Paola IFYE Finds "Hoe" And "Fork" Farming In Jamaica Lowell Slyter, Paola, an International Fann Youth Exchange delegate to Jamaica from September to March, writes of his experiences. Lowell, 20, is the son of Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Slyter and a student at Kansas State University, Manhattan. He was a member of the Miami County Busy Beavers 4-H club for 10 years and received a Scars scholarship.—The Editor. By LOWELL SLYTER How would you like to earn your living from four or five acres of land? Rocky, hilly land that is so rough you can hardly find a level, clear spot on which to build your home — this is the type of terrain and average acreage that makes up many of the farms in the interior, mountainous part of the island. This week I left the plains area for a week's stay on one of these small Jamaican farms Twenty miles of winding road brought me to this area of "hoe" and "fork" farming. The hub of the community is the general store, post office, and another small shop or two. The small farmer tries to raise all of his own food since his cash income is very limited. He must raise a large variety of food crops. Consequently, his diet varies with the various crop seasons. About all that is bought at the store is bread, flour, sugar (mostly brown), fish, and some amount of other meats. Although he has a sow and pigs and a cow or two, he cannot keep meat on hand since he has no electricty and no refrigerator. Also, the selling of weaning pigs and a calf or two are his best source of cash income. On this particular farm it is "rise and shine" with the sun at about 6:15 a.m. The day is started with a glass of orange juice and raw egg mixed. Then it is off to do chores. First, feed the pigs. About a gallon of hand - shelled corn is run through a hand cracker and mixed with an equal amount of commercial feed. Also, any table scraps, a little molasses and plenty of water goes into the mix. This is divided between the sow and eight pigs plus three other gilts. The sow is confined in a pen while the pigs have free run of the citrus grove. The gilts are also "staked" out on a chain or rope in the citrus grove to cat any fallen fruit. Next, the dozen hens are given a little corn and water and it's (ime for breakfast. Breakfast might be an egg. type of fish, home-grown coffee, fried plantain or banana, and yam. All of this from the farm except the fish. After breakfast it is milking time. At this farm the one-acre pasture is about a mile away over the hill. This means carrying a pail of feed to the pasture. Also, water is carried in a tub on your head from a nearby cistern to the three head of cattle. Milk the cow, stake her in a new place and walk the mile home with the Broivn's Bylines Records Important In Today's Farming By DON BROWN Agricultural Agent Copies of the 1963 Farmer's Tax Guide are now available at the county extension office in the court house and in banks of Franklin County. Every farmer should get a copy and read it before completing his tax return. In addition to examples and complete instructions for filing, the tax guide will explain the new 7-per cent tax credit on new investments, define tax terms and provide valuable tables. Chapters in the 1963 guide are concerned with accounting methods, importance of good records, income to be reported, farm business ex penses, deprecia- t i o n and depletion, capital DOB gains and losses, self-employment social security tax, farm inventories and soil and water conservation expenses, Farmers will need better records for 1963. Internal Revenue Service officials and the 1963 Farmer's Tax Guide place greater emphasis on the need for complete and accurate farm records Changes in the Revenue Act of 1962 make it necessary for farm operators to keep more complete fecords to substantiate certain expenses. Complete and accurate records have many uses and values. Records will help the farm operator: Locate strong or weak points in the organization of his production enterprises and improve the farm business; obtain adequate and satisfactory farm credit by determining the net worth of the farm and family assets and measuring the rate of financial progress; and file more complete and 4-H In Franklin County Tractor Project Series Planned Ross By ROSS NELSON Plans for the county-wide tractor project have been made. The leaders met recently and outlined this tentative program. The first meeting, March 14, will feature a safety film and oil for engines and hydraulic systems. The second meeting, March 25, covers care of tires and trouble shooting. In April there are three meetings planned 1 April 15, steering and front wheels; April 22, ignition, b a t- tery service. spark plug care and wiring. The final meeting will be on hitching implements, April 29. Plans are to have 4-H members learn more about proper maintenance and use of a tractor. This means how to get the tractor and equipment properly adjusted to save fuel and repair bills. Proper maintenance and periodic checks will reduce repair bills and the possibility of breakdown during season rush periods. Members of 4-H must be 12 years of age or older to partici pate in this project. Rural boys and girls who plan to farm should be interested. During the Franklin County Fair and Rodeo there will be a driving contest. The winner of his if over 14 years of age on Jan. 1, will represent Franklin County in the state tractor driving contest. The state contest is one of the main events during the Kansas State Fair at Hutchinson in September. The winner at Hut- chinson will attend a national vent later. Those interested, who have not enrolled, should contact their lead- and enroll before March. accurate tax returns. . . later an application for Social Security. Making notes on barn door stuffing canceled checks in a shoe box, or keeping a simple list ol income and expenses may have worked out all right for a farm business in grandpa's day. But farmers today need com plete and accurate records if they are going to stay in business. No successful business operates without good records. A farm op erator cannot expect to do so ei ther. Records are the only way to know whether a farm opera tion is making or losing money They make it possible to checl the progress of the farm busines with other farms of similar size and type. Without complete records, farmer will find it hard to file an accurate income tax return. Sev eral new provisions in the tax laws that relate to a business in town also apply to a farm busi ness. To use these new provi sions, such as investment credi and changes in depreciation life the farmer needs good records. More tax returns may be audit ed in the future with the installa tion of automatic data-processing equipment. Complete farm records provide the needed evidence to substantiate tax returns. Several good farm account books are on the market, but 12, 000 Kansas farmers are using the "Kansas Farm and Household Account Book" prepared by the K- State Extension Service. A new supply of these books is now available at the Extension Office. milk. This means walking 4 miles, rain or shine, just to feed tnd milk the cow each day. Since the next day is potato- ilanting time the rest of the morn- ng is spent making the cuttings This kind of potato is grown rom cuttings.) The 3,000 8-inch uttings are tied in two bundles o be transported the mi'e home n our heads. At noon a light lunch of bread or biscuits and some type of drink is served. This is usually sufficient since all morning oranges were ours just for the picking. They are just cut open and juiced into your mouth and not eaten. If this one isn't sweet, throw it away and find a better one. In the afternoon it is farming time. Using the. hoe and fork we prepare the mounds for potato planting the next day. Later we stop in to pay our respects to a deceased neighbor lady's family and see if they need any help building the coffin. The casket is built by friends at the home of the deceased. The funeral is usually the following day. After the evening chores are done and a quick bath in what seemed like, ice water to me it is supper time. Again it is a meal from the farm which might include pumpkin, sweet potato, yellow yam, boiled banana and a small portion .of beef. The evening is spent around the oil lamp playing dominoes and telling stories while my host mother and sisters are sewing. Some- times the boys would gather at the "shop" (store) for a chat before going to bed. This is the day you might find if you were to drop in on life in this area for a visit. All too soon my brief stay in this area is over and I am packing again; leaving behind this quiet, peaceful, friendly community. WOND3/W When you cook bottor... livo bottor... ffecfffCoffyf More time (or your family—more timt (or the thing* you want to do—thtt'i what elecnic cooking, with • modem automat* electric range, ofTen yoat You jew electric range lake* the cook out of cooking. It practically think* (or iuelf, with automatic time and temperature control* that-cook oocnplett meaU without anperviiion—bring* yo« (aiter, easier cooking, that meant t happier, carefree yon! Set tin new electric ranfei of your dtaler't right away . , . and LIVE IANSAS CITY POWil ft LIGHT COMPANY IT'S O.H.S. A Rea OTTAWA HIGH SCHOOL CYCLONES vs. TURNER BEARS FRIDAY JANUARY 18 GAME TIMES: A" Game 8 p.m.--"B" Game 6:30 p.m. HIGH SCHOOL GYMNASIUM Next Home Game | Saturday. Feb. 2 With ROSEDALE "" This Athletic Message Sponsored by Ottawa High School and the Following Boosters: A & P SUPER MARKET The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company BENNETT CREAMERY CO. BEST TRUCK LINES, INC. (Nelce Isham) BROWN'S HARDWARE & Sporting Goods BRUCE COMPANY, INC. Subsidiary of the H. D. Lee Co. Earl Guist, Mgr. BUD'S HOBBY SHOP Hobbies for all ages BUDGE'S HARDWARE & Floor Covering BUILDEX, INC. BUTLER'S Your Music Man CARL & MAP'S USED CARS Glen Happy & Carl Huntsinger CHAPPELL CLEANERS CITY & TOP HAT CAB SERVICE Pkg. Delivery - CH 2-2550 COLBY FURNITURE CONCRETE MATERIAL & CONSTRUCTION Div. of American-Marietta Co. CRITES BODY SHOP Conoco Service & Appliance Center DRAKE'S BAKERY DURBIN COIN-OPERATED LAUNDRY & DRY CLEANERS DWIGHT HA WORTH CONTRACTOR FAIRMONT FOODS CO. FDtST NATIONAL BANK HANK'S SINCLAIR SERVICE 2nd & Hickory FARM BUREAU INS. SERV. Bob Robbins HEATHMAN OIL CO. & SALVAGE HUBBARD LUMBER CO. Earl Schmanke — F. M. Coons HUGHES AUTO PARTS JOHNSON-GOLDEN AUTO PARTS, INC. KANSAS STATE BANK KILE & SON STEEL ERECTION Robert K. and David Kile LAMB FUNERAL HOME Blanche Lamb — Bob Roberts MANN-BELL DRUG CO. MONTGOMERY WARD & CO. MOORE CHEVROLET- OLDSMOBILE NATIONAL SIGN CO., INC. NITCHER'S FLOOR SERVICE OTTAWA COOP. ASS'N. OTTAWA FINANCE CO. OTTAWA HERALD OTTAWA INSULATION CO. A. J. "Andy" Mietchen OTTAWA SAVINGS & LOAN ASSN. PEL CONSTRUCTION CO. PENNY'S READY-MIX CONCRETE Lawrence Ogg — Charles Hendrickson PEOPLES NATIONAL BANK PLAZA THEATRE PORTER-SPEARS INS. AGENCY PRICE OIL CO. (CHAMPUN) Dorothy Price — Bob Attic RAFFELOCK'S BARGAIN CENTRE Julius and Marie RANEY REXALL DRUG John Reynolds PRAGER RADIATOR SERVICE SAFEWAY STORE RICHARDSON'S SHOE STORE "Finest Quality in Town" SAM'S TIRE AND SUPPLY, INC. "Sam, the Tire Man" SCOTT'S STORE "Ottawa's Leading Variety Store" SELECT DAIRY SOUTH MAIN SHELLY SERVICE "Your Hometown Recapper" SOUTH OTTAWA CHAMPLIN SERVICE Glenn Trout, Mgr. SUFFRON GLASS CO. SUNRISE DAIRY Sunrise and Tastemark Milk TODD MOBILE HOMES (All Types of Mobile Homes) TOWNER'S FUNERAL CHAPEL Joe Towner WILLIAMSON COAL ft SALVAGE CO. WILSON DRIVE-IN CLEANERS BOB WHITE MOTOR CO. F. W. WOOLWORTH CO. Dewey Cook, Mgr.
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