Skip to main content
The largest online newspaper archive

The New York Times from New York, New York • Page 35

New York, New York
Issue Date:
Extracted Article Text (OCR)

Uii lit- -d Part 3vt 3 a a I 0 grttntt ysrt 5lvt flagnxlnr DrttJnn SUNDAY. MAY 31. 1908. MX- -v a. i Justice Brewer Discusses America's luture with a Candid Optimism That Sees in the Existing Torin of Government a Perfect Safe guard Against Protect Natural Resources.

BELIEVE oar country vu destined by an Almighty Providence for ths leadership of ths world, not merely In a material direction. In the production of gold and silver and trops. but In lb character of It manly man and para women." Tbsrs waa the divine fire of patriotism in the eyes of David Joalab Brew-r, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, when he but expression to this view. In de-Dcrlbing the man, the first facet of his many sided character that attracts and holds the eye and heart Is that of his Jove of country. It waa formed probably before his birth, and waa Inspired by the feeling- for the flag which resi dence In a foreign land intensifies.

The father of the Associate Justice waa an early missionary In Turkey. His moth er, the sister of that remarkable trio. David Dudley, Cyrus and Justice Stephen J. Field, accompanied her hus band to his field of Christian labor. fend tn Smyrna, Asia Minor, the child was born who was to leave an indelible Imprint upon the progress and destiny of his native land.

That event oo- ourred on June 20, 1837. so that In tew weeks Mr. Brewer will have an other birthday anniversary his seven ty-f lrst. Those seventy-one years cover a marvelous spaa In the world's history, and particularly in that of the United States. They have witnessed revolu tions In every department of life and thought.

They have seen a stupendous advance In civilisation, the abolition of slavery, the general recognition of the rights of man, the development of science, and progress in every phase of human endeavor. The part Justice Brewer has played in the events wlU be realised when It Is recalled that after being graduated from Tale College, and subsequently from the -Albany- Law School, he served as a United States Commissioner in Washington, was then Judge of the Probata and Criminal Courts of Leavenworth. Kansas; Judge of the District Court, of Leavenworth, County Attorney, Justice of the Supreme Court of Kansas. Judge of the Circuit Court of the Eighth Judicial Circuit, and Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, to which position he waa appointed In While In his present office he served as President of the Venezuelan Boundary Tribunal appointed by President Cleveland, was a member of the International Arbitration Tribunal to settle the boundary between British Oulana and Venezuela, and was President of the International Congress of Lawyers and Jurists which met in St. Louts In 1SOL Fill In these outlines of a busy life and you will have no difficulty In comprehending the large role Justice Brewer has played In our internal de velopment In international affairs.

Checks Between National and State Governments Excellent Protection. ml have passed the Biblical limit of three scores years and ten, the Jus tics said, smilingly, when I remarked that I had never seen him looking so welL I met Dr. Wiley the other day, he told him I vu preparing for membership In the Century Club. 'You are not eligible reL the doctor assured me. But the years are passing; and passing Quickly." I looked at Mr.

Brewer as he was repeating the conversation he had had with Dr. Wiley. It waa a strong, marked face saw, with deep lines that show vigor and character and determination. Ills i blue eyes were as clear as a mountain stream, and they gased directly at one." frankly and openly. Inviting tho same kind or candor that -waa offered.

His head was large, dame-shaped, with white hair on either side, and It sunk tn between his shoulders, which were slightly stooped. No Question of age came Into my mind. What I saw was a force and decision, and seeing them I understood how he had risen to become one of the mighty -Nine that on the Supreme Bench make our laws by their Interpretation of them. "Tea, we have a great country, a great country, he remarked, returning to the theme that evidently was so dear to him, and it is aa certain to become greater as that the earth revolves around the sun. We have the kind of people to achieve things; we have the kind of.

climate and soil to make the race strong and virile:" we have the kind of Government that' enables the freest Individualism. Because of the checks between the Federal Government and the States there cannot be too great centralization. We are In no danger of a dictatorship. We have the best form of Government, and It'ought be maintained in Its Integrity. Whatever changes are made should be raaaa slowly, carefully, and in the interest of lU.n the time come, Mr.

suggested, -for the prohibition of wnlgration? think a fairly reasonable amount immigration should be permitted, but we ought to make determined ef--ta -exclude an. jhe-jrtclou-a4 ii Centralizing Perils anarchlstlo elements, an the refuse from other nations. The United States Is not a cesspool for the Tile of foreign lands. We do not want paupers or those who cannot give value in return for the benefits they receive. We can not admit races that do not amalgamate with us and which by their cheaper mode of.

living can cause us suffering and reduce oar standard of life. We are in the position of a man with a twenty-room house. We do not need all the space, but we have the right to say who shall be-admitted to stay with us. With our splendid school system we can train the children of immigrants as they should be. so that tne next generation will them good Americana.

They will learn to love their country and do their duty as men and women." "But bow can we provide for our natural Increase of population? The day of territorial expansion has gone, has it not?" "No, not entirely. So long as humanity exists, so long will there be peoples who will restlessly strive to increase their bounds. But the available land on our continent is pretty well taken up. At the Governors' Conference called by President Roosevelt and that, by the way. was the best thing he has done I talked with James J.

Hill, who told me that there remain but 0,000,000 acres of tillable land in Canada, and that when they are oc cupied conditions In the British Dornln ion will be precisely what they are in the United States. Of course, we have a large area of swamp lands that can and should be drained, and a vast ex tent of arid lands that is being brought to production through the use of irri gation. But there is a limit to the addi tion we can make to our soil-producing area, and we should bend our efforts to earing tor what we have. There has been a- prodigal waste of our natural resources. I know of families which have resided upon a farm In We have the kind of pecplt to achieve things we have the kind of climate and soil to make the met strvng and virile; tvt Aavt tht kind cf government that enables tht freest individualism.

I think a fairly reasonable amount of immigration should be permitted, but we ought to make determined efforts to exclude all tht vicious and anarchistic elements, all the refuse from other nations. We are in the position of a man with a twenty-toom house. We do not need all the space, but we kavt tht right to say who shall bt admitted to stay with us. I am satisfied as a result of the methods of cultivation pursued by the French peasants they get more Virginia until, through careless treatment, the soil has been weakened, perhaps destroyed, and they have moved to Ohio, where they have repeated the manoeuvre with the same results, and then have gone further-west. It is a policy so destructive to the National welfare that it is Imperative it should cease at once.

Why, In France such care is taken of the land that it produces as well now as It ever bas done. Every inch of it is in use. Fences are not employed to mark boundaries. I am satisfied as a result of the methods Four Hours' Sleep lLnough for Any One, Says lLdison AFTER all. sleep is only a habit; there is nothing to prove that men really need It," Thomas A.

Edison said the other day. "Men first learned to sleep because when darkness came they had nothing else to do. Through the ages their descendants, doing likewise, made sleep a custom a matter of course. But it men had always lived tn a land of per petual light and sunshine. I don suppose we would sleep at all." The famous inventor backed up the idea by telling of a practical test.

It was not his own ability to live with little sleep. As is well known. Mr. Edison limits him self to four or five hounr sleep in the twenty-four. He said he.

had not slept more than five hours la a night for forty years. In much of that time be averaged only four hours. Nor was it the ease of hts wife, which he mentioned incidentally. Mrs. Edison, be said, sleeps only rtve hours in a night, and the habit seems to agree with her.

The test be described Involved nearly 100 men of average physique in Mr. Edison's laboratory. -The test was made," Mr. Edison said. while was experimenting with toy assistants at Menle Park.

I limited each man to four hours sleep tn the tweaty-four. They kept it up for two years. It did not seem to hurt them." Were they aided by special diet. or treatment to make up zor tne loss or sleep?" No, except that there were reur meai day Instead of three. We had break- fast dinner, and supper ut the daytime as' usual, and aa extra supper at midnight.

There was nothing peculiar about the food. The meals consisted of the meats, vegetables, bread, and the rest which ordinary people eat. Each man was assigned to four hours the twenty-four in which tee was es tltled to sleop. When the time came be to our! bunkhouse near the labors-j tery. aaV 4-" wf WW see i iu r.

vt- isjj B25SSiSaagfgri' fZ2 mm flZsii-u Jr out of a ten'ocre piece than our farmers get out of J60 acres. We should take to heart tht practice of Europe in looking after the soil, and then we will be able not only to continue Jo feed our own of cultivation pursued by the French peasants they get more out of a ten-acre piece than our farmers get out of 160 acres. We should take to heart the practice of Europe in looking after the soil, and then we shall be able not only to continue to feed our own people, however great the population may become, but to provide the world with foodstuffs." Tou approve of the President's ao-tion in calling the conference of Governors If" "Most emphatically. It was an ex Famous Inventor Tells of the Success of an ILxpcriment Proving Men Usually Sleep Too MuchSour Milk Theory. was sound asleep In a moment.

Ha didn't get his full four hours either, for we would call him a trifle ahead of time. I suppose he slept three hours and per cent, of the last hour. "What was the effect of cutting down their sleep? For the first week or so it was hard very hard. They would come back to work limp and heavy footed, their eyes sometimes looking as if they had been drinking heavily. The old habit of sleeplag which men had followed for so many ages was telling on them.

The habit was hard to break. But after the first week or so, the reduction in their hours of sleep seemed to make no difference tn their work or mental capacity. Indeed, they sained in agility. They seemed to be lighter on their feet. There is this significant point in such a test: The men who slept four hours la Musings ol the Patlenos is a virtue When it Isn't simply laaineaav Beaaty is as beauty does.

The derrick Isn't handsome, but it has aa uplifting The time may come when the spendthrift won't have the oents tie was born with. If matches are made In heaven, it Is evident that they are not to be. made light of. It tent always because they fond of flowers that people threw bouquets at David Joslah Brewer, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Cou ri. people, however great the Population may become, but to provide tht world with foodstuffs.

It is difficult at the Present time to 'hold people to the farm because of tht lack of social advantages. If we cellent idea, and should have the most beneficial results for the country, provided it be kept clear of politics. The conference of Governors might well and wisely consider the subject cf uniform legislation relative to marriage and divorce and child labor. The American Bar Association has had committees endeavoring to bring about such uniformity and has accomplished something without creating any antagonisms. Those committees have this advantage: They are unofficial and attempt to secure results by showing the the twenty-four had absolute rest.

The person who sleeps too much not only experiences a heavy feeling in the body, but usually does not enjoy- absolute unoon setousness while he sleeps. remember the case of my wife some years ago. I was sleeping four txours a night no more. 8he said she wanted her full eight hours' sleep. In that eight hours she would dream.

She would wake up several times of a nlgnt. Her rest was by means complete. I persuaded her to give only five hours to sleep la the tweaty-fouc 8be trained herself to do so. Her rest bees me Intense, absolute, without dreams or moments of awakening. Ever since she has allowed herself no mors than five boars' sleep in the twenty-four.

Does it hurt her? Well "this with a satlsf lad laugh my wife looks sw young shs might be Greenwood Lake Philosopher It's a good plan to face the back-biter. A great deal of modesty to merely on the surface. It doesn't take an actor to make up for lost time. There are people so constituted that they couldn't find happiness with a fine tooth comb. It's a fine thing ts be a Wader, but It to better to follow a good example than to set a bad one.

Tan can't always teD wnea a gun Is loaded, but you generally knew when have a place nere of 160 acres, and another place here of 160 acres, social life becomes practically impossible. I am satisfied if you were to go into the slums, say of New York or Cki-cago, and tell men and women there benefits thereof. But the Governors might fear to arouse jealousies on the part of the Legislatures, which might resent any action of the Executives as though they were speaking for the States when the Legislatures alone can do so. Some of the Governors might also fear that, trying to do too much, they would endanger that In which all the States have such a manifest interest, to wit. the preservation and development of our natural resources.

There ought to be no conflict between the Governors and Congress, for the her daughter's sister. Should it be put to a teat," Mr. Edison continued, "I think you would find that if the time lost in awakenings and dreams- were measured, the person who thinks be is haying bis full eight hours of sleep is not having more than five or "Persons are likely to sleep less aa tbs number of lights increase, and the things that can be done at night become more numerous. Take the modern city man, for instance. It Is quite the usual thing for him to be awake until 1 o'clock in the morning or later.

He Is up early the next morning and off to business. Tet the city man is just as healthy as the man who lives tn the country sad ass many mors hours sleep." Is it not said that sleep is required to restore the depleted tissues of the body? Ws sometimes sit down on people only to discover that they are too sharp for us. eBaVSynSBSBSBW Lots of Presidential timber will go by the board. Nothing venture nothing have, except trouble. Money Is the root or an evfl that is, other people's money.

It tent always the biggest man who looks down on his neighbors. ft Is, perhaps, just as wall te bide yew light under a bushel as ts stand la your ligat--" JUSTICE BREWER ON THE FUTURE OP AMERICA. THOMAS A. EDISON ON THE MYSTERY OF SLEEP. AMBASSADOR DES PLANCHES ON IMMIGRATION AND THE BLACK HAND SOCIETY.


duties of each are distinctly defined, and what the former will do with respect to the conservation of the great natural resources, which remain will be tn the way of action directly within their own States or through co-operation. This will leave to Congress the ques tion of Federal regulation over and ap propriation for the care of those re sources which are National In charac ter. There can be no Question as to the Jurisdiction of the Federal Government over the Interstate and navigable waterways. Improvements are constantly being mads In streams under appropriations given by Congress. But some question might srlse in con recti on with the control of the Federal Government over water power or for the diversion of water for irrigation purposes in an arid State from a stream which passes through or originates in another Stats.

If such, questions cannot be settled by the Federal Government or satisfactorily by the States, then it may be necessary to consider an amendment to the Constitution." MIs it. possible that the Governors' Conference may result in further conferences which would lead to a modifi cation in our form of Government? Justice Brewer thought a moment. "It is possible, of course, that some such result might follow, for if you will remember It was a preliminary con ference which led to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. But I do not lieve our people are prepared to accept any changes In governmental methods. unless conditions should absolutely re quire them.

There is no form or gov ernment which offers as many advan tares in the way of moral, political. and industrial liberty. Truly our Oov ernment ts of the people, for tne people, and by the It has stood the test of more than a ceniury. has dealt with problems that struck that they wouut have better and more regular food and less work in the country, they would decline to go. In tht city they have mn opportunity to be with each other and to tot what it goirx There is no form of government which offers as many advantages in tht way of moral, political and industrial liberty as ours.

It has stood the test of more than a century. It has dealt with problems that struct at ike very heart of the Nation. We are not a people patient under delay. When we want a thing done, it must be immediately done. If we order an automobile to-day, wo ask that it be shipped within twenty-four hours, and that no lime be lost in Us transportation.

a( the very heart of the Nation. Therefore I believe that whatever changes are made should be made with the greatest deliberation." There is no section of the country, catholic as Justice Brewer is. 'that he takes a deeper Interest in than he does that of the great Middle West. In part his Interest is due to the fact that his old home is located in Kansas, and wu one of the men who went with only their brains and brawn and transformed the wilderness Into the garden it la to-day. He wants the Mississippi "Cm you prove it?" Mr.

Ellsan replied. I don't think so." la Mr. Edison's opinion a careful diet was more important than sleep in pre-servlBg a 'man's strength and preventing the decay of old age. Prof. MetchnlkaTs Idea is a big one In this connection," he continued.

"Prof. Metcbnlkof. you know, is a biologist at the Pasteur Institute, in Paris. His theory is that sour milk preserves life and has much to do with eradicating disease from the body. Old age.

as be sees It. is caused by the presence of poisonous bad 111 is the human system which continue to increase ss the years go on until the toxic conditions cause death. There is a saying that a parson will live five times the number of years he or she has attained when fully developed. But there's notblng in that Idea. With what facts do Prof.

Metcbnlkof back wp bis theory? He found district la the mountains of Bavaria where the number of aged people was vary unusual. Some of them lived to be 104. er even 106. years old. la the Bavarian villages It was not exceptional ts find three or four who had lived to be 100.

"He found that the diet of these old people consisted largely of sour muk. The same longevity did not exist tn neighboring districts where the milk was not ss much used. Xr. Metcbnlkof formulated this theory: sour milk catering the Intestine the reservoir of the body created a lactic add in which the poisonous bacilli could not long exist. The praseacs of this bostlls acid gradually expelled the poison.

The system free of them, the body continued In aa ideal condition would be to eat Just enough food to keep up -a man's strength so that there weald be nothing left ts nourish the poisonous growths is the lower Page rate X. Page 2. Pag a. and tho Missouri mads evsn richer arteries of the Nation's lifs than theyt are at present. As he pointed millions of tons of sediment that would be Invaluable for farming purposes have been and are being swept dowm the Mississippi Into the Gulf of Max- Ico.

lie Is heartily in sympathy with the) desire of the Agricultural Depart-' meot to arrest this sediment and have It deposited where It win be of National use. If proper measures) ha not taken Mr. Brewer foresees the time when new banks will bo formed to tho south of New Orleans, necessitating Jettying, which Is valuable only for protection. To prevent floods on this great stream and Its tributaries be- lieveat In reforestation of tho head-1 waters, realising that trees hold back the moisture and allow It to filter slow ly Into tho river. One result of rs fores tail on would be to provide great er draught of water in tho Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio, What a splendid thing It would be.

said ths Associate Justloa, with a pro pbetio glance Into- the future, if we could provide a stable channel In tho Mississippi which eould bo used by ocean-going steamers 1 I remember la the old days when a passenger- going by boat from St, Xxmls to Jefferson City could never be sure that he would criive at his destination on schedule time. The vessel might strike a shoal and remain there from Monday morn- ing till Saturday night. I am not an engineer, but I believe a canal eould be constructed which could ho fed from tho Mississippi and Toy ustns; the nato ral and artificial waterway a perma-. nent and navigable Vpptl eoold Tsa provided. Isn't ths greater use of railroads for transportatloa purposes due to inabll-Ity to depend upon tho channel of the)" Mississippi and other streams? Unquestionably.

Tho rallroVds depended upoAlo aellvef a or or freight upon schedule Urns, More- over, ws are not a people patient tan- der delay. When we want a thing dons. It must be Immediately done, If wo order an automobile to-day. we ask that It bo shipped within twenty-four hours, and that no Urns bo lost in its transportation. There are many things' which now go-by boat.

But there are: many mors things which should be given water transportation. Take furnL turs, for example. Wo now put it In a car and havs It hauled to Its destlna- tlon. In many cases It eould go by boat, but Its consignee cannot antici pate the vagaries of the Mississippi and hs asks that It be sent to him by rail. The Hudson River furnishes sn excellent illustration of value of -water transportation, It Is paralleled by tho New York Central, but tho uss made of tho stream shows tho general appreciation had of its value as transportatloa medium." Tho Resson Why Pcopla Prefer Cities to Farms.

Mr. Brewer Is as strong aa advocate of keeping tho farming community Intact as President XloosevelL He con- slders It tho backbone of the National lifs, and bo wants everything possible In order to make It contented and prosperous. "It ts difficult at tho present Unas), to bold people to the farm because of the lack of social advantages," ho con-, tlnued. "If we bars a place hers) of 160 arres. and another plans there of 160 acres, social life beoomss practi cal fy impossible.

After a man has dona a hard day's work he doss rutt mm to ride ten or twelve miles la order to attend a gathering eg friends and obtain some diversion. When ws eon. rider this condition, it Is not surprising that there should be such a largo drift toward the city. am satisfied tf row were to go Into the slums, say of Now Torfc or Chicago, and tell men and women there that they would have better and mors regular food and less work In the country, they would de cline to go. In the city they have an opportunity to be with each other and to see what Is going on.

I remember some Russian Mennonltes who under stood ths advantage of community. They cams to JKansas and took no sec tions of land, but instead of each family pianung iiseu in us own particular section, they threw their land Into a common farm and established their homes tn tho centre. 'They were, so to ssy, the hub of a wheel, and the spokes radiating out formed the boundaries of their holdings. Thus, after tho day's work, they could enjoy their little, diversions without undergoing a long and tiresome rids. I am hopeful, however, that action will be taken which will result In the Introduction of social reforms Into the country, and when this, to done I am sure it win bo highly advantageous to all the peoptet" The views expressed by the Associate Justice show more clearly than mere description could do the character of man ha Is.

"How I would like to" be here fifty years from now." he said In closing bur conversation. The changes that will -coma wtU Increase our stature among natloas. and make us, am confidant, a power for gcod nerer befors seen tn tho worid,.

Get access to

  • The largest online newspaper archive
  • 300+ newspapers from the 1700's - 2000's
  • Millions of additional pages added every month

About The New York Times Archive

Pages Available:
Years Available: