Evening Star from Washington, District of Columbia on February 10, 1894 · Page 13
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Evening Star from Washington, District of Columbia · Page 13

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Saturday, February 10, 1894
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WHERE OLD RAGS GO Junk Shps wad the &mall AM of Bagn.. TEN l'lI IF IIE No How the Refuse of Hous h kds Goes Back Into the Market. TRICKS OF Anu TRADE ID YOU EVER VIUit a junk shop? There are a anaber of them Is Washbagton. but p-hp they have never bee among yoa iatimate aequaintanese and so you know veY little about them. It if =or* than lkly. 1e0 that you do.tknew where they are even what they are for. The junk shop Is where the rag man beings his wares and his collection of eam and infirm articles of various sorts, not for a last resting place, nor for a comfortable abode Ia which to live out their years, but to be sorted and sent away for another Use. If you aagine that your broken stove lil or your old r.ags wich you swap to the rag man for a few stray eoppers have ended their work and wil peacefauy re. solve thmnselves into "bas you are mistake. Not by a long ways. They have only began a new Mfe, cnmsmmee another cyule in their revolution as it were, and although you may nt know 1t, your old Iran may again return unt, your foid after a month or so of eciting expereame s in the kettle which is boiling merrly en your sov. and the dirty, tora and uttered rag may turn up once more In the clan, snowy sheet of note paper before you. iaside a Junk Sheo. Junk shops are not on the meet fashlosable boulevards, and do not always present a very striking appearance from the outside. The Interior. however, is one of the 1a01t pietureque places ImagInable. It contals everything everywhere. You see somethng new at every glance and the longer you look the more things you ace. pia. heaps rows. bias, shelves and barrels of ancient articles are there. Pieces of d.erepit stoves, beat and runty hor==shoes in .mci=t quantities to bring good luck to the whole cty. pieces of worn out machinery. kitchen utenlUS which long since bade 9ood bye to the houseold. old bolers, chains festooning the walls and clbag like cobwebs, scraps of tn, sine, bras@s copper, steel, lead and what not surround yo- Itags in froa of you. old bones behind you, beer bottles to the right of you, whisky fanka to the left of you, odors on all sides of you are cotasing. U you were asked on first glance to describe a junk shop you would my chaos. Things are met as chaotic as you think, however, and the k man win ten you milngly that al Is In good order. it remin. yOU, perhaps of the order in which a housewife Sef her kitchen after har husband has been keeping house by htmaelf for a week r s, hut st1 the junk man's word ought to ge at pr. for he has to keep track et aN this as it comes and goes and ought to knew whereof he speaks There Is a good deal to earm about the junk busna- prssic as it may seem to y, and there i a certain iaterest in to1Mtg the history of the old and castasMie artieles frees the time they are gathered op areund the back aleys by the rag man, as they pass through the junk ho Fee theace into the furnaces or the mill untfl4bally they come back Into the stores onee more as asething brand new. Thjeunk shop Is the gateway through which everythig which Is gathered up aromd the streets must pass and be inwesed berte it goes any farther on its way. and the Junk man casts aside ali sea material just as the gate keeper turns dOm tse who haven't got Dul enough to get a pass for the grandstand. It to aeerwy interesting to watch the working. of- eE meaing but Na W andered What They may. AR jek shape do not buy ==.it the -ame arttles, me of them being specialIsts i their way, but geeranly spakingt= the artidses which they buy are Iren and an other kinde of metal. cotton, woolen and enem rags. bottles. bomes and paper. Irea is divided up tato three ases, The frst and least valuable of these in burnt ren Much as -mes from old stovea. This together with scrap tin is soid to the local en fteendiles and muade up largely into oash weights for windows. The next grade is made op of iron pipes, ren hoops and the lie which are converted at the puddlmag furnaces Into bloom for cammercial purposme From these rean steps for houses and ether building. are mad The last and hest grade coales ef horseshoes from the ear stables, which are gathered op aad ship-a to the rolinmg m~s further north, the-e being worked op into the beest bar Iron, and afterward aniied se tren utensols and mahin*s of all keind. lseesoes are no small item in the trade of a junk soit being estimated that as many as fiftythu ad tens of them are bogt freos the companies of thin city eeyyear. Thte Junk dealers pay five cents a hdrdfor burnt and sheet kren, fifteen cents a hundred for cast iron, and twenty-five cents a hundred for wrought lien. What leoks to be a oma thing in a considerable items in the lead w ome wrapped around the1,ear.... of tea from Cmta and Japan. fi rst-slam lead, and though one would hardly believe it, as much as S1MI00 pound, of thin in taken in by the junk meu here and shisped every year to lhaltimore, New York. 3Philadelphia and other places of the east. The Trade in Rag., Buot, after all, the article In the tinade whieh plays the bIggest part in rag.. jus common rags. For these junk dealers pay frues one-quarter of a emt to two cents a pond, according to the quality after sortiag. They are divided into several grades all the way from new shirt cutting, eaen and white, to dark and dirty sake. rags. The finest are the woolen rag. In pure white and red flannels, the next grade consiting in all-woo4 cuttings from the merchant tailors, both of which are made upInto paper In the nortbern cities, Linen shreuttings and emsha make the very best kind of linen ledger pae. The ordinary grade of woolen ndcotton rags in largely used In the composition of shoddy matrial fer clothing. People comnly think that they should receive a higher price for their ik rags than for the others. As a matter of fact, however, silk rag. are worth very Uttls, nor are drammmak~a ags of much value. Old newspapers and the like are bought athe rate of 35 cents a hundred and mostly to Philadelphia, from wheafter passing through the mil. the may again return to you as the now wall paper In your home, It does not look, pehpas If thin ouid pay, but you may beumre that junk men are not in the pursuit for the pure unadunlteratsd pleasure there in In it, and are not losing money on anything they do. Bones are shipped princi toyi Baitheors, where they are ground opes.bone mceal or made into mm of the morer lems fragraat fertentmars which, ***ndy in barrels, line the streets of the lor portion of that city, imparting a peeaular perfume, which has given Baltimore ias great reputation as a health resor-t. the hattie trade is an the way of an ennne.Old pop, whisky, beer and other bottles are bought up and sent back to tae intoiswhene they are again used in sending forth soda water or liquid. et a more asry disposition. The rag men wil pay ye I cents a cdosen for gin bottles 4 cents for whisky bottles, eight cents for berbottles, six cents for champagne bota seven cents for claret bottles, si1 emisfar op bottles and four cents for gigrale bottles. So, if you only thought ofit, instead of using your flasks to hur-l breadcast into the black night at the gate post whee two pugilistic and musical cats are deeng the situation, you might sae up your bottles, sell them to the rag man, keep your pennies and bye and bye boSome the owner of a house and lot, Just as the pepedo who give up smnking in The Rag Men. Th rg men are not employed by the kdeale and rely on their prodt for te feencee between what they pay the people and what the Junk men pay them. They mllydeal entirely with one man, howuue, tems beIng known to him and getM hoter rates on their wares. In buy tirn In quanty, a" some may have lered to their narrow, partag one-half et a Pon er Ags of a, worts, fie cents a eor ast tron, tn'cents a hundred see wroght trom, and one-quarter cent a pound fur bone. After sorting, however, they sell to the junk men at a considerable proAt. When they have sorted their cartful Into the necesary elasmin-aom the various articles are separately. pile by Ple .ump" Int, a wheelbarrow. run on teseales of the Junk man, and paid for accordingly. Many of the colored people of the city sort Cheir rags and other article. themselves. and take their sortiags directly to the dealOer ino sder to get the increase ordbaarily eages to the rag colleetor. They never get quite as much as the rag man, however. and it In safe to may that they mten get pretty badly fooled. For junk men, athough bland and smiling of countenance, have an eye to business, and will uMualy py you in an taverse ratio, accordingly M he Nss up your readiness to be maked. Afseted by Iad Times. The rag hustaes has not emcaped the universal fate, and has been affected by the hard time like everything else in the entire category of professions and trades. Wham questioned about it one of the guild beame mournful and said. in tones reekINg with woe: "srd, boss, why they hain't nO bines 'tal1 nowdays. Folks cain't sell dw rags; day has to wear 'em. I use ter make Mow s a week, an- a-t coun Satad"y no day unless I made U25, but new I thanks heaven if I makes 2.50 a week. I doe. Why, yesterday I sesa a man sell a whole cart load of iron fob just mebenty centM, an' ef he make moh en a nickel on it, May do Lawd vishit me dim night with a lightuin' streak. Wust of it were dat a" soon as he gits his money he goes 'eres de street an' gits two beers. So you me he Is out five cents foh de day's wuck. Lawdy. Vo. bos deb hain't no bigness now. No. indeedyl'The calling of a junk man may not appear to be a very high one, but It takes a shrewd business sense, and there is really a deal of money aade out of it. Bethis, there are some large junk firms having branches in several of the big cities, the management of which takes a brainy man, and one who is paid accordingly. Some of ints PeeanratteI. The rag man hlmhbt Is a gentle soul, but he Is sometimes aggravating. He can never be found when wanted. You aay hear him a dozen tises a day When you have no use for him, but an soon as you have he will purposely avoid your alley for weeks. Then he will come suddenly when you are In the midst of some all-absorbing labor. You will drop everything and rush to the back alley at once only to fnd him, however, well on his way toward Georgsetown. In Baltimore both white and colored men work in the rag business while in Philadelphia the Italians monopollse the business, but in neither of these cities is the clas of men so uniformly good as here, where they are said an a rule to be among the most honest and industrious of their kind. Incidentally another trial IS that the rag man never quite sticks to schedule prices, and has a way of giving you about half rates by lumping things If you don't like it you have to lump it too. He may go to church four times on entys. but on week days he has a family to support and is sometimes as peculiar an the "hegthen Chinee." He will give you a ten-cent piece when he ought to give you a half dollar for your carefully boarded pie, but somehow you never realSAs that he has cheated you until he is out of reach. That makes you feel antable, and in the sheer goodness of your heart you poise a half brick in your hand and chivalrously hurt it at the innocent cat sleeping in your best Sunday-go-to-meeting Sower bed. You do not hit the animal, of course, but you feel more charitable toward the rag man. There is nq on of kicking about the ways of the rag man and the junk shop, though, for they are an immovable as Gibraltar or an avenue ear when the cable gets weary and stops to rest. They will do just as they Syour entreaties notwithstanding, and sees may comne and seem may go, the rag man and him cart, as the poet should have sai, but died before he had time, will go on forever. A STOAY AUIT 9CaMMag, Mew a Pretty @ne Can me Made With-et week Cost. In this day of steep house rents everything that suggests economy In space is aceeptable. In the little six by ten rooms of cramped apartment houses everything stands out In bol, bare relief because there are se few elosets or "tuck holes" in which to hide things away. In such apartmeats screens hold a roaminent place. But screens east money. Pretty ones gemesany east a geat deal and most wons would rather go without the screen than pn=== an ,inartistic one. One that was made recently by an ingenious woman S both pretty and useful, with the crowning merit of being cheap am well. This woeman had a common pine clothe. horue of three sections that was dre feet high. It was a supertuous piece of furniture, for she has no laundering done at hoame. It would not bring a quarter If sent to the auction room, and steam heat precluded the possibity of using It for kindling wood. Her little six-year-l daughter gave her an idea how to utilise it. This young person placed it around an unoccupied corner of the room, and with a long double blanket shawl thrown over it called it her plyhouse. One day when the shawl refseto hang to suit her, she got a bumped nose in consequence of standing on the edge of a rocking chair to adjust It. Her mother came to her assistance, and, while soothing the child and pinning the shawl around the frame, she evolved the idea of the screen. She got some sandpaper and rubbed the wood to an almost satin smoothness, then treated it to two coats of black ename~l paint. Then she got enough dark brown drilling to tack smoothly to each section of the screen, on what was to be the inside, tacking through the drilling to each round of the frame. F or the outside she purchased some red sikaline with yellow roses on it. This she gathered at the top and bottom. meaking a ruffle finish, and put it quite full on each section of the. screen. Over the hinges she fastened big bows of milkaline. On the drilling side she cked to the hare innuinerable pockets, e of brown denim, some of them large, some of them small. They were designed to hold patterns, rolls of old linen, dust broom and pan, darning cotton and worn hose, paper bag, and-oh, well. it would be hard to tell what all those ~keta did hold. On the lower bar was a g, not, very deep pocket, for slippers and rubbers. The upper part of one section had one big denim cas, in which were pockets for brush, combs. hand glass, shoe brush and clothes broom. This lady says the screen Is the handiest piece of furniture in the house. It will almost shut up on itself. desulte all its filled pockets, and can be set aside out of the way,. or it can be thrown around a littered table If a friend drops in. It will shut the sleeping -baby and crib sway In a cosy corner from the light and dulls noise. Indeed, its uses are legion, yet it is artistic and it almost supplies the place of a closet. LE3TEN PLO WERS AND DINNERS. Peirple the Ha. That I. Meet Greatly im Demand. Pren the New Yart Tines. As Lent approaches, the many pretty purple flowers begin to show In the florists' windows. All through the winter the deep-blue English violet has been in hIgh favor, but with the beginning of the penitential season other purplish-blue flowers press their claim for recognition. French lila':s or hyacinths, heliotrope in huge masses of bloom, mauve orchids, and still vinlets in bounless profusion-these are already making their tempered display in the flower dealers' shops, heralding the reign of sackeloth and ashes. At Lenten dinners the decorations are usually of bloissoms of this hue, !ashlon liking to be symmetrical even in moments of selfabasement. A young woman found at work the other day on lace and linen displayed to her visitor what she called a "Lenten cloth." A Maltese cross of lace was let in, for.ning a center, and at the four corners smaller similar crosses were inserted. The cover, it was explained, was to be used at a luncheon planned for Lent. "be-mause I ca' manage it before, andi becaum.," ingjenuously, "I think this cloth over purple 4atin, with purple shades for the candlles and vyiolets. PACIFIC NORSEMEN ilr Who First Dimsovered the Hvaiian Iulada, TUEAIC O TIE IL!EA They May Have Discovered South America. MANY CURIOUS LEGENDS written Sir no aresiug star. P nOF. A-E ANDER, the Hawala camMAsioner now in Washington, has in hSi posso" a lot of most Intersting facts about the wonderful navigators who origInafy coloaned the It seems that in the twelfth century. at the time when the Vikings were performing such nautical exploits in the North Atlantic dceas. navigators of another race were making even greater achievements on the other side of the world. These men, of Malayan stock, having started from southeastern Asia, were discovering and populating the archipelagoes of the South Pacific, which up to that time had been uninhabited. They were the ancestors of the Polynesians of today. They had invented the deep-keeled canoe. with sail and outrigger. The boat was sharp at both ends. Sometimes It was dug out of a single log; or. If there was not a bg enough tree handy, planks were sewn together with braid of cocoanut fiber called "sinnet." One of the most important features of the craft was the outrigger, by which it was enabled, though so long and narrow, to stand up against the wind. When it blew hard the sailors would climb out upon this appendage to steady her, just as men =aneuver for the same purpose on board of a modern yacht. It is easily imagined how the race which originally populated the archipelagoes of Oceanica began the business of voyaging In a small way, paddling about from one coral Island to another at easy distanoes. As their skill in navigation increased, they ventured further on the sea, and thus group after group was discovered and peopled, each new Island becoming a fresh starting point for exploration. When peope have improved their apparatus bey their opportunities, they seek larger opportunities. These savages found themselves at length provided with means Sr making voyages of indefnite duration with safety. So the time arrived, in the twelfth century, when more than one Polynesian Columbus deliberately set foa'th in his frail canoe across thousands of miles of unknown and trackless sea in search of new lands. At Meme en the Water. These "Norsemen of the Pacfic,'' as Prof. Otis T. Mason calls them, did not fear the sea. Why should they? Being as much at home in the water as on land, if the boat upset they would right her, ball her out with cocoanut shells and get aboard again. The did not hesitate to attack the biggest man-eating shark In the fish's native element. Having learned to make flour from the tare root, they could carry in smal compass provisions for a long voyage. The ocean upon which they thus fared forth Is 11.0M miles wide. Compared with It the Atlantic is a mere pond. With only the sun, moon and stars to steer by. it is marvelous how these untutored navigators having once come upon such isolated bits of terra firma as Waster Island and. the awaian g pshould have been able to and their way e and maki trips to and &o as they did, carrying new colonists on eaehv geout. Poesic "thymay have been guided originally to the discovery of these and other lands by the flight of birds. The people who grst landed upon the Hawanan lands came all the way from Tahit-. voyage to the north of atore than 2,800 mie. Conceive what the subsequent passenger tradlc between those islands and Tahiti must have been to furnish progenitors for the population of MGo0 souls which Capt. Cook found when he visited NawaiLl Similarly, Easter 1l1and though but a block of lava thrown up fran the depths of the sa and having an area of on thirtytwo square miles. once had a population of ,D.6S It is literally honeycombed with Caves formed by bubbles of expanding gases during volcaic action, in which the Inhabitants formerly dwelt. When they died, their bones were stored in the cavern great numbers of which today are fu crowded with innumerable skeletons. Gi=ti stone images and other works of art beidby this vanished people remain an enduring evidence of a wonderful semicivthsation. May Nave Diseevered Assertiem, By the tIme of Capt. Cook this adventurous race had occupied every island an the Pacific that was capable of supporting life. New 'ealand was discovered and populated by them. They actually made voyages to Maagascar, the present Inhabitants of which, the Novas, are their denscendants. Many scientific men are of the opinion that they were the first discoverers of Amnerica-the ancestors of the ancient Peruvians and other tribe. of South Amerien, If not of the North Amnerican Yndans.= There are marked ethnic differences between the ancient Peruvians and the Polynesians, but the general type Is the same. A Salon and an Irishman do not look mnuch alike,, but they areto the same race, nevertheless. People coming from tropical Islands and undertakring to exist on a des.late coast, where there was no rain, would be apt to undergo considerable modifieatlon In the course of generations. The men of the archipelagoes of Oceanica belong to the same grand division of mankrind as the North American Indians, being of a oppery color, with black eyes and stagt and black hair. These originators of the commerce of the Pacific commonly employed for long voyages double canoes, which were built like modern catamarana. They sailed very swiftly, and each of the two boats served In the place of an outrigger for the other. Such a craft would carry sixty or seventy people. The builders had every suitable material at hand for construction-big timber, cocoa-fiber for twine. and gum for ca"lkng. In fact, the Islan-la of the South sea afe like so many gardens of Edan, furnishing their occupants with everything they want without much labor. A typical canoe of the sort described was painted black and rigged with a mast and a triangular sail of braided pandanus leaf, which was placed with the apex downward. W'hen the wind was contrary or the weather very rough, the mast and sail were probably unshipped, folded up, and lashed to the cross-pieces which held the two canoes together. Progress would then depend on the paddle. There were seats for forty paddlemnen, sitting two on a bench. Midships was a raised platform screened by mats, for the chief, his faily and the odicers. Among the last were a priest, an astronomer and navigator, a sailing-master and a trumpeter. It Is very Interesting to compare this description with that of a Viking ship. The period embracing the twelfth and thirteenth centuries was one of great unrest and commotion throughout the island world of Polynesia. Some ferment was at work to stir up the energies and passions of wild and primitive men. It may have been the pressure of Invading expeditions arriving from the west, or perhaps the outbreak of mutual jealousies and harryings of contiguous and hostile tribes. The land must have been witness to a great contention and violence-the ocean to many scenes of sudden departure and disastrous flight. Accepting the evidence of traditions of the period, It was a time of much paddling about and sailing to and fro in canoes-a era of long voyages between widely-ssparated groups of Islands and of venturesome expeditions. It was at about this time that the Hervey Islands and New Zealand were colonised. The lapse of time in the history of those peoples is reckoned with reaonable sertainty by the traditions which have been handed down to the present day, notably the unwritten genealogical records brought from the South Pacinec and preserved In Hawail. Eventually it came about that cocmunication between Hawaii and the mother country ceased, and after a while Tahiti faded In the minds of the Hawaiians into a magic, full of marvel, Inhabited by mspernatural beingaL A Pa=s.- Ma-ee Pe*e. One ot the Hawalan traditions relate. to an ancient navigator named PaumakUmn who voyaged all the way to Tahiti and brought back with him two white med of priestly omee, called Kackae and MaUu, together with a prophet named Malola. This last was a wisard, who had power over the winds, a function not altogether uncommon in those days, when the whole contents of Nolus' cave could be kept in one =mal calabash along with a dead man's bones. The descrIption ft these mysterious strangers as fair and tall, stout and ruddy, with rkling eyes, Is suggestive Of Vikings of e Saxon type; but the priestly function does not seem to be In keeping with the character of the piratical Norsenen. The agriculture of the ancient PolynesIans was mainly the growing of taro, the root of which was gund Into sour and made into all ortsfcakes and other au-. tritigus dishes. the crop was ripe the occasion was usually celebrated by a human sacrice. Hence the story of the "fatal taro patch." Everybody is familiar with the plant with huge, green, heartshaped leaves, which Is used for decorative Purposes In ksand Mabout fountains. "Elephantl*IIs a common name for it. That is the taro, Imported from the South Pacifie. ;Auman sacrifice were very comnn among the Polynesian, some families being lvoted for generation after generation to furnishing such oferings. The priests, being regarded as embodying various deities and hence termed "god-boxes," could designate anybody they disliked as a s*itable vietim. After being slain the latter was usually devoured. The practice of cannibalism was carried so far that parents would even eat their own children. F'rom this unhealthy appetite for "longpig" the missionaries have done their beet to wean the islanders of today. These people only use the bow and arrow to kill rats with. They fought with clubs and spears. Clothing they made by beat out the Inner bark of the mulberry tree. ey Invented a method of fishfarming, using for that purpqpe pools among the coral reefs, which were prepared by damming the inlets and scraping the bottoms smooth. Fishes caught in the ma--the hooks employed had no barbs and did not do Injury by tearing the gills-were transferred to the ponds. Various implements were made of polished stone and from the shell of the giant clam, which cuts like an ax. Like all other aborigines encountered In the march of civillaatlon the Polynesians have succumbed to the alcohol and discases of the white man. The native Hawaiian population is today only one-tenth s numerous as when Capt. Cook saied. Thanks to that great navigator moet of the islands of Oceanica are over-run with pigs, his rule having been to leave a pair of them wherever he landed. No large mammals are native to those isolated islands, because they could not reach them. The Rest ef All Eanstenee. The savage Polynesians even now commonly can the white people "sky-breakers," They think that the heavens shut down over the earth at the horison and that the pale-faces must have- burst through the wall of sky from beyond in order to reach their Islands. They believe that the -world is a cocoanut shell of enormous dimensions, at the top of which Is a single aperture communicating with the upper air, where human beings dwell. At the very bottom of the shen is a stem gradually tapering to a point, which represents the beginning of all things. This point is a spirit or demon without human form, whose name is "Root of All Existence." By him the entire fabric of ereation is sustained. In the Interior of the cocoanut shell, at its very bottom, lives a female demon. So narrow is the space Into which she is crowded that she is obliged to nit forever with kne's and chin touching. Her name Is "The Very BElinning." and from her are sprung numerous spirits. They inhabit five diffeent Goors ipto which the great cocoanut is divided. From certain of these spirits mankind is descended. The islanders, rgrding themselves as the only real me% and women, were formerly accustomed to look upon strangers as evil spirits in the guise of humanity, whom they killed when they could, offering them as sacrifices. Hadee, or.the land of ghosts, is supposed to be inside the mighty cocoanut shell, beneath the surface of the earth, which is merely a thin crust over a vast hollow. NoWpe of thl islands. being ef volcanic origin, are honeycombed with caves and frightful ensm, down the deepest of which the corpses of the dead are thrown, so that the survivors not unnaturally imagtne the entrance to the nether world to be down one or more of these pits. umstenc, in this strange spirit land is pursued by the immortals very much as people living on earth. They are numerous and their ways are nostly far from engaging. Some tribes of them are cannibals, whoem delight is to entrap and feed upon the souls of mortals. Others have only one eye apiece. To these natives of the South Pacific the ccanut is a vegetable product of the utmost importance. Its origin was divine. There was a young woman, daughter of a goddeM who lived In a oav close by which ran a stream that was flled with eels. One day while bathing she was surprised by a hug eel whjh rawily assumed the form handsome youth. He Informed her that he was the god of the eels. They became lovers, but finally l* was compelled to bid her farewell Jefr4 doing so, however, he appeared In bis eel shape and directed her to cut off his head and bury it. She did so, and It sprouted into a tree. Prom this tree all the cocoanuts in the world were derived, and on echnuar invariably found the two eye andnut of the young .,an. The .white kernli comnyrferred to In Polynesia as hi We Standa"4 Yarda.n tass the New Yesk HersMd. Proma time immeorial it has been the custom of nations municipalites or tradesmen's guilds to keep sacredly guaded after the adoption of units of length, weight or volume actual standards of the same, to be used in '""maon and for the settlesment of disputes. Foloing this idea, when the beautiful old city ball was erected the municipality ordered cut In the stonework of the orrider leading to the mayors office standards of length then In use In the city. These are inscribed "federal standarve"' "English standard' and "Amstrdam standard" Oddly enough, at the tame no federal standard had been adopt.M and so the words remain only to this day to mark a blank space. The two others are specified In fulL. As a m'atter of fact, It is extremely debatable If the United States has even to this day an actual standard of length that can he relied upon. This particular state of affaIrs arises from the followin:g facts: The yard, as It Is termed, and as It Is well known, is represented to be the length of the arm of King Henry I of England, taken by his express order in 1120. The original measure was kept at the exchequer in London for many centuries, At some time or other it sustained a fracture, and when examitned by a royal commission in 1743 the following report of the standard was returned: "A kitchen poker filed at both ends would make as good a standard. It has been broken and then repaired so clumsily that the joint is nearly as loose as a pair of tongs." For the use of the British government an accurate copy of this arbitrary, clumsy, broken unit was prepared in 17JJ, and this copy, by act of parliament in 18M, was made the "legal and actual standard of length." At the samte time it was ordered that If destroyed It should be restored by a comparison with the length of the pedulum that in a vacuum and at the revel of the midtide under the latitude of London vibrates seconds of mean time. In 1885 the standard copy was destroyed by the great fire which demolished the paarliament house. Then attempts were made to find the true lengh of the yard by the means of the pendulum, as already arranged. This method, however, proved utterly impracticable, and so the Ehtglish government was compelled to makea usp of such copies of the destroyed yard masure as they supposed were reliable. With a full knowledge of these facta poemessed by the United Stains government It seems surprising that they should not only be unwise enough to adopt the abeund English standard, In defiance to the then existing and consistent French or metric system, but also that they should employ a special messenger to go abroad to secure a copy of the ridiculous mneasure fromn an English instrument maker. This was done however, for the use of the coast survey. To hton of London agreed to furnishi the mtan and oertified to its absolute correctness, A Wide Wettern. First Paragrapher-What are you going to do with all those rejected dialogues? You must have several hundred. Second Paraguapher-h, I can utilise them! One of these days I'll just run them tgther, and make a society drama of MONEY OF 1834 Osin by Whick People aieosturd the Finanoial Peli. Uattre in Metal In LAea o CaronemeMeY UNed in Preint.. MarE Ts..tesm the New Yolk Wail. The "hard times "coins, or tokens, as they are called, of 1814 and the seven or eight following years, tell an interesting story of the great commercial crisis of that prled, ae which In In some way parallmled by th present fnancial troubles. Gen. Andrew Jackson was the most ha man of the times. if these bits of mmetal redeeted popular feeling, and history says they 014. They took the place of the paltica eas toons of the present day, a very crude medium through which bitter partisan spleit found vent. The Chief Executive et the mation was pictured as a jackass. asan- as a balky mule, and there are mareastle refereteos to "my esperiment." 'my eaneva and "my glory," and in other ways was subjected to ridicule. Ali these rude Imitatione of legal eminag passed current as money for years, orginating during President Jascson*s relentiess Aght on the United States Bank, for whik he was bitterly coademnned by probably a majority of the people. This bank was chartered in latE and was to run twenty years. It encountered no oppositims until Gen. Jackson became President, in In January, I2, a petition for a new - ter was presented to Congreso, which was granted, but was vetoed by the President. Against the administration were arrayed the great capitalists, the leading bhss men and the smaller bakers. The popularity of Jackson carried the sad won him the victory in the cam aof 111. When It came to a vote, many who were bitterly hostile to the old here's poliey regarding the bank ranged thamsvs en his side. Jackson's latest attack en the bank was made a year later, when he ordered the removal of the government deposits, and ths was done. The deposits were placed in state banks. throughout the country. It was during the exciting period of fnancial di1tie which followed that these tokens were A hog running at full speed ornaments one satirical plebe. The inseription on the ame side reads: "Perish credit, perish commerce, 10. My victory, my third beat. Down with the bank." On the reverse side is a small bust of Gen. Jackson, and eweds, "My substitute for the U. S. Dank My e. periment. My currency, my glory." "My third heat" refers to the Presidents third message to Congress relating to the bank, and by placing the words on the hog his whig enemies doubtless wanted to show his obstinacy and pigheadenmessA fullfigure of the hero of New Orleans a balky mule are the deism which balance each other on another taken. On the obverse is a mule baking Inserabed "L.L. D." and the words "The Cosstitadon as I understand it. Roman firmnes, On the back is a rude fgure of jeekms. holding in his left hand a large and pietheric purse, which he defends with a sword IS his right. Surrounding this, device ar the words: 'A plain system void of pomp' The letters on the mule refer to the degre conferred on Jackson by Harvard University in I8. The motto. "The Coasuttiuam as I understand It." is taken from Jahson's second inaugural address. Another token pictures Jackson sitting ia a treaur-hetwith the same money-bag and sword in his hands. On the reerge side a jackass takes the place et the mule on the other piece, prasshowlng the degree of asinlnity whic "Old Hichory" was assumiang In the eyes of his atagonists The friends of Jacksn also issued tskens in retaliation. One bears on the obvers a profile of the general, and en the back is the legend, "The bank mst psl. and the famous quotation from Jacso's nullIfication proclamation, "'The Union must and shall be preserved!" A cpper token, struck in 3llT, during Van Burens administration, has en Its obverse a tortoise bearing the mubtreamury safe, indicating the slow progres et the subtreasury scheme which Jackson had advocated, and which was strongly lndereed by Van Buren. The Iascription is: "Unseative experiment, subtreasury (en the ms fiscal agent, 1837." On the back is agloping jackass and the sentence, "I flo in the footsteps of myIlustrious predecessor." The rapid stie of the jaelkas are supposed to show the swift growth of the new President In popular fhyer. There was another series of tokens belonging to this period of national distressthe store cards or business advertise.ments. Tradesmen announced themaselves as antibank hatters and hard-money bekers, and In various ways indicated their political preferences and feelings, though they were not always of a political character. The tokens circulated as mnoney, to some otent, and were usually designed to erc the Issuer's pocket. "Getting em Dis Peet," From Lisa A .ee et U.sh6 ImweeS g Wbh b. wvauds Are <smomes ac AU Uesuoumg A Pewammnt Wahmsbge.. Um=-mmN-a. Who to tha esmm w wo ennd seem to Mobst .omsmil- waenw seam ar got Odd "- dm r. 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Aprons . -..ru? -a. -Am ma .tL . .. . . e Apme..-...--.----.116601. Nb.3 Carhart & Leldy, paS tbst.a7. K sI . Ground Hog -.ha. .a mam.. &u.. .t diSen gel i s ase m N we'ue sa. 41Ue a s o. is. eUtbt ha. *m eheager i ta asammmr 0mm we .s mdi. Wllett & Ruoff, gPa. Av. hoes To I Proud Ofea a......sPa....a.... LADWm mom er hap a s est qamene state-4t sr a thbem- wen ada mimin. apa Nb same.' aeqsa ss lhis eraa isas .. tem isa Nb e es tese a-- snepL...iUer eO VSatsm .a ims ies........ .... x. istis irN aw ....wase. EDI1ONSTON, A334NP St. IN.WI T23 WARREN UGU8EOSgg m.. w. azc.. ise sesy sensr N. w. The Beau Ideal of Furniture -- OxZrtcTUOX as Eedes Statty - aGs h-emi... a..........ge. - ai 3m..s aNb ..a . e.,,a - a.me ib. m....e St ......s -Um.m. V. isee a bma..e eO.. e, thi, P. E~e725 13th St. DANGER! .mate,..., ......se...ee sN a. mis Ut -the gweS svM mer. ab ftiw a? f Ir tow " 1S-- - !ftmm! got u*um*~' '-"Tom meW a*. ?. m ~u Oh. . ia ~A "Ly-Pab 0%6:4:01~ __mm. ~ aS UMh. 46 F~I l~~isA w -U. ams 16~ mi a ~ ois m 16S. OI MJ m

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