r Oournal Home Edition — 75 Cents Salina, Kansas SUNDAY January 5,1986 115th year — No. 5 — 52 Pages Retirees to be first to feel bite of budget-balancing act WASHINGTON (AP) - Retired federal workers will be the first to feel the bite of the newly enacted budget-balancing act, but within weeks drastic cuts will be ordered throughout the government — unless the Supreme Court intervenes. And many politicians and economists are now predicting that the Gramm-Rudman- Hollings Act, which seeks to eliminate the federal deficit by 1991, may never fully take effect. The act sets a series of increasingly stringent deficit-reduction targets until a balanced budget is achieved, setting the stage for expected major spending confrontations between the White House and Congress. Under the act, if Congress is unable to meet the deficit targets — either through spending cuts or tax increases — then automatic across-the-board cuts would be triggered. A suit challenging the constitutionality of the legislation will likely end up in the Supreme Court before March 1, the date the first big round of cuts is due to take effect. A court-ordered stay could result, according to government and private analysts. However, barring such court action, President Reagan is poised to order an $11.7 billion government-wide cut in federal spending to take effect on March 1, say White House budget officials. The cut will affect nearly every federal program except for Social Security and a few other selected exempted areas. The reductions will fall equally between defense and domestic spending. The result could be layoffs at some agencies, but more likely will be a freeze on new hiring — especially at regulatory agencies and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, according to U.S. officials. Federal Aviation Administrator Donald D. Engen this week ordered a freeze on hiring new employees except for air traffic controllers, safety inspectors and airport security workers. FAA spokesman Stephen Hayes said Congress cut the agency's 1986 budget request and more spending restraints are expected under Gramm-Rudman. Retired federal workers are the first to feel the impact of Gramm-Rudman: they won't be getting scheduled cost-of-livng increases in their pensions this month. Another early casualty of the act is $75 million that Congress voted to be paid to the World Bank for increased loans to developing nations. The Office of Management and Budget is holding up the funds, pending a determination of the extent of the March 1 cutbacks. Under the act, approved by Congress late last year, the first in a series of fiscal deadlines comes Jan. 15 — when both the OMB and the Congressional Budget Office make independent judgments on the extent of the current federal deficit, submitting their findings to the General Accounting Office. The Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit target for 1986 is $172 billion. Both the OMB and the CBO are expected to estimate a current deficit in the vicinity of $200 billion, roughly $30 billion over the target — making automatic spending cuts this year a near certainty. However, for this year only, automatic cuts are limited by law to $11.7 billion. These cuts will be ordered by Reagan on Feb. 1 — and will take effect automatically on March 1 unless Congress in the meantime passes a separate package of $11.7 billion in cuts, action deemed unlikely by both congressional and administration officials. Still, the cuts in fiscal year 1986 — which runs through next Sept. 30 — are small in comparison with the reductions that would be required for fiscal 1987 and the following years under the act. In fiscal 1987, which begins on Oct. 1, the deficit must be reduced to $144 billion, then to $107 billion for fiscal 1988, and on down in increments of roughly $36 billion a year, until (See Budget, Page 7) Libya seeks anti-U.S. unity Scott Wlllloim WINTER MORNING — Stark trees stand against a cold winter sunrise. Farm activist groups flex political muscle By The New York Times WASHINGTON — The economic crisis gripping rural America has given rise to dozens of politically active farm groups that could influence the results of this year's congressional elections. From 100 to 150 groups have been established since 1981, when the farm economy began its precipitous decline. More than half were founded in the last 20 months, according to farm organizers who have followed the growth of the movement. Roughly 30 have been incorporated and have hired small staffs. Virtually all the new groups de- scribe themselves as "populist," in that they favor candidates, Democratic or Republican, who support the needs of small family fanners. These groups also generally describe their philosophy as "progressive," and they look to state legislatures to pass programs they favor and to the federal government to move away from what they see as an emphasis on helping large commercial growers and the big agricultural corporations that supply them. With 22 Republican Senate seats up in 1986, half from farm states, the leaders of the movement say that if the new groups tilt toward Democratic candidates, Republican control of the Senate could end. The new groups have also broken ranks with the nation's largest and oldest farm organizations, sQch as the 3.3 million-member American Farm Bureau Federation, which they say have not worked hard enough to address thl^needs of smaller growers. . : ^ r . "There is a lot of ferment in the countryside," said Hal Hamilton, who helped organize the 6-month- old Community Farm Alliance, a 200-member activist group with chapters in seven Kentucky counties. "We're not pretending yet that we alone can call all the political shots, but there is no question that we're going to make a difference. Churches are involved. Businessmen and bankers are coming to our meetings. We're talking with labor unions. We're going to be heard at the polls this year." The new groups range in size from the 50-member Magic Valley Borrowers Association in Idaho to the Iowa Farm Unity Coalition, a group of farm, labor, church and community organizations based in Des Moines whose combined (See Groups, Page 7) ABU DHABI, United Arab Emirates (AP) — Libya, fearing an American military reprisal for the Rome and Vienna airport massacres, will seek a united Islamic stand against the United States at a meeting Monday of the Islamic Conference Organization, a newspaper reported. In another development,. Israel radio in Tel Aviv reported that Libya went to a state of high alert, manning anti-aircraft guns and telling pilots to be ready to fly at any time. The radio quoted its monitor, Mickey Gurdus, who listens in on radio conversations around the Middle East. The Libyan Embassy in Nicosia, Cyprus, said anti-American demonstrations continued for a fourth day in Libya, kindled by what was seen as the threatening presence of seven U.S. warships maneuvering in the Mediterranean. The demonstrations were in towns where the population had not yet expressed their support for the leader of the North African Arab state, Col. Moammar Khadafy, and their readiness to fight, said embassy press attache Ellamoushi Faraj. Libya's state-run radio had been reporting what it called "massive" demonstrations the previous three days, but could not be monitored Saturday in Cyprus because of heavy interference. "We do not rule out that this is caused by jamming, because the American administration is using all means against Libya," saidFaraj. There was no independent confirmation of his report. In Abu Dhabi, the pro-government newspaper Al-Ittihad said Libya sent a memorandum to the secretariat of the 45-nation Islamic Conference Organization in Fez, Morocco, where a meeting of ICO foreign ministers opens on Monday. The conference, headquartered in Jidda, Saudi Arabia, is an Islamic equivalent of the United Nations. Foreign ministers of member nations form the ICO council. Al-Ittihad said Libya officially requested that U.S. threats be added to the agenda "and that a joint Islamic stand be adopted" on the issue. It quoted an unidentified Libyan diplomat in Rabat, Morocco, as saying the U.S. threats involved military action against Libya. The United States and Israel have accused the Khadafy regime of supporting the Palestinian guerrillas who launched almost simultaneous assaults at the Rome and Vienna airports on Dec. 27. Nineteen people died in the grenade and submachine-gun attacks on passengers near the El Al Israel Airlines check-in counter, including five Americans and four terrorists. About 120 people were wounded. Italian newspapers have said the surviving terrorist in the Rome attack told investigators he was a member of a renegade Palestinian group led by Abu Nidal, and that the attacks were backed by Libya. Yasser Arafat's mainstream Palestine Liberation Organization also blamed the attacks on the Abu Nidal faction, which broke from the PLOinl974. Rome police circulate photos of terrorists Today Inside GARY HART announces he won't run for re-election to the Senate. He doesn't, however, rule out running for the presidency. See story, Page 5. THE 5th-RANKED Kansas Jayhawks suffered their second loss of the season Saturday when they dropped an 83-80 overtime decision on the road against 9th-ranked Memphis State. See Sports, Page 9. Business 22-23 Classified 26-30 Entertainment 31 Living Today 17-21 Local/Kansas 3,6 Nation/World 5 On the Record ^ Opinion 4 Sports 9-15 Weather ? Weather KANSAS — Mostly sunny and wanner today, with highs in the lower 40s east and in the upper 40s far west. Partly cloudy west and mostly clear east tonight, with lows in the upper teens northeast and the lower 20s elsewhere. Partly cloudy and cooler Monday, with highs 35 to 40 north to the mid-40s southwest. Men live — and die — on edge,, psychologist's research indicates CHARLOTTE, N.C. (AP) — Women live about eight years longer than men, and a researcher places some of the blame for this gap on upbringing — as boys are encouraged to "live at the edge" and girls to be passive. "Basically we have an at-risk population, as males seem to be genetically, and we're socializing them to increase their risk rather than trying to protect them," said Judith Stillion, head of the psychology department at Western Carolina University in Cullowhee and author of "Death and the Sexes." "This explains why males take such pride in risk-taking, proving how masculine they are by working in dirty, unsafe environments without insisting they be changed," she said. Stillion said males, whose lifespan in the United States is 69.9 years, compared to 77.6 for women, are genetically inferior to begin with. Studies have shown 160 males are conceived for every 100 females, but by birth, the ratio is 106 to 100. Females produce more substances that protect their bodies against disease, and "nature seems to be pro- lific in the protection of those that bear the next generation," she said. "We socialize males to be aggressive, to be risk takers, to live at the edge," Stillion said. "We socialize females at an early age to be more dependent, more passive." Fewer women smoke or get involved in murders, she said. Living up to the macho ideal also leads more men to seek escape in drugs or alcohol. "It's as if they can't be a man and admit weakness," she said. "From a rational point of view, it is stupid. But it's not their fault." ROME (AP) — Police distributed photographs Saturday of the four men accused as the Rome airport gunmen, only one of whom survived, apparently hoping that tracing their movements might lead to a network of terrorist support in Italy. Italy's top security officials met Premier Bettino Craxi in special session to discuss heightened tension in the Mediterranean after Israel and the United States threatened to act in retaliation for the twin massacres at Rome and Vienna airports Dec. 27. U.S. and Israeli officials have said they believe a Palestinian faction backed by Libya carried out the two attacks, in which 19 people died, Deluding five Americans and four terrorists, and about 120 were wounded. Libyan leader Col. Moammar Khadafy said in reply that any attack on Libya would lead him to declare "war in the Mediterranean and in all the Middle East." Defense Minister Giovanni Spad- olini told reporters, "The escalation of terrorism in the Mediterranean has resulted in a situation of unprecedented tension." On Friday, Craxi declared the government's opposition to "any sort of war or military action by allied countries in the Mediterranean." U.S. military officials meanwhile refused to comment on the location and destination of the aircraft carrier Coral Sea and its battle group. The ships ended a holiday leave in Italy Friday and steamed into the central Mediterranean in what Navy officials termed a routine maneuver. Sources said the battle group includes two cruisers, two destroyers and two frigates. Italian news reports said without attribution that the Coral Sea was carrying a full load of fighter jets and was steaming toward Libya. Donors to Christmas fund brighten holidays of many By GORDON D. FIEDLER Jr. Staff Writer The generosity of Salina and area residents brought the Salina Christmas Fund, in its first year, a total of $10,486 to help local needy families during the 1985 Christmas season. Fifty-eight families referred by the fund received food from the Salina Emergency Aid/Food Bank, which will receive a donation from the fund of $1,740. Forty-eight families referred by the fund received clothing from the local chapter of the Salvation Army, which will receive a fund donation of $1,200. The Salina Christmas Fund In addition, the fund has spent $2,454 on numerous special items for needy families, ranging from blankets and eyeglasses to a water heater. The fund was a cooperative effort by the Salina Area Community Ser- vices Council, the Food Bank, the Salvation Army and The Salina Journal to bolster local efforts to help the needy in Saline County during the Christmas season. The organizers plan to sponsor the fund again for Christmas 1986. In all, $5,394 has been spent or committed, leaving $5,092 left over to continue providing aid to the needy and the agencies that help them during 1986. The fund's administrative costs, which were minimal, are being paid for separately by The Journal. Salvation Army Capt. Richard Forney said he was pleased with the fund-raising effort. "The cooperation was tremendous," he said. "It helped in all the Christmas work." The Army raised about $40,000 on its own for local programs, which provided such things as Christmas baskets and hot meals. Forney said the Army distributed food baskets to more than 220 families, not including the nearly 45 families that were "adopted" by other individuals and groups who supplied baskets of their own. Food Bank Director Weeden Nichols said he distributed 2,318 items of food to Christmas Fund families. Among the special items purchased by the fund and then distributed by the Food Bank were 32 bed sheets, 27 pillowcases, 18 blankets, three vaporizers, a breathing machine, three sets of eyeglasses, two cribs, and a water heater for the home of a low-income elderly woman. The fund also assisted with rent payments totaling $390 for two families in arrears because of layoffs and other unexpected circumstances. In addition, the fund distributed some donated items, including blankets.
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