THE DAILY INTER LAKE No Green Pasture FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 11, 1957 The NATO Meeting If reports from Europe are accurate, a number of NATO nations will have more on their mind, at the December Paris meeting than fine new expressions of solidarity against the Soviet threat. These countries want, to have placed at their disposal an adequate complement oÂ£ tactical nuclear weapons. At present nuclear devices in the free world are a monopoly of the United States and Britain. America has been held back from such sharing by the same kind of reasoning that has kept it from pooling its scientific knowledge with other nations. There has been a nagging fear, mostly voiced in Congress, that somehow these things would find their way to our Comumnist adversaries. Possibly there has been some notion, too, that some NATO member would employ nuclear weapons in a localized action and thereby run the risk of touching off World War III. . These reasons seem less compelling today. For one thing, our own military authorities make it clear we ourselves would use nuclear weapons in any new "small war" we might get into. These officials doubt that such tactical use would precipitate a general conflict. For another, while we are believed to have a marked superiority over Russia in the quantity and quality of tactical nuclear weapons and would not like to see some of these types fall into Soviet hands, this is a risk that in wisdom we should perhaps take. These NATO lands encompass most of our forward air bases. We need them as stages for our intermediate B-47 jet bombers. But they have grown increasingly vulnerable to Soviet attack. Both Russian bombers and Russian intermediate ballistics missiles now put the bases in danger. If these bases are to be defended against such menace, they must have the means. The air-base countries believe, with some good reason, that nuclear weapons are the only effective means. Â» The Russians constantly labor to neutralize or eliminate our forward bases. As President Eisenhower himself indicated in his first science and security speech, we too regard them as vital. If both sides measure them as of such importance, then those bases and the countries which harbor them deserve to be defended with the surest weapons in the free world's arsenal. Defense and Taxes For some years now the leaders in both political parties have been holding out the hope of a fair-sized cut in personal income tajces. A few months ago, the prospect of it seemed brighter than for some time past. The administration was looking ahead to surpluses, as good business -and hence tax revenue --Â· offset the huge peacetime budget. . Perhaps the talk of a cut will still ebb and flow. The chance of its coming to pass, however, has been sharply reduced by the altered defense situation we find ourselves "in, : .. Â· . Many .wise heads, scientists among them, have flatly declared that we cannot catch up on the Russians in missiles and satellites by ; going on a spending spree. In some areas- of effort we could hardly spend more than we are doing right now. 'Yet' it seems "almost inevitable that defense spending will rise, somewhat in the fiscal year for which the administration is now preparing its budget.' There is always the necessity of trying to'get more-than we are getting for each defense dollar. 'But when every. dollar has been squeezed dry, this may still leave some of our additional requirements uhfinanced. We cannot neglect our decisive nuclear experiments, and the. resulting stockpile of weapons. We may need more jet bombers and fighters. We have to step up missile research and get effective missiles into production. We must continue to maintain a far- flung defensive establishment at many outposts around the world. To imagine that, in the light of Russia's sputniks and missiles, this will cost us less money next year than it does now is to indulge in wishful fancy. All the signs point the other way. . Furthermore, the business outlook for 1958 may not be quite as cheerful as was thought some months back. If the economy tails off a little, tax revenues will, not come up to original expectations and the prospect of having a federal surplus will diminish. At worst the situation might call for a decision either to increase taxes or .go in for some deficit financing which would boost the public debt. At best, it would seem to call for leaving taxes as they are, at least for another year or. so. . The .administration may not want to say-so; but that appears to be the logic of its present, position.. Other Editors' Opinions Winston-Salem (N.C.) Journal "... Apparently'Rxissia's position-of lead- 'ership in intercontinental ballastic missiles and space satellites . - Â· has brought no similar advance in the .willingness of Soviet leaders to relieve world tensions. They'are now blocking efforts to bi-ing space missiles under international control and prevent these devices from being used as super- weapons. : An offer by the United States to enter into multirnation talks was ignored by Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko in the United Nations. Instead, he accused the West of trickery iu disarmament 'negotiations. Apparently what the Soveits want is what Communist Boss .Khrushchev suggested several days ago -- a bilateral agreement on space missiles between the U. S. 'and the Soviet Union, which would disregard .the .wishes of other nations of the world. As any future war with nuclear-armed space missiles would leave no nation free from the prospect of utter devastation, :they, all have a legitimate right to speak on weapons control. ' . . T h e Administration s i z e d 'up Khrushchev's attempt to get us off; in a corner as a bid to cast us in the fole.of Russia's assistant bully -- with the" two of us dictating policy to the rest of the world. It is fortunate that we did not fall into this trap. The advent of space missiles has made r it more imperative than ever that all the nations lead the lives of law-abiding citizens :tn the world'com- munity. "War has ceased to,be an expensive lufctiry on which we can waste our substance every few decades, like the laboring man,- of the past who worked'hard all.week so he v could blow his .wages on .a-big Saturday night .bender. Modern weapons have spiked the .drinks, so to speak. One more ben'd- er could very easily ,be our last. The tragedy is that the Soviet Union has. shown no signs of assuming the responsibilities that ought to go with her. technological advazicement. The Communist regime at its;best behaves like Â£i bully, and at its worst like a full- fledged o u t l a w . . . . So long as the Reds continue their policy of intimidation, there is little hope that a meaningful agreement -on missile controls : -- or any other aspect of disarmament-- can be reached. In the meantime, the logical course for the Wester.n nations to to follow is one of willingness to confer -- on a multilateral basis---on any hopeful plan to ease the, cold war pressures. And the time is .overdue for us to work more energetically at our own defenses. There can be little doubt that the coming of space missiles has speeded the day when the cold war must be ended. Not .only are tne new weapons far mightier than anything that preceded them, they are far costlier. If ,the armament race is not ended by agreement on war, then the day must come when it will be ended by the economic exhaustion of one side or both. That would be. only slightly more'desirabe' than'-war itself. (Hartford, Conn., Conrant) A.commission of the Natinona Education Association has'tried in a recent study to make clear some of the diffi- cijlties i in the . way of men t pay for teachers: This system, in use in some school districts, entitles teachers, and administrative personnel to additional pay for superior service. The idea has caused' controversy in educational cir-' cles-for nearly 20 years. In that time 148 cities have experimented with merit pay in their schools. Yet today STOCK MARKET Pressure Groups to Give Headaches to Congress BY LYLE C. WILSON Â·WASHINGTON (UP. -- The government's own figures identify the pressure groups among which President Eisenhower confidently expects to have trouble in the next session of Congress. PRESSURE GROUPS are so-called because they, exert pressure on Congress for this or that-- ; usually some of the taxpayer's money. The President told his Oklahoma City audience last week that increased defense expenditures would require offsetting "i economies. H e added': Â· . . ' . . "But the savings of the kind we need .can come about only through cutting out or deferring entire categories of activities., "This will be one o : f the hardest and most distasteful tasks ,that the coming 'session of Congress must'face and pressure groups; will wail In anguish." With such language the President pat. the congressional politicians' feet, to :tbe 'fifej his own along with "them. 'There . will.-be,.no congressional election next year. Pressure groups not only will- wail in anguish -against proposed 'economies, they probably also will threaten the 'economizers' with political death at the polls. . . . . There is, for example, the farm : . bloc in Congress-representing.-the .more direct bene- the system is used by only .26 'communities--one of them .being West Hartford. The NEA Commission oh Teacher Education and Professional' Standards attributes this uncertain -popularity : to several factors. . ' " " ' Â· Â· Â· Â· . ' Â· Â· /.' A big factor-is the absence-of a .precise meaning to the term "merit pay." Because ."of this, the : plan has Â· often been construted as .just another,salary .schedule. Many superintendents,' having, tried the system; only to 'abandon it,,says its lacks evaluating procedures. And doubtful confidence.in merit" pay is .understandable if judgments on' superior performance are Â·Â·_ based on anything but objective standards. - I t is easily conceivable that _merit pay applied from personality - preferences could be disastrous, to a school district's morale. Yet a teacher's work in the classroom is naturally fused with his, or her personality. , . , For all the misgivings and resentment that some teaching groups hold for,merit pay there is no denying.the worthiness of its purpose--to provide an incentive for maximum effectiveness by the teacher. . Today's teacher salary schedules proceed oftentimes from the fiction that any number..of teachers in a school district, given the same experience and education, deserve the same pay. No two 'teachers are equally effective, but the superior one should be recognized and rewarded. ' Several .years ago New York State tried to dp this when it began; minimum salary schedules .in the public schools. The' law called for merit in- crernents to be administered 'by local school boards. But no means considered equitable by the teachers could be worked but in applying merit pay, so the idea was abandoned.in .faVor of automatic raises. This is an unhappy solution and only makes more Â·' conv pelling the need to discover methods of evaluating fairly a teacher's effectiveness. ' . " . ' ' ' Â· ' Â· Â· ; ficiaries of the five billion dollars which th* administration proposed to spend on agriculture and agricultural resources in the present fiscal yew. Fanners comprise a powerful pressure group. THERE ARE the organized veterans of World Wars I and II, a pressure group which has been the major factor-in-boosting government spending for veterans', services Â· a n d benefits above the five-billion-dollar mark. Labor and welfare projects accounted for more than three and a half billion dollars jn the 1958 fiscal year budget; natural resources 31,500,000,000; commerce and housing $1,700,000,000; international affairs and .finance 52,400,000,000. , . , . -Untouchable is the interest charge against the national debt which this'year will amount to 'more than $7,300,006,000.:'The ; President holds Â· untouchable,' too,, the .cost of military and other aid to foreign nations. . . " . - . , Â·-. The .entire categories' of activities.; to bÂ« killed, therefore, must be found among expenditures now established-in the 'areas.'-of agriculture, labor, 'welfare, veterans' services-and benefits, commerce a n d housing. Â· Â· ' Â· Â· Â· Â· Â· It will not be easy ; and trjay-not' be^possible. The alternatives'are-these: Tax-hikes to cover 'additional' defense cosis or more .government borrowing. v The odds ..against an income ..tax increase in an'.election'. year'..ai;e '.Â· very : .long. Government borrowing: is the easier way, Â· Â·"' It;also can be the way toward .national bankruptcy and inflation. :-In 27 fispal years since' 19?0, government".has spent more'than its-tax-take and borrowed : - : the. rest -' Â·' Â· THAT IS what shrunk' the U.S. dollar .-.to about- half its old Â· tim,e 'purchasing 'power. There is no guarantee that the 'faithful btick will not shrink further to'a "dime'dr, even, to nothing. s ' ; / " . REMEMBER V/HEN? FIVE YEARS AGO Nov. 22, 1952 SAN FRANCISCO -- Clever Carl Bobo Olson of Honolulu was established Friday as the foremost contender for the world's middleweight title following his second-round 'knockout Thursday night of hard-punching Lee Sala of Donora, Pa. FIFTEEN TEARS AGO Nov. 22, 1942 French West Africa has placed itself under the orders of Admiral Jean Darlan, the admiral declared in a broadcast over Radio Algiers tonight. Glen G. Dayton of Columbia Falls has enlisted in the United States Navy "seabees' and left Saturday for induction, at Helena. . LETTERS Lauds Editorial ' Your editorial, "Lets Stay Home" struck roe as a masterpiece, deserving to be framed and prominently displayed. ; ',: '"Â·. Â· ' . 'Â· Â· This thing of uncontrolled population will have to be faced, maybe the one largest cause of wars. Â· . - ' Â· ' Â· I Â·" ' J. R. BuhmiUer NOTHING SPECIAL By W. B. S. The kids who steal or "borrow" bicycles are enough of a pain in the neck. But, it was only recently that I read where "cart-napping" is becoming a real threat in super- 1 markets. Shopping carts cost from 514 to $30 each, and the taking'of carts has become a major problem to the big stores. Kids swipe the carts and leave them alter they are tired of playing with them. * * * Something we have been inclined to believe for a long time was rather proved out in a recent survey. That is: People tend to approve of a free press in principle but are not quite so approving ;in practice. (We find this .particularly true in those instances when the publicity is : liable to be a little unfavorable l to the person, or persons, .involved.) . . . a o * . "! . In Â» survey of the State University of Iowa, Prof. Charles E. Swansea found that 94.49. per cent of a sample of 373, citizens In a city of some 50,000-believe the newspaper should "print all ideas and opinions." However, the percentages eban?e sharply when Â· the points become specific, a * * Only 82.S per cent think, the newspapers should be allowed.to criticize a book or movie; only 75,9 per cent would allow the paper to attack the mayor; only 64,8 per cent would permit .the paper to attack the president; only 58.2 per cent would permit criticizing the labor policy of an employer; only 56 per cent would allow the paper to attack local labor unions; only 54.2 per cent would print divorce hearings; only 53.3 per cent would print pictures of bodies of dead people;. only. SOtf per cent would permit the paper to criticize the quality, of .gasoline, and only 35.9 per cent would allow reproduction - of a painting of!. a. nude. . Â· . . . . , . ..Â«:.'Â· ' . Â« * . Â» . . . " --Now that I'm : over; 40, I find myself'' trying- kreram into the'few remaining, years left,' a lot "of Â· things I; should have done 10 or 15 years 'ago. ,-Arid ; in talking to my contemporaries/ I. : find they. feel 'the same ""way, -to a/greater or lesser extent. The average American.. BmwÂ«- hold spent S4.110 ou consumer goods arid services in 1956, we are told in a survey. Â· Biggest, share bÂ£ the outlay -- $1,203 -- went 'for food, - beverages.' and tobacco. Home improvement and . operation took S763, and th'e automobile (its purchase and upkeep) claimed SS91. Other breakdowns:- clothing and -accessories, $494; home furnishings and equipment and appliances, $346; medical and.personal care, 5222; recreation $215, .and miscellaneous, $276. Percentage- wise, food expenditures represent, ed 29 per cent of the . average household's spending during 1956. Home improvement and operation took a'19-per cent slice and automotive a 14 per cent share. Basis of the study was 93,000 interviews made in 10,243 homes containing 24,112 .individuals, so Its'; was Â» pretty broad survey. . . *Â· * * You might be interested, in * further breakdown .m .expendi- Â·tures and appliances. It shows that the average American family., spent $84 for major appliances in _ 1956. Other . categories in Â· the classification: furniture, 862; removable- floor .covering's, $29; tools and . hardware, $23; bedding, $22. Â· ' Â· , - * * ? . Â· ' Â·. '. '. And It's.-not necessarily the high- lacpme Â· bracket people who spend the-most dough for Â·furnishings. Of all the ,money v spent by U.S. households - on bom e furnishings . equip- irjent and - appliances, 16 per cent was spent by households with' income under $3,000; 32 per cent' by households with..income between S3.000 .and ,$5,000; Â· 41;-per: cent-by households, in the $5,000-$1(;000 bracket; and 11 per cent by.house- holds with Income of $10,000 -or more. . . . Â· . a . Â« * .That proposal to buijd a bridge linking Lake Superior and Lake Huron at Sault Ste. Marie could have some effect In our own area. As I.under- stand the proposal, the, bridge would be part of a highway that would go into Canada and around Lake Superior on the north shore, down into Duluth. There, it would,connect with Highway 2--which might expose a few more tourists and travellers to use . of the highway across 4he top of the nation/and to the Flathead, ' . * EDSON IN WASHINGTON * Soviet Thrust Holds U.S, Implications ]WASHINGTON (NEA) -- Behfnd the: scenery. there. is . considerable dispute 'here over whether/President Eisenhower has told the whole story in his first two speeches;,on science and security. . Â· Â·Â·'.-.' No one in the executive branch of government' ever challenges the word : of the President openly. But off the record, minority groups .'of science and military experts'main- tain that the United States has'not yet been told as much ."as.'''it should be. Part of. this scare stuff is simply beginning agitation for larger, scientific and military procurement appropriations and bigger defense contracts for missile . manufacturers. But their contentions are also based on sound interpretations of the military implications of Russia's launching two intercontinental ballistic missiles and two sputniks. Getting a 186-pound satellite 500 miles in the air requires the eqiiiv-' alent thrust for sending a 3,500- pound bomb 5,000 miles at the earth's surface. Getting a 1,100-pound satellite 1,000 miles in the air requires the thrust for sending a 5,000-pound bomb 5,000 miles. Payloads of this size would include atomic bombs. t Therefore, by early 1959 -- say within 18 months -- it is calculated that the Russians wiil be able to bomb any U.S. base. Russian ability to bomb bases in western Europe is considered no problem for them, at all. They are reported to have fired hundreds of intermediate-rang* ballistic rojssUes in the last six months/About a third of them are believed to have been in the 1,200- te-l^OO-rpile range. Â«This covers the distance from western and southern Russia to England, Spain and North Africa. . The' only deterrent which the United States has to such attacks is its strategic air force; But'to be effective a.minimum of say ten per cent of these bombers would have to be kept airborne or on the line, ready for instant take-off Â·Â· at all times. . . Â· / This Js'; an-expensive operation to '.'maintain and, not as simple' as the. President's speeches have indi- Â· cated, Â· . It has been found that the ..United States does'.not have thV.cap'ac- ' ity.-- either 'in .fuel; or in bomber crews^to maintain, this- state of readiness around the clock.for: the next few; years. It wiil take the U.S. that long to catch up /with the Russians. Â·There may bo one escape, from this' situation. 'Â· The Russian missiles may not be very , accurate. This- is-more in the'nature of 'a hope, and a theory than it Js- a sound conclusion based on accurate intelligence. . ' , . . But the fact that the two Russian satellites-have not maintained con* slant elevations above ^he earth's surface leads, some scientists to the conclusion, that Russian ml.ssi.5e men may not -be as super- as at first reported. One chance for the United States to demonstrate supremacy would be for its satellite and missile experts to launch a moon that would gOvinto a 'truly circular orbit, :instead'"of the,, elliptical .orbits followed by the sputniks. ; - -There; is little real prospect, of achieving this! For one thing, the United States is still, in the engineering stage on developing missile engines, with . 225;000-pound thrust. This is the calculated mini, mum.required, to .launch-Sputnik I. The 'first U.S.' satellite will weigh only 22 pounds. .By next''fall' tho U.S..may be able to .launch a 500- pound satellite. Within -the . 18 months that the Russians can be readying their, intercontinental ballistics missiles, the Â· u;S; hopes tA ' be able to launch the equivalent of ;ttie. l.lpo-pound.' Sputnik -II. y v ' Principal reason -given for r .the Russian lead in satellite science is .that the- United States; .waited until lightweight atomic 'warheads' were Â·Â·perfected . 'before- going, to' work In earnest- on the missiles themselves.. . - Â· . - ' Â· Â·Â·' '. The Russians 'went ahead'on'de- velopment of heavier missiles, .aisr suming that heavier atomic bombs would have to 'be carried.- ' ..
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