The New York Times from New York, New York on April 3, 1897 · Page 14
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The New York Times from New York, New York · Page 14

New York, New York
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Saturday, April 3, 1897
Page 14
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.TKR-1?AV AND .'-ART. APRIL 8. 1837. ntliin. Md 'com back' several years pre , Vious ta the sailing of tho ttayflewar. being very thorough record from l02 te the end of l&W. At the beck of the book U a list of the passenger, errartred by families, who -embarked on the Mayflower and made the . historic settlement at Plymouth la 1620. Tho most casual observer will thus see at a . glance of what Inestimable value the book U, as It baa been the foundalloa upon which later published accounts of the Pilgrim Fa-Jlh.erAAtlthllftenu have beea baad. ; ,-.,- -J The book la a large oae-270 paces and ntlreJy in the handwriting of Got. William Bradford. It was his InteaUoa to write a complete history of Plymouth, aad for that reason be kept aa accurate account of all ' the Important events during; the aarly years f the colony. This manuscript was the i-huta of what be Intended ta be hla future history, this fact being- eatabUabad from a " aote In one of bis letter books, as follows j It was G6sKUTeloui providence that we were erer able to wade through things, as will better appear If God give me life and opportunity ta handle them more particular If in another treatise more at large, as I de-ire and purpose, (if God pernUQ with many r-other things to beUer-order.' But hhUtla-. tory never got beyond his copious raanu acrtpt notes, yet this same copy was freely : wsed by several early historians and 'many valuable extracts were made frees K. Thus the Bradford manuscript history remained unpublished to the world until 185. when the Massachusetts Historical Society dlscov- red Its resting place and published it entire in the third vororne of the fourth series of their collectktaa, . The discovery of the manuscript at that time Is one of the most remarkable episodes la tha history of literature-. .. That the book existed, or bad existed, was well known to scholars of New England history, tor among the writers who called attention to it were Nathaniel Morton, In his New England Me morial, published ta 1089; the Rev. Thomas Frtaoeta fasaous clergyman and author. who died in Boston ta 1758, and Got. Thorn- ' aa Hutchinson, la his second volume of Massachusetts history, published In 1767. The latter was. the last one, evidently, who had access jto the manuscript, and he undoubtedly' saw It In tbe collection of early New "England papers la tbe library kept in the tower of the Old Boutb CtturchrBOMon. - . The .manuscript was there at the time the British entered Boston, in 1TTS. They desecrated Old South Church, using part of it for a riding school, and the collection of ., rare books and manuscripts . in the tower was either destroyed or carried away. For Tears it had been supposed that Bradford's valuable manuscript waj among the num- br destroyed, and It was not until 18T3 that a clue of Its preservation was obtained. This was brought about In a singular man ner and Is pleasantly told by Charles Deane, . ' the able Massachusetts scholar and histo rian, who died eight years ago, in hi pref ace to the published history In the Masaa ehnsetts Historical collections, it was through the untiring efforts of Mr. Deane JUIL:;''; t : : : that a copy of the manuscript was obtained, and he thus tells of the first clue to the existence of tbe manuscript: "On the 17th day of February, 1855, tha . Rev, John 8. Barry, who was at that time engaged In writing the first Volume of his . , History of Massachusetts,' since pub lished, called upon me and stated that he cry. It being no less than Gov. Bradford' manuscript history. He then took from his pocket a duodecimo volume entitled ' - History of the Protestant Episcopal Church ta America, By Samuel, Lord 'Bishop of Oxford. Second edition. London, 1840, Which a few days before had been lent him by a friend, and pointed out certain passages In the text which any one familiar with ' ' them would at once recognise as the lan' guage of Bradford, as cited by Morton and ' 1 Prim, but wliteh the anther Of the lump. History.'. I "I ye '. New l2aUn4 -!Jiituf'.:'t ; t rims at Manuscripts, wa nau vers i collecting tor S3 years, to wo. tla algalfled bis wUlingneaa only yt He might have ye reruvai of It while he llva." So this establlshei tha datlT2S whoa the book was placed la the Old South Church, and there It , remained until, by some unknown process, it was carried to England early ta the Revolution aad found a home ta the , Fulham. Palace Librarv. -Tbojnaa PrlBoa-waa or- at lfta xQoat. lafla. enuai uosron men ox Ma tune, lie was aa aceesapUshed exholar and a arollfle aad able writer, and for many year was pastor at the Old South Church. . .. The value of the Bradford hlstorv aa an original source at Information cannot be overestimated. Without It much desirable Information regarding tha passengers on the ayncwer and their,, eubeetraent history WOuU ha taw Uokln Th, !! . . ... . . B . v va t mm lamUleawithcW10re4LaMjeiTantaat in nci or tne vol a me, is or the greatest genealogical value. There were 105 passengers who embarked from England, and add ed to tbe original list Is another, written thirty, years- after.' tnus nrelaced hv Rni. fordlJV And. seeing it tiath nleaned him iw me io see w years complcated since mesa oeginnings. and that the great works of his providence are - to be - observed, X nave inought U not unworthy my peine to take a view of tbe decreasing & tnereaa-logs of these persons, and such Changs as hath pased aver tbena A rtiir in ,i. Lumy years, it may bm of some tpe to such mm come aiier, out. however. I shsJl rest In my owne beneflte." In aoncludina- he mk thU quaint note: "And of the old stock (of one c omerj iner are yet living this present year. 1850, ncre 80 persona Let ye Lord have ye praise, who la the High Preserver of men," , It may not be renerallv known h ,. entire manuscript waa published In fao uuiie last year In London and this coun try py. Houghton, Mifflin A Co. . Every page Is accurately reproduced, making s large quarto volume of over . 000 pages. The work was done by John A. Doyle, Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, and he uas given a Brief history of the manuscript. Only a limited edition was Issued, and the price per volume was S25. William - Bradford-waa the -second -Gov ernor of Plymouth Colony. John Carver, the first one, dying In 1021. Bradford held the office, with the exception of a few years, from tnat time to 1667. The petition for the return of the manuscript to. America waa made by Ambassador Bayard to the Chancellor and Bishop or the Diocese of London, on behalf of the President and cltlsens of the United States, but the societies which were orlmarllv In strumental in effecting this happy result were tne American Antiquarian Society, the Massachusetts Historical Societv th Pilgrim Society of Plymouth, and the New Kngiand Society of New York. There was another very powerful influence, however. underlying all these, that exerted by the Mayflower Society, for since the organisa tion of the latter, interest In- everything connected with the Mayflower has increased perceptibly. The restoration of tbe Brad ford manuscript is one of the very few events of a Similar character that have taken place in the world. Perhaps the most notable example in the past was the return by England of the will and codicils Of Napoleon ' Bonaparte to France. Our own country, however, made a courteous gift to England in 1S07, when the Phila-delohia - Librarv returned five . manuacrlDt volumes which formed part of the archives or England, wniie it has not been definitely determined where Bradford's valuable acovunt of the Pilgrim Fathers will be placed when It arrives in the United States, there is a- very general opinion tnat l wilt h Anmlolliwl In Pllcrrim Hull ut Plvm outh, where the bt collection of May In bis footnotes, referred to as a 'Manu script - history of the Plantation of Plymouth, Ac, In the Fulham Library. There were other passages In the volume, not rec- 'ognlxed as having before been printed. which were referred to the same source. I fully concurred with Mr. Barry in the opln - fen--that this Fulham manuscript 'could be . .aa other than Bradford's history, either the original or a copy, the whole or in part, and that measures should at once be taken to cause an examination of It to be made." ; Correspondence was at once started with "prTers-onf-London,wtth"the-Tesult r-eUse Is t be juuuli - that the consent of the Bishop of London "" waa readily obtained, and an exact copy of -tao-manuecrlpi was -made. Fulham Is about four miles from London, but under - '" tha Jurisdiction of the Bishop of London,' ad the library of Fulham Palace Is a msg- """nlflcen Bradford's-to Mri-Joseph- llunterr one of the Vice Presidents of ths London' Society orAbllquare L transcript f the volume, for verification, -and this is Mr. Hunter's reply s" : - There Is not the slightest doubt that the manuscript la Uov. Bradford's own autograph. Not only la there a sufficient degree of correspondence between the handwriting of the manuscript and that of the letter iwhlch"'ransmittedt" we. but there U tha attestation of one of the family, written In 1700, etating that it was given by the Governor te- his son ilaJorVYMlamJ3rad-ford, and by him to hi' son, 'Major John Bradford. There Is also In tbe handwriting of Prfoce' a memorandum dated June 4, J72S. showing bow he obtained It from Ma-jar.jJohn Bradford. II also appears to have Tn in tha New 'ErglndLlbrary TThW x.;, -n-urial which ha kept in the tower oijna twrwrUten upon" ';rwarf:th'boofclsas; follows: "I also mentioned' to him (Major -Job Bradford) jay Jcs1rejpLJodgtef hla thclr;hlitarr and thtlr Interesting ndall-tlea, They.ara also n&arked by knowledge and research and an ample understanding of the subjects dealt with. To Lake .Rudolf. BR. 2XNALD30N SMITH AJ AN AMERI CAN EXPLORER IN AFRICA. -? The purely personal preparationa which tha explorer must make are many. Nerve and pluck may carry htm ever eeaa of Ice or burning sands.' He may bowl over polar bear or African lion, hut more, Is wanted. Tha explorer mast aa a naturalist, a botanist, a geologist, sorpewhat.of a surveyor, and well up In the determlnatlona of latitude and longitude, and If be baa studied medicine and Is a surgeon besides, then ha bemes.theJUrw modrnaco eler. V ...-. . Dr. A, Poaaldsoa Smith, a PhOadelphlan, graduated from the University of Pennsylvania a 1883, then studied botany and chemistry at the Johns Hopkins University, next medicine at Hazard; Uklng his Tde-' grea in 188 and then attended the bow-pi tala la Laadoa. raria, Ueidelber& Berlin, and Vienna. He went to Norway In 1893, and thence to Africa, where be prepared himself for his future experiences by a bunting trip In SomalUand. While in Africa oa bis first visit, his plans were formed for his' expedition through the Gall countries. Looking at the mas of Africa la the Galla land, somewhat north of the equator, Ilea Lake Rudolf, but to pass through the country lying' between SomalUand, and this lake - had been deemed, almost Impossible.. Prince Ruspoll and Capt. Bottego bad tried to force their way, but the Gall as attacked them. Then all that tract of country west of the Shebelt River and Lake Rudolf was a terra incognita, aad this waa precisely the geographical nut Dr. Smith determined to crack. So when on his first hunting trip he obtained such Information aa he could gather, and then made up his mind that with a proper " outfit the thins, mlsht be done. In 1804 the author of " Through Unknown African Countries" waa at Uer-bera, and arranged with a native merchant for the purchase of camels, and then went to London to prepare himself " from a geographical and natural-history standpoint." Dr. Smith expresses his thanks for aid glyen him by the Royal Geographical Society and for tbe loan of scientific Instruments. In Ens 'and he secured the scrvicea of Mr. Edward Dodson, a young taxidermist, who was not only a skillful, but a plucky man. When about ready to start, Mr. Frederick Glllett Joined him. ' ' In June, 1S94, London was left, and Aden was reached In eighteen days. At Aden men were engaged, and cloth, brass wire, and beads purchased, and an agreement was drawn up binding the men. One month's wages was paid In advance, the rest to be paid on the return of the expedition. In case of the death of any man his heirs were to receive the money due up to the time of his death, and no more. Tbe two leaders bought some mules and ponies for their own use. At Berbera the camela were to be had. . There were fifty-five Somalia, and all embarked in a wretched steamer for Berbera. Arriving there on July 1, there was disappointment, because there had been few camels purchased, on account of thcdrought, there being no food for the beasts. Prea- It the book recently published by Hough ton. Mifflin Jfc Co.r-"The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers, 100&-1623." edited from orlg Inal texts by Edward Arber, the Bradford manuscript history la very freely used, and- tbe most valuable extracts taken from It for the period covered by the book; Mr. Arber in his introduction speaks of the singular re discovery of the manuscript, and gives the honor to Mr. Thdrrtton of -Boston. . His words on this subject are: " Several Amer ican scholars have claimed the honor of identifying In February. 1855, the long-lost Bradfordmanuscrlpt.hut thj;redlt . of . Jt really belongs to the late Mr. John Win-gate Thornton of Boston, Mass., author of The Landing i.t Csim Ann. 1854,' a: Is stated by Prof. Winter !n hTiTTiaTrattTiranit critical history of America, volume 2W Regarding the value of Bradford's v rlt- JugaMEAThcr'.saayaiw Gov. Bradford, Gov. Window, Rbtrt uhh-manr Ac deeply IntcrenUng nJ:auUuita-i :tly.aft.U,.ey..ireJnregard i (pthohinei llfe the actual experiences, the hopes and fears of - the- Pilgrim Church,, yet are they. In their nature, nothing but ex-parte statements. Neither do they cover the whole ground of the story, so that they have -to be partly checked and partly added to, from the outside. - - ; Mr. ArberV boek'1a' valuable because "1t -is the first In which extracts- from . tha Bradford manuscript have been presented for popular reailng. for the entire history was printedJn, the .iaschusetu ilitorlI. Collections, and also separately at the same time, but these books are now difficult to get ' Mesara James Pott A Co. Issue the final 'Volume OT'lheir series" "called" Iiours-wtth' the Bible,"- in which the Scriptures are dealt with inTfie "ffght . 6FraorefnlVeryran4 Itnowtedae. ' This volume is the fourth, an H empWethat iiorrion orthe:w-qrjr;whJ;ft .relates to the.Kew Testament.- These vol- BMt hava-heaaxoiiunendcdJm.JMoneir IB Hons, however, wewt i iw a tmnnrature of 110 degrees In the shade, mad on the 10th of the month, with eighty-four camels, the start was made. Tbe total force waa composed of eighty-two men, with Mr. GII-lett's escort of twelve riflemen. Dr. Smith divides SomalUand Into three parts the maritime plain, a dreadfully unhealthy region; then a broad plateau, at ah elevation of 3,500 feet, with a belter air and not uncomfortably hot, and after that the second plateau, some 1,00 to 13.0U0 feet higher . r . The camels proved to be habby lot, and all hands suffered at the 'at from the ieat. As to the Sou in. Pr. Smith has not. a high opinion c-f f.tHai or physical powers. They suffer froui fever nd, rheumatism, bu u re good, on the m re h. J. . !!..... Mn I, IT 1.1.. 1 stop was made ther- of four CiC and-then j-the hilly" wgfa'n wjms. rescaed.; -Lt.. Stoith.: resuming his march, arrived at the Ogaden country. The men taJkt Arwbiri." Formerly It'was a rich country In camels, but the animals had diminished owing to the raids of the Abyssinlans. .Trading was brisk, and plenty of -food and fresh camelawere "ob-t talncd, and not far from Mllmli tbe author killed his firsnio& -A;d6rtk was the bait., and In a small xareba, or bushy Jnc-Iosure, I j the hunt t retook his post. "Suddenly there was a great inuu, ana sown wodi me uon-key, all of a heap to the ground. When ten feet, away the doctor fired, and the wounded Hon " made a' mighty bound for the sa- -reba." yhen 4ha ikm. moved away ao'l-.yas.i found dead next morning, and ha measured fl ttp' totlp lr feet .8 laehea': an4 had a XHROt'OHE- VVK KOW M AT RICAN, COUN. TKISH. TM rirsi r;praiii iito nnraaii' litad to Lsk Urnu. By A. UusmJoaoa Vaiita. New York; EJittund Arnold. line .black maae, which. Is a rare, thing for . lions inTJortheastera Afrtc;' ri After; paaalnaj through a fairly good country, Besaabana wag. reached. ' .Tha routes were comparatively unknow and water waa scarce. On the 14th of August, at Bodele. the camel were rested and Dr. Smith started for lheJErer Rler. ajccotxtpanled by Dodson and twenty followers, or " boys," as they are called. Ther were rhinoceroses in ahandaaca, The countrv swarmed with rhlnocerosea, one of which tame very near giving me a good mauiiag. I was going along a path made by the beasts, with my little caravan, behind me, through an open space, whea auddenly and without provocation, a rhinoceros dashed out of the grass and charged directly at us. I stepped aside from tha path to get a shot at him, thinking that the beast would keep to a straight course; but he suddenly turned on me, when enlr five yards away, and charged with lowered head, puffing and snorting as only a rhinoceros can. Luckily, I was carrying mT eight-bore, and I had Just time to give hln a shot In the head, when ha was within three feet of me, aad drop him to . hia kneea. But it was for a second only. Tha next Instant he was on his legs and at ma again. This time he got a second shot la the bead, that dropped him long, enough for me to spring- a few feet to one side and run. But-the beaat Jumped 419 agala, and com- -menced to prance around In a wild, dazed fashion. I was fortunate In drop- Sing him stone dead with a bullet through. Ite heart." Finding It Impossible to take the Erer ' route, the caravan took another direction, and how serious, difficulties arose on account of the Abyssinlans, who were occupying a portion of the country, and wera averse to the presence of Europeans. Tbla was in October. The Abyssinlans wera under the command of a General, Wal-da-Gubbra, and he insisted on having an Interview with Dr. Smith, and the Abyssinian leader is thus described: About a dosen slave bo ye stood about their master, and played with two monkeys that frisked around the place. Sometimes tbeffe boys, who were only about ten years eld, would become too noisy, and caused the old eunuch, Hazach Jaro, to give them all a sound thrashing with his cowhide whip. Wal-da-Uubbra is a tall, thin tnaji, rather blacker than the average Abyssinian, but with expressive. Cunning eyes, and a large, forcible mouth. He is very proud, and conducts himself with much dignity, hie high forehead and stately bearing giving him quite an Intellectual air; and he ts also a wonderfully shrewd diplomatist, exerting 4 marvelous influence over his people; hia officers cringe before him, and seem to delight In holding their cloaks before him that he may use them as epittoons. He carries his weight of seventy-five years wonderfully well, continually taking long journeys on muleback. A small black silk embroidered cap adorns his head, and a loose gown of the same material reaches to his feet, while thene, which, like his hands, are enormously large, rust on the ordinary, Abyssinian Ban-dais, made of leather and laced up as far as the untie." Ever since -the conflict between Abyssinian! and Italians, much attention has been paid to these natives, and Dr. Smith, who had excellent opportunities of judging of these people, writes: " The Abynslnians are a fine race of men, of the average size of Europeans, not burly like the negro, but very strong and wiry. Their color varies all the way from a deep mahogany brown to the light yellow color of th9 Mongolian. Most of them have mustaches, and occasionally they have beards. They havo a distinctly Jewish cast or features, long and r.crrow, tv!th rather a hooked nose, and bright, keen, darK brown eyes, and thin 11 pa. Some of the women are ex-ceedinirly handsome, usually small, but with beautiful, well-round -d figures and oval faices. The most attractive part about them Ih their large, expressive brown eyes wshich they use to great advantage and their. Clean, white teeth." After much talking, finally a permit which granted his wish waa obtained from the Emperor Menelek, which our explorer treated as seemed best to him. The Journey was continued so as to outflank the Abypsinlonn. At Loke some wonderful caves weru visiteu, wmcn dfi account Uf the, marvels they contained can have no equals. The water had carved the . coral ' limestone Into " columns with ornate capitals, round symmetrical bodies and splendid bases." It was like a natural temple composed of a little group of columns of" white translucent rock jmpportiag a, roof of solid granite. But the back track of the caravan waa not to be continuous. Dr. Smith would not go to Berbera. There was some blustering oh "the part -of the-Ab4nUnsProspccla looked,, gloomy. .Vive months had already been spent, v :! m ro and objects of trade had been rui ' iu ' : ft was determined to send a tn.., , to Berbera, who waa to art 4,000 t 'v t and stores, and a rendex- waff agreed upon. -There w otu de-.;, ectiou anuinjf toe men, whjchprijlat pnAsesetJjOrrlghta . In December the caravan was"" wlt'hln"a daya march of Webl Shebell. and game, such hs oryx, xebra, rhinoceros, were in abundance. The party was in SomalUand once more, with the Lake Rudolf still In the far distance. ..Toward the close of tbo, month Dr. Smith wss told by the Agnlens that' "there was a European sportsman two marches to the west. ' Such proved to be the fact, and an adventurous Ruwtian, Prince BorU,waii Trrietr ' ; ' " tt" ' On Jan. 1. 1895, at Bandewain, Dr. Smith felt depressed. He had been absent six months, was stilt In SomalUand. without haviftg aeeowpilshed anything. hut tha.. author had - tbe . lake - as his objective point,: and- Was determined - to' reach ifc Av-i hew start was made, then, on the 0th of January The Abyssinlans or their. raids. it waa foundWiiad driven away many of tha -::.

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