i^ipariment of .-XKrlcul- ture is now devising and testing means to check this enormous waste hrough Improved methods of agriculture and forest management. The IrriKatlon Question. Citizens of all itortions of the country are coming to realize that, however imporiani the improvement r -e uavigaion may l)e. it is only one of many ends to be kept in view. The dein.and for navigation is hardly more pressing than the demands for ro- c'aiining lands by irrigation in the arid regions and by drainage in the humid lowlands, or for utilizing the water power now running to waste or for lutrifying the waters s<j as tu re'duco or remove the tax of soil waste, to promote nianufactur.-s and safeguard life. It is the part of wisdom to adopt not a jumble of unrelated plans, but a single comprehensive scheme for meeting all the demands so far as possible at the same time and by the ^me meahs. This is the reason why the .Inland WiaterwayB CommiBSlOD; was created is March last, largely in response to petitions from citizens of the interior, including many of the members of Congress. Rroad instructions were given to the Commission in accordance with this general policy that no plan should be prepared for the use of any stream for a single purpose without carefully considering, and so far as practicable actually providing for, the use of that stream for every other purpose. Plans for navigation and power should provide with special care for sites and terminals not only for the immediate present hut also for the future. It Is because of my conviction in these mat ters that I am here. The Inland Waterways Commission has a task broad er than the consideration of waterways alone. There is an intimate relation between our streams and the development and conservation of all the other great permanent sources of wealth. It is not possible ri'ihtly to consider the one without the other. No study of the problem of the water- which failed to consider also the remaining factors in the great problem of conserving all our resources. Afr cordingly I have asked the Waterways Commission to take account of the orderly development and conservation not alotie of the waters, but also of the soil, ihe forests, the mines, and all the other natural resources of our country. * HesJmroes Not Tuexhanstible. Many of tiiese resources which we have been in ths habit of calling inexhaustible are being ripidly e :»haiisted, or in certain regions have asiually dis- aiipeared. Coal mines, oil and gas fields, and iron nines in important numb.^rs are already worked out. Th" coal and oil measures which remain are passing rapidly, or have actual'- passed, into the possession of great corporations, who acquire ominous power through an unchecked contro' :if those prime n3ces ?lties of modern i'fe: a control wthout siipt'rusou of .iny kind. We are consuiriiii; e >ur r .r- I sts ihre.v tin-OS taster tl .:.u tii-y ur.- b.-ing reproduced. Soiiu of th-- riclics: limber lands of this continent have ai ready been destroyed, and not replac ed, and other vast areas are on the Verge of destruction. Yet forests, unlike mines, can be so handled as to yis^ld the best results of use. with out exhaustion just I'ke i;rain lands. Our public lands, whose highest us- i? to supply homes for our people, havi- been and are still being taken in great quantities by larRc private owners, t.i whom lioni<>-mak!ng is at the very brst but a secondtiry motive subordinate to the d.>sire for pioflt. To allow the public lands to be worked by the teinints of rich men for the prolll of the landlords, instead of by freehold .'MK for the livelihood of their wives and <hildreii, is little less than a crime against our people and our institutions. The great central fact of the public land situation, as thf' Public Lands Commission well said, is that the amount of public land patented by tha Government to individuals is increasing out of all proportion, to the number of new homes. It is clear beyond iieradventure that our natural resources have been and are still b?ing abused, that continued abuse will destroy them, and that we have reached at last the forks of the road. We are face to face with the great fact that the whole future of the nation is directly at stake in the momentous decision which is forced upon us. Shall we continue the waste and desrrtictlon of our natural resources, or shall we conserve them? There is no other question of equal aravity now before the nation. It is the plain diii.v of those of us who for th.^ moment are responsible to make inventory of the natural resources winch have been handed down to us. to forecast as well as we may the needs of the future, and so han- .lle the areat sources of our prosperity as nor to destroy in advance all hope for the prosperity of our descendants. .\n Important Conference. -As I have said elsewhere, the conservation of natural resources is the fundamental iiroblem. Unless we .solve that problem it will avail us little to soKe all others. To solve it, the wiioie nation must undertake the task through their organizations and associations, through the men whom they have made specially responsible for the welfare of the seve»ral States, and Anally through Congress and ihe Executive. As a preliminary step, the Inland Waterways Commission has de- ciil.?d, with my full approval, to call a '•onference on the conservation of nat- 'iral resources, ineluding, of course, the streams to meet In Washington 'tiring the coming winter. This con- "or-'nco ougl-f to be among the most 'mportant tatherncs in our history, 'or hone have had a more vital question to consider. Death Kate Low In Canal Zone. • There Is a great national project already under way which renders the improvement of the Mississippi River ;!nd i's tributaries sp'clnlly needful. I mean th. Panama Canal. The d g- uiiig of that canal w-'il b,- oi be-iivli' 'i: the- wbfil.- couuiry. but luo^t of a'' 'o the States of li .e Pacific slope and 'he Gulf: and if the -VLssissiiipi is pro- 'e rly impmveil, to the States through ^•hich it flows. The digging of the Panama Canal is the greatest engineering feat wh*cli has yet been attempted on this globe. The work has been going on most successfully and with fewer drawbacks and difljcnitles 'han I had dared hope. 'WTien under our treaty with Panama we took possession of the Canal Zone I was confident that we should be able to build the canal, but I took It for granted that we should meet many unexpected difliculUas. not only In actual vork. but tbroagh. and because of. the dis- esses which bad made the bthmna a byword of unlieattbfulneas. The work done in making the conditions on the Jf^thmus healthy, however, has beeirj so successful that at present the death rate among the thousands of AJneri- cans engaged in the canal work is lower than in most localities in the United States. The organization has been perfected, the machinery installed, and the actual work, of the uredges. the steam shovels, and the dirt trains. Is going on with constantly Increasing rapidity and effectiveness. In the month of August over twelve hundred thousand cubic yarda of material wore removed, chiefly from- the Culebra cut—the record removal—and if this rate can be kept up, as I believe It will be kept up, the work of digging will be through in half a dozen years. The finishing of the locks of the gryat dam may take a little long'r; but It begins to look as though the work will be completed even sooner than we had estimated. Remember, gentlemen, that any work like this entails grave responsibilities. The one intolerable position Tor a self-respecting nation, as for a self-respecting man, is to bluff and then be able to make good. We have accepted the -Monroe doctrine as a cardinal feature of our foreign policy. M^Te have undertaken not only to built but to police and to guard the Panama Canal. This nreans, unless we are will ntr to accrpt the humiliation of be ing treated some time by some strong nation as a vain and weak braggart, hat we must build and maintain our Navy at the highest point of efflclency. Wnen the canal is finished onr Navy can "oe fom one ocean jto the o^her 't wi 'l; for re-^"—ber that onr door- 0 en on b th '•cans. Until then onr ' a tie fee*, "h'ch should always be •. pt •'nd '"•n'uvered as a unit, ought ' w to '••pear 'n our home waters in -no or ean and now to appear in our h '.inie waters 'u the other. .-Vnd, oh •y friends aud tellow Americans. 1 ••.!st eariiObJy hope all .»'tr pe-opl-i vjl! r -.-n :eiiHH -r that in th • fuiidaunu "al ii'"'--'i 'uir.- luo .st deeply aftccling hi' lite ut tiic tialiou there can be; no ro;>, r division on party lines. Mat• rs ot such i-'rave mome^lt should be diair with along the lines of conslst- •i.t iind well th<;ugh-out policy, with- jiii regard to any change of adminls- triition or of party at Washington. Such questioas as the upbuilding and n.ainienance of the I'nited States Nasy. the c«impl.->tion of the. Panama Canal in accordance with the plan.s now bein'.; carried out, and the. Improvement of the .MIssi.sslppi River, are not liariy questions. I am striving to ac- eotupllsh what I can In such matters a.< the.se because the welfare of the nation imiieriously demands the action that I am taking. It is action in the interest of all the people, and the need for it will bo as gr.\it long after I have passed out of public life as It is now. On these great points that 1 have mentioned, as on others I could mention, from the standpoint of the nation the policy is everything, while it is of little importance who carries ir out so long as it actually is carried out. Therefore. I hope you^will see to it, according to your best endeavor, that the policy is accepted as perman?nt. as something to be persevered in oecause of the interest of the whole people, and without regard to any po.ssible political changes. People Should Hare Voice. Before, closing let me say a word u|)on the subject of the regulation of the railways by Congress under the inlerstat.^ commerce clause of the Consi itution. in my judgement the old days of happy-go-Incl ;y indifference on the part of the public to the conduct ot the corporations have passed. The .-Vmcrican people has made up its mind tliHt th? couditious of modem industrialism are such as imperatively to demand supervision in tht^ interest of tlie people as a whole over these great corporations. .Most emphatically we should do full justico to them; but in retlini we should evact full justice from thtni to the public. Some of them have become so habituated to disregarding everythin.e but their own wishes and interests that the effort to establish a proper supervision over Iketii has aroused on their part a curiously unreasonable antagonism. Their spokesmen do not seem to be aware that in what we have be'cn trvlng to do We have not been Improperly radical: usins the wonl in its right sense, we have beeif const>rvative. We have tiier^ly taken the first steps In a policy which must be permanent if our democratic Institutions are to endure; while, as a matter of course, we mutt also keep ever In mind that it is exactly as inJur:ou.=i to true democracy to inflict, as to tamely to suffer, wrong. We can no more tolerate injustice to the railroads than injustice by them; nne course Is as Immoral and as fun- lamentally nilsch'evous and injurious •o the people as tha other. Sailwayx an Issoe. In the matter of supervision of tho •teat railway corporal ous we are acting as all civilized ^-overuments have -!ready acted or arc. eiu the point of >cting. Tli_' uaiestricted Isbue-of rail- ay securit es w ith 'jiit any superviH- 'lou. and uhder circunistaucea which ••ften result in the .^'^avest scandal, shoidd not be jitrrmitted, and only by ^overtiiental action can It be prevented. It is already thus prevented is England and Germany, for Instance. In England the first Royal Commission of Railways, of which that great pn.rlimentary and poupular leader, William Ewart Ctladston?, was chairmap, set forth as fundamental th* very principals which here hare at ^t been enacted into law, or whiclji u I firmly beUevek will speedily be eoact- ed. Of coarse. In any movement like this in which we are now engaged In any movement looking to the rexnla- Uon of Tast conxmUe wealth ounnd io iBtentate buloegs tad ^ eui- with, therto'wta at tIine«bo in which, unfortunately, many cent people wlU-b« Involved. Bat BOffering of the innocent J^- uoa^ iible in every graat movement of ^e. Able and unscrouplous^men are »we to deceive certain Innocent outsldfrs and persuade them to invest in ventures under conditions which rendier loss certain Vhen the force of" the law is asserted. I am exceedingly sorry for these Innocent people; bat It is not possible, because of them, to refuse to proceed against the men who have victimized them. It is just inch a case as owuld occur if an unscniim- lous man wiih| counterfeit money Hated some remote village, spent his money, and then disappeared. The local innkeeper and Hvery stable keeper, the shopkeeper, and the neighboring farmer, would| all iiave been victimized; they woiild have lodged and fed the inau, h?vU iiupplied him with goods from the store aud tho farm, have hired wagons and horses to him, and in return would And themselves loaded with ctunterfelt money. If, under such clrcuinstauceS ,lhe Govc-m- nietit found out what had happened it woulii have no alternative save to stop tha circulation of the counterfeit money, though those possessing it wcn^ Innocent. U would, of course, tr>' to st!cure the conviction of the thief, but if he had escaped the jurisdiction of the law, it would nevsrthe- less be impossible to let his innocent victims continue to pass his by no means innocent coauterfeit money. Well, just the same thing is true when i: comes to enforcing the law against busint -ss men of great wealth who have violated it. People are always beseeching me not to enforce it against them, because innocant outsiders may be hurt, or, only to enforce it vlVfy a gentleness that would prevent anybody, good or bad, from being hurt, it is not possible to coinply with such requests, even when they are made .n good faith. This is a government of law, a law which applies to great and small alike. I am sorry indeed #hen it happens that big men who do wrong have involved smaller men th no bad intentions to such an cnt that they suffer when we force be undoing of the wrong. But we an not hold our hands for such a onsideratioL,. The responsibility^tor he suffer -ng of those innocent ou&id- ers lies, not with us who put a stop CO th<i wrong aud punish the wrongdoers, bu; with these wrongdoers who misled their victims. The Conntry's Law.s. .s, In conclusion, friends, let me impress upon you one thing. Good laws can do much good; indeed they are often indispensable. There is urgent nee4 that we should have honest and efficient legislation and honest and efficient action by those whose province it is to put the legislation into effect. But there is infinitely more need of a high Individual average of character. The only permanent way to help any man is to help him to help himAn. To teach him permanently to depend on anything save his own powers is <lo him barm and not good. Let no 11 persuade you that laws by them- ^.-hes. no matter how necessao' and beneficial, will make any community happy and prosperous, or be even the chief factors in securing such happiness and prosperity. In the last analysis the vital factor in each man's effort to achieve success in life must be his own character, his own courage and uprightness and intelligence.. In this audience are many men who wore the gray in the great civil war. In every audience I have spoken to on this trip there have been men who fought in either the Union or Confederate Army, and often representatives from both armies. Now, you men know that while in time of war there is need of good generalship, need of good organization, yet the determining factor in the regiment, the brigade, the army. is. and must ever be, the individual character of the individual soldier: his prowess, his hardihood, his unyiWding resolution, his stern fidelity to duty, his capacity to act on his own individual responsibility when necessary, and yet to serve over or under or with others in perfect har- n:ony. aud obedience. It is the character of the man in the ranks which primarily determines the failure or success of battle and campaign. In the great civil war our armies. Northern and Seiuthern alike, won their high position forever and all time in the undying regard and admlraUon of their fellow-cltlzens. because the average man in the ranks, the average man who caried saber or rifle, ha-l this high standard of peri;onal quality Just as it was in time of war, so it is law can possibtr get fat of cause it iradf tMC-t^ get to enconcs^ whaf-w.iobd, ui^ cure "-^ rrrtprf* aa of opportunlty^fQ^^UV .then' iif their strengtit" of] Mc^niind and. ia the' hard, stmggie 4? fife. , i 'si -Kinds. C^^d for ' . P^ultiyjr^lde* OTTO UT.TO.0ATE-lia». MAiKCT- 111 EM^^aiUiM Special J9^Ie I on ^ Horn Kinks, 6 packages. .,..r...2&& Egg O See, 3 packages ^'-imis^ Dr. Prices Foo4, ^.packajS*'' ^....SM^^-v'.i Ralston Homin^'(3r^^t;3::'l>kgs....3(^;^..;;- PettiJohn's Wh'ettt !^oddr3l »kgs....-.S§Bi:: j Shredded Wheat Biscuits, "2 pkg8 ..aS«^ .-^ Life, a wheat food cooke^ ready to^ ^ eat, 2 packages.... ^ISm.'^f^ FRYER BROSV 111 Soath Waai&iitoa^HaB* POL All BEAU FLUUlf [ " HasStoo^ilfte TMk I Because lliMttBctt 1 Acce |if Nb Other might 00 ture, etc.. Shorthand. Letter Writlnc^ " J Evatki Where analitjr IcintiKeanl**.; eratton. we boy tk« biat- Ithi^k demands wUl Jnatttfr «• cutT- all grades and pHdaa.V - i Jr| •ouTH mil' Sunday Diniiex*, 11 t<^ Si Chicken Broth Stewed Chickent sni Dumplings Roast Beef Broifvn Gravy Sctambled Brains and Eggs Black Bass PoUto Pmilsand Vegetables Spare KS^MAi^ksvat ->;.:*i|: ••- . -'iff:':

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