I 190 NEW YORK. SATURDAY, APRIL 3, 1909, lujrouxh Bosnia and Herzegovina serve as an introduction to the subject r.iemlng'iy s familiar with military t nice la India and tho Transvaal as ri-h the drawing rooms of Belgravta, W writer brings to bis subject a keen '.on an3 mature experience. Tct ha la painstaking to a fault in his .avoidance of discussion and partisanship, KIj methods recall the "story C the TTenchman, . tin German, and the Englishman who were asked to describe a camel. The Frenchman Invented a "ship. otthe. desert," the , German. 1 evolved a camel, the- Englishman Journeyed i to the ' Orient and; studied' czq at first hand. ' Major Henderson describes his camel villi every evidence of truthfulness. Lacking explanations, however, he is in constant danger of making a "land of contrasts " little better than a par-, adox. The details of his journey, even to aa almost feminine minuteness In the descriptions of a woman.' dress and the chances for a full ha to the Bosnian hunting season, may be reserved for the reader. There is other evidence In abundance of the confusion of the Near East in Lis descriptions of the history, religion, and elements of population of the provinces. The mountain fastnesses and embowered valleys, natural barriers against fusion and Influences toward independence, remind Major Henderson of the Alps, sometimes of an English countryside, and again of the Vale cf Kashmir. These fastnesses are dotted with ruined castles even the history cf which is forgotten in the ceaseless conquests nf flirtation T! X1V A day's jouney transports the traveler from an Italian colony on the Adriatic, where the Latins sought refuge from the Turks in a palace of Dlocle-j tian, to the Mohammedan East at Hosts r. The religious wars of Bosnia are suggested by a story which Majo Henderson tells cf the body of St Luke.' Bestowed on the last Bosnian Queen as part of her marriage dowry, enshrined 1 mediaeval campanile in Jajce, the t c-r!al of the kingdom, the( j .v; . r. -'---l from the city by Tr? Si-:.::s x r revent its capture ly I Li la was reiiored to lut rcsal oncr. tml aCUrward scld. after much Ucke ri-rj, to the Eepul-.i'-j of; Venlwl. ;r ' The polyglot nature cf the popu'ta is a significant feature of the narrative. Of the 40,000 inhabitants of Sarajevo, tha r,rpRnt capital of Bosnia, nearly one-half are Mohammedan, about one-quarter Roman Catholic, 6,000 followers of the Greek Orthodox or Serb faith, and 4,000 Jews, not including representatives of the German, the Hungarian, the Czech, the Pole, the Croat, and the Slovenian. The "Turks," as they call themselves, are Osmanil by religion, habits, and customs, and Slavs by descent own brothers to the Servl ana. the Montenegrin, the Dalmatian, and the Croat While extending these ratios to the Balkan region at large, one Is tempted to make marginal question marks. "Would race or religion. for. example, sway this people in a general political upheaval? Da the dis tinctions in religions, and customs in Isolated mountain communities, preclude the hope of a national entity and la?tiDg peace? , , While Major Henderson forces the reader to ask Questions, Mr. Upward spends ils time answering them. The horizon is broadened to include. Greece, Constantinople, and the Black Sea provinces. The confusion of races and creeds is still shown with varying pro portions. The Greek metropolitan in Klrk-Killssl told Mr. Upward, for ex ample, that the 20,000 Inhabitants of that town comprised, approximately. one-half Hellenes, one-third Turks, one fourth Bulgars, and one-twentieth Jews. In the province of Monastlr, Bulgaria, the centre of the Bulgar agi tation the proportions were, roughly. one-half Moslems, one-fifth Greeks, and ' one-tenth Bulgars. ; The stage soon becomes too large, however, for specific instances. Hellenism on the ooohand and on the other Bulgaria- foundling among nations, Mr, Upward calls her contend for spiritual and temporal power in that vaguely defined region, Macedonia. The attacks and reprisals, known to the westward as " Bulgarian - atrocities," the jealousies of the powers, the sym--.bola cf. religious differences In Patriarchate and E(xarchate, the rival claims to precedence, of the one or the other-all are deUlls of a race foud more or tees familiar to the admirers of Glad stone, the sympathizers with Lord Byron, and the readers of newspapers. When Mr. Upward become protagonist his views are novel and frequently startling. "Tell the truth and shame the devil," advised Sir Nicholas O'Conor, late British Ambassador In Constantinople, aa Mr. Upward was about to set out on his Journey to Bulgaria. Theresult is. a heavy Indictment of Bulgarian methods. But Mr. Upward's sympathies are frankly those of a Hellenist. n Is misleading in the importance he attaches! to Greek prestige In the Near East, and especially tothelf , lawful inheritance of Constantinople. Gathering his evidence with the scrupulous care of an attorney preparing for a trial la court, Mr. Upward holds a brief for Hellenism and argues from it Portions of his work seem to be a reply to - Macedonia by IL N. Brailsford, a book enlarging on the Bulgar aid of the controversy. A dispute; which promises to be In terminable 'may be dismissed with a hint at the author's conclusions. The tolerance and dignity of the follower of Islam, as reflected in their new Constitution, is one of them. The deterrent effects of foreign interference is another. In , the latter phases of the subject Mr. Upward describes a meeting with Sir Nicholas O'Conor, In which the latter offered confidences: . He went on to explain that the mis- chief lay In advocating Ideal remedies which were Impracticable in the circumstances of the country. The man who thinks be has cot an ideal solution Is only doing harm. Aa I said to them, this is not our pigeon. We can only go one str? at a urns." Tia Ambassador clearly meant to convey that it was useless for English phllanthro- ? lists to advocate solutions which were ncompatlble with the views and interests of powers mors closely concerned In the Macedonian question than Great Britain. The best chance of doing good was to follow the line . of least resistance. ' In the broad view of the Eastern question offered by these volumes three other solutions are suggested the one ominous, the others pacific. In bis volume Mr. Upward emphasizes the In trigues of Russia in the Bulgarian 'uprisings. Not content with general charges, be quotes evidence of Slavonlo spies arousing race prejudices, Inciting ly vlaience, and preparing the way for h'Juus u!gar. atrocities. - I." 3 patience, tl-scrslstence, the In- dornilatia resolve of Ru??ia io such an nUlgUj of expansion could hardly " offer a more atriRing example than in Mr. Braddeley's history of the cofl(juat of the Caucasus. In every cnse, tills achievement was more formidable than Russia's seizure of the Near East could ever be. In the region of she Caucasus 400 miles of towering mountain ranges. seamed by almost impenetrable defiles, served as a graveyard of tribesmen, driven thither as they were defeated by Tartar, Goth, or Slav. For nearly 1,000 years the region had been the scene of Slavonic conquest Here the forefathers of the Cossacks sought refuge from persecution to be molded into a bulwark against Islam and the terror of Eastern Europe, Into these defiles Russia pressed forward, undaunted, for more than a century until, in 1S50. these gateways were opened for possible expansion toward the south. Discarding the thought of a similar solution for the problem of tho Near East the volumes suggest more humane conquests by means of segrega tion, education, and the spirit of true beneficence. Mr. Upward remarked the number of Hellenists who were seek' irig a refuge in Greece' and of Turks migrating, 'apparently by direction of their Governors, to the domains of the Sultan. Major Henderson tells of tho vanguard of schools, workshops, and experimental farms with which Austria invaded Bosnia and Herzegovina, while the physical annexation of the provinces still seemed to be remote. Mr. Upward's inquiries dealt largely with the schools flourishing in Bulgaria without distinctions of race or creed. An open mind and beneficent spirit might serve as the keynote of Dr. Pen sell's story of sixteen years spent as a medical missionary and mendicant on the Afghan frontier a book written that he' may obtain funds for a hos pltal at Thai. Of the contradictions in character, tho crimes, and the virtues of the wild tribes on the Indian frontier Dr. Pennell writes with a wealth of anecdote which transforms the volume into a series of human documents. But behind and beneath It all is a spiritual success reached by " a door everywhere which can be opened with love, sym pathy, and practical service?. CATHOLIC RECORDS OF OLD NEW YORK William Harper Bennett Traces the Development of Catholicity in . . the City from the Earliest ----.'Recorded Time. IN "Catholic Footprints in Old New York " William Harper Bennett has written a valuable as well as a highly entertaining history, or, as he puts it, "A Chronicle of Catholicity la the City of $tew York from 1521 to 1SC& The earlier date may prove puz-sitnjr to readers familiar with the narrative of the' discovery of the river which bears his name by Henry Hudson In 1C00, and the settlement of New Amsterdam by the Dutch In 1614, but Mr. Bennett La his book quotes several authorities to the effect that Giovanni de Verrazano, a typical sea rover, visited New York Harbor in 1524, and he also quotes from John Flske's M Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America" that the French traded with the Mohawks and were familiar with the river long before Hudson's day. Mr. Bennett's narrative closes with 1808, when, by order of Pope Pius VIL, New York was made a separate diocese, having been formerly a part of the Baltimore Diocese, under Archbishop John Carroll, a cousin of Charles Carroll,, one of the signers of the Declaration of Indepen dence, Religious persecutions in the Prov ince of New York never occasioned such bitterness or had such tragic results as was the case in many other colonies, but for all this the early New Yorkers were no more advanced in their princi ples of toleration than their neighbors. The dominant rellgiouatlement enacted laws stringent enough against creeds or forms of worship differing from their own to have caused tragedies had the conditions beeifVlpe for it. The religions that were discriminated against were for the time being so weak that no serious opposition was ever offered, and whiia thcro were some spasmodic outbreaks, based chiefly upon silly ru mors and senseless fears, the religious troubles of the Colony never attained either the prominence cr historical in terest that characterized New England Colonies. - ''-L : Gov. Btuyvesant in 1CM ertWrt'..Z first penal law asslm treMcui v science when. In ?. TTtit against th Lutherans, he issued a proclamation against any religious assembly not in harmony with the Reformed Church. It Is a pleasure to record, however, that his directors in Holland rebuked him for this act. The Dutch settlers In Flushing rose against a company' of Baptists and banished them. The Jews were disfranchised later, but, although the Catholics were regarded with suspicion, it was not until 1700, under Lord Bellomont's rule, that severe .legal measures were taken against them. The f ear of the Catholics was natural, both on the part of the Dutch and the English, not so much, it would seem, from the religious side as a fear of French Influence and power during 'the troublesome years close to the outbreak of the Revolution, when the French and the English were practically In continual warfare for North American domination. Even the provisions of .the Test act, directed against the Catholics in England in 1C78, were not operative In the province, nd the Catholic Duke York, afterward James II., gave Gov. Andros instructions which were models of religious toleration. Not until 1CS0 was thty Test act really thought of, when Jacob Lelsler refused to pay duties to the City Collector, Matthew Plowman, a Catholic, on the ground that he could not legally hold office, and precipitated what lsnown as Lels-ler's Rebellion, culminating two years later with his execution. Catholicism was slow , in getting a firm start in New York. Bellomont's law of 1700, . condemning to perpetual imprisonment all Catholic "priests, was not repealed until 1784, and even during th Revolution the old law was enacted against Abbe de la Motte, a Chaplain of a French frigate captured by the English. The Abbe asked for permission to celebrate mass for the benefit of CATHOUO rOOTPIUNTS IN OLD NEW YORK. A. Clironlcl of Catholicity In tb City of New Tor from 1524 to 1S0, By Wllllsm iianwr MtnnetL lllulrtd. Pix, S.-4W. 8vo. CloU. Kw York: Sohwsjrta, ILta-via a Kasu. the Catholic residents of the city, but Was refused. Not understanding the language perfectly, he considered that his request had boon granted, and performed the service, and was imprisoned for a year in the old Provost jail. New York was growing too large, however, for such mediaeval laws, and the Indications of religious freedom are seen In the fact that a priest. Father . Farmer, ministered to the Catholics in 1775, and actually celebrated mass in a Bttle house in Wall Street, but with tho windows tightly closed. ? Several leading Catholic citizens, Incorporated - the Roman Catholic Church of the City of New York right after the Revolution, and the cornerstone of the first Catho-Bo church in tho city, St Peter's, at Barclay; and. Church Streets, was laid on Oct 6, 178S The church Is still standing on the same site, although a tew building. Not until a year later was the first service held there. Its early years were not' any too prosperous, for In 1800 w find that it had a debt of $6,500, an Income of $1,500, and annual expenses of $1,400. It bought the churchyard at Prince and Mott Streets in 1801, where steps to erect the Pro-Cathedral were made In 1803. The next few years witnessed a decided growth in Catholic residents, there being 11000 Catholics In the city in 1S0ST In 1908, when the centenary of the Diocese of New York wa3 celebrated. Arch- . bishop Farley announced that in place of one there were 310 Catholic churches, 130 parochial schools instead of 4, and a Catholic population of t200,000. The author gives a pleasing picture of the kindly reception accorded to the first Jesuits to visit New York. The first Jesuit to see the little settlement around the fort was Faiher Jogues, in . 1611 He had lately escaped from the Indians after undergoing fearful tortures, having been ransomed by the Dutch at Albany. Dominie Megapolen-sls, we are told, was his Good Samar-, itan, accompanying him down the Hudson to New Amsterdam, where he was cordially welcomed by Gov. Kelft and Dominie Bogardus. He sailed for France in a few days, but, soon returning, resumed his missionary labors among the Indians,' only to meet death at their hands in Upper New York. Dominie Megapolensis, we learn, had formerly been a Catholic, but renounced that fatlh, and Father Jogues earnestly besought him to return to the fold. Father Francis Joseph Brassani was the second Jesuit missionary to arrive la the city, his ylslt being one year la.hr, and under practically the same cou'MoTm as occasioned Father Jogues's visit He, too, was ransomed from the hostile Indians by the Dutch, and when he left for Europe Gov.. Kelft gave him a letter saying that "Christian charity requires that he be humanely treated.' In 1C52 came the third Jesuit, Father Simon Le Moyne. He stayed eight days and was well received, and also(argued with Dominie Megapolensts to return to Catholicism. 1 1 Gov.' Thomas Dongan was the first Catholic Governor in the line of English rulers. He brought a Catholic Chaplain, with him, but gave no undue prominence to his religion, and was universally popular. His Chaplain, It may be interesting to note, was Father Thomas Harvey, who In 1CS5 opened the first Latin School In the city. The book is well printed, and Illustrated with old views of New York and portraits of notable Catholics of bygone days. EASTER CARDS Easter -cards In great variety, many of them new in design and showing ingenuity in construction, herald the approach of Easter. The Raphael Tuck & Bona Com- ra r r la 4a . Y a ? ahv b 1 4 V. . i - variety of cards and post cards, ranging widely in price. Among their novelties are the " glistening dew " post cards, of figures, crosses, or landscapes, sparkling with the effect of dew. Jilver die stamping is a novel effect seen upon others. Cut-out cards of chicks, rabbits, Teddy bears, or-roosters. tonus of them quite large, afford an element of dainty humor. A chick serving as chauffeur upertf an automobile filled with flowers and eggs and carrying a concerned looking rabbit under a red umbrella is ono of these designs. Another is a mechanical , device showing two checks, one lifting a hat gracefully with the Up of its wing in greeting to a young lody chick wearing a coquettish sun bonnet The wing lifting the hat and the sunbonnct are movable. In the M ollette " series are some artistic effects in landscapes and flowers, and funny little chicks engaged in varied oo-.cupatlona., -4..
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