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The New York Times from New York, New York • Page 103

The New York Times from New York, New York • Page 103

New York, New York
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7 Section SPECIAL FEATURES AUTOMOBILES STEAMSHIPS AND TOURS ICer fmU Section SPECIAL FEATURES AUTOMOBILES STEAMSHIPS AND TOURS 7 i ii I' Jj i SEPTEMBER 1Z 1922. xx ENGLAND'S FALSE LENS FOR SEEING AMERICA Pistorted Yiews of Our Wealth From Moving Qs-ft-i-' T7L. TT --M- -1 Txrr riutujLco ocul Br r. w. wirsoar. SMnbtr ef Farflaaaeat. TH23U5 have been cf late certain symptoass, not la themselves Important, cf a momentary Impatience 1b Great Britain rer la ther regarded, sot alleys with rood reason, as the attitude ad policy of th United States. At ITrscastle-on-Tyne to give oa Illurtra-ejo erdous objection has ben taken at a recent data to the alleged axcesa of piotlc seal, displayed by the Amert-nn Consul la that city, over his county's mercantile marine, and th Consul teen transferred to Spain, leaving fcjj ii2c closed and Its business sus-BdL This Is only an Incident, but ases incidents are as a rule avoided by tactful diplomacy. Tiea we have had Sir. Rodyard Kip-fcg. vlti a tsuch of bitterness drawing gtsctiosi the accumulated cold reserves of the United States and thackinr EstTea that EEgland. at any rats, has erred soul. It Is an otterano that eusot bs wholly Ignored. If M. Clemen-eraa considers that Franc Is misunderstood fa the United States, the trouble a Is rather that the United Stats Is ulraiidrstsod In Britain. When a man like Theodora Roosevelt Woodrow WTOson or William Howard Taft or William Jennings Bryan or fencer Governor Cox or Colons! House tjtlM England, tt Is found that, wher-rf ha roes, the mists are dispelled. But sm dimculty Is that. In these rapid days, oca visits are still too Infrequent. And tt only certain favored cities London. Cifari and Cambridr, for instance Cat see the distinguished gruest. Thars a Is Britain no system of club, banquets sad luncheons, no circuit for lectures seaperahle with the oratorical hospl-tzUty extended to foreigners by the "Cn-'Ved States. Ths numerous Americans whs visit Britain ro ther to look at that co tin try. and sot. la ths main, to t3 Britain of their awn. IsJI InfermatW Laettarw Ker does ths British press make rood this information. Ths war has seriously depleted ths revenues of British news-tapers and this has meant that, both In and In expenditure, ther have h3 economies on cabled United States is roverned by scb3a oplaioa. aasaUiaatsa of that pinion, with Its cross currants and amtadktions. cannot bs expressed al-Vi la a sentenc costing cents a "wd sa ths wires. There Is thus m. ten- to transmit mir statements of esFxIU occurrences and especially of wsatJooal Incident. For Instance, a wKsmr rood copy." but ther is ass demanded for an explanation of the a yet sure efforts mads to develop a stared citizen hip at Institutions like Hanptoa and Tusker. Divorces, too. art tBterestinr. especially of movie tats, but there Is nothing to report ahout the vast majority of marrlares "iica continue unbroken until death do a part. Ths Idea that the United states la to be rerarded as an tnexhaust treasury or ut unusual, sun per awes In British Journalism. The normal America still remains a mystery. slt. sonar's outburst voices, af waa the tneradlcahls prejudices of the tabs where reeding The Morning Post Is raUgl duty. It must be rnemln ttat. to this dsy. the West End of Lon- as ecorats ths eouestrisa itihu of T2t Charles the Martyr at Charinr ves. sm ia jticji die-hard circles ese United States are simply one of the tMar that ourht sot te bsvs been 3owed to happen, ch rood eld Torie this Is a -tJT wbsr ther are far too many ta. far toe many Irish and far too tpiscopalUnst And It is a thousand Pities that ths South did not win I This Jays been the die-hard rospel. d. the dieJisrds. KipUnr despite a aTSiert- reaidjnee la the Connect-t vaSeycontinaes to be the unrib-Sed poet laereata Those who tra-ns die hardest of all are women. Ba ihe period of Cranford to oar tn Britain, rreat and small, av been Crhtlnr a desperate battle MU' -The theory that an men and women are equal is ehaJlenred. polnt-T the charmlnr household de-Jd tn Sir Jams Barrls play. Admirable Crlchton "-filmed as sad yemals." There-wbether at a desert Island eodety must oalst of the upper and ths under dor. a Bkaay eases I have found that It Is aonuaeats sf Englishwomen which rt remensbered lonrest by Americans. TUr happily, do danrer ef the CHIMES FOR RIVERSIDE VT1" TORJC is have tt carmen. wla JLme7lc-s have j. Journey Antwerp, la- and ether European dties to hear Tr attuned and beautifully i4 Pon- The Bells of History, as be" i rtllon will be called, are to sf t. npon property the corner l7wTer! Driv 1-d Street. The "1 children of America will become custodians for all time of these ns-one for each State-as sTiurU for the castlnr dxrisjui and the subsequent placing sunt th tower about to be Temporarily the bells will be the mansion now standlnr on known as the Tower te wlll he placed adjacent C.n.'T 10 wo and not far from the eedral of 6f John the Divine. From Byuf mm. juv.uw people see ths tower ami r.rninn IaK. tnej aesirner oi vOWer. ft ri.Y rr Bimainr. wui arrange ttreaboot the land. haUs4 Anthem for CM! dram, iiuiii uiuiea oiaies -ways i to Improve Understanding club and country houses determlnlnr Britlah policy. The unreserved apolorles ef who thourht that Jefferson Davia had mad a nation, are still remembered as a salutary amine. Every one who matters la British publlo life the Kinr. his Ministers, the clerrr. the bankers, the universities, th law. labor and. above ail. the overseas Dominions is unanimous in ths resolve to preserve friendly relations with the United States. The perplexity presented by the alliance has been removed by th Washinrton conference, which also shattered the mischievous assumption that naval competition mirht arise within the various Enrlish-speaklnr soverelrntles. One may add. perhaps, that the Irish question Is less of a dis-turblnr factor than it was, while one judres that th efforts of Great Britain to arrive at a reconciliation tn Europe tf the motive be merely com mercial have at least preserved her from a further exacerbation ef German communities overseas. What has to be faced tn Britain Is the continued grip of the war on the mind of the people. In every household this awful scourge Is stlil the most poignant experience. There are still those who think and reiterate their thourht that the United State should have Joined the Allies when ths Ijusltanla sank. There are still those la whose memories rankles that poisonous Jest. A. K. after Enrland Failed." And ther are still thus who yearn for what they consider to be the savins: Idealism of former President Wilson who ask why the United State does not throw herself Into the task of reconstructlnr Europe. That Is their outlook. I do not defend It. 1 do not criticise It. merely state It la the words that every day they are uslcr-words that Invite the rejoinder. perhaps, that when President Wilson needed support Britain did net always afford it- Over Great Britain, thus medltatlnr amid the wreck ag-e of the Christendom with which alone she Is familiar, there Is scattered a propaganda ef the foroe of which Americans are themselves, for the most part, entirely unconscious. This country has many great Inventions to Its credit Idea either originated er devel oped, like telephones, th radio, the typewriter, the cash register and se en but In the movie the United States has riven the world not a Vehicle orJy ef transmission to the eye I the American movie Is the thinr actually transmitted. She has sent Britain not her sculpture. not her palntlnrs. not her architecture- all of which are rapidly maturinr hut her photography. Ther la not a vil lage tn Britain which does not think It written ba sunr tn school every If on-day moralnr. simultaneously with th ringinr of the anthem, by the carillon, was surrested by Dr. Tigert. United States Commissioner of Education for the Americanization of foreign children. Dr. Tlrert. who held a chair in psychology in France before his connection with American schools. Is a believer la the permanent and etimulatinr power of the carillon, as are all inhabitants of European countries where hlstorlo bells have been an intimate part of the people's Ufa The replaclnr of bells destroyed durinr the World War has been sn Important part of the rehabilitation of devastated areas. New Tork. the largest city In the world, has been chosen oa account of Its central location metropolitan and cosmopolitan. Here, where thousands of aliens first land, are most opportunities for Americanization to begin. The spiritual significance and esthetic of the Tower of Democracy and the bells within are sure to exert a profound Influence on the Imaginative natures of European and AslaUo Immigrants. What this nation has accomplished la hVory and Industry win ba tmmortattSd In this rreat -mw -aJ aw a "sav isr knows the United States. But th United States that It know Is the United States as anvisared at Hollywood. That Is the situation. And. of course, censorship In the United State, tt rood or bad. doe not extend beyond her shores. raise Xetleas Freaa Merles. Th Important factor In th movies, when exhibited abroad. Is not their spplled to morals. Nor is it the use of the pistol. The thinr that matters to international friendship la their presentation of unbounded wealth in these United States. Every one In the movies can afford a telephone. the disposal of every one la the movies Is an expensive automobile. The movie Cinderella may commence her career In some small town, but it Is' only to continue It In mansions which, by their number, variety and alia, would tax th "To see ourselves as others see na." modest purse of a Vanderbflt er a Mor gan. A dinner party Is set in a style that Impels one to regret the stmplicl ties of Kinr Louis XIV." And the cos tumes well, even aa averare dance Is as extravarantly gowned as a Drawlnr Room at Buckingham Palace. The more real the picture, the more definite Is the conviction that It carries of a lavish luxury, unparalleled la the history ef civilisation. Into the psychology of the movies one need not here enter. Their theme Is usually a triumph1 It may be of brains. it may be of muscle. It may be of beauty: but anyway It Is success. Herb and heroine must, as It were, put tt over. escape from the crowd and enter the charmea circle mat nas lime ana money to pose on the terrace la the moonlight. But la Britain there are no fortuitous oil wells; there are but few forgotten uncles and there are not many disguised toudi millionaire. Th projector Is there simply the Aladdin's lamp that oonjura up th unattainable. What, then, Britain needs to be told Is that, ever her, th palace Is. for all save the very few. also unattainable: that while the United States has not ths unemployed to be found In Britain, she has Imposed severe, some t-lnx too ssvere. outs la wares, and that her wealth per head, while greater than the British, Is only greater by about to 4. What, after all. Is this gold reserve? Call It t3. 000. 000.000. That mean $30 a head, or one week's ware. Was Debt th Tatted States. Ths display of wealth In th movies accounts not a llttl for th emotions here under analysis. It Is firmly believed that much of the money was made out of th war. The Britlah aristocracy murmur that they are taxed out of their ancestral mansions and rardens la order DRIVE memorial. the only memorial ever created to perpetuate th tradition of a victorious nation." Th 1 arrest of th bells will be 13 feet hlrh. They will play patriotic, orchestral and epemtlo music on special occasions. Connecticut, at a fete given on the Alexander estate at New Canaan. Aug. 18 and 19. started the fund for Its bell. Danclnr and fortune-telling, flower and fruit vendors, alonr with the pennies of the school children, helped swell the donations. The Connecticut bell will be christened Borer." In memory of Ror-er Sherman, who aimed the Declaration of Independence for that State. Other States are falllnr In line and making plans for the contribution of a bell to hang In the Tower of Democracy. Miss Jane Wallace, founder of the movement, has worked for five years on the project. Members of the National Council of the Bells of History Society are Ogden H. Mills. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, Dr. John Tlgert. Milton Alles. Frank Hitchcock. Thomas H. Hasting-s. Daniel French, who will model the Victory Ball; Henry Woodhouse, Gcorglanna Owen. Paul Bartlett and Mrs. St. 3. Alexander, Chairman ef the eounoA. to "pay America. where mansions even greater are belnr built and rardens even more elaborate are laid out. Artth- metlo is not too carefully calculated. At most, the payment to the United States would not bs, for Interest and sinklnr fund, mors than 70.000,000 a year, or a head for the British peo ple. It Is not one-fifth of what Britain spends on drink. It Is not one-twelfth of her total budret. But. once araln. it Is the mood that roverns the mind. It has often been said that men cannot be friends when one owes the other money. As a matter of fact, all na tlons and nearly all individuals are a all times debtors and creolferc usually beth. I7inerto. however. Britain has never borrowed; she has only lenC and it Is. beyond all doubt, a wound to her pride that she should not be able to dlscharre at once and without question her liability to the United States. Her sensitiveness is the more delicate becauseas she arg-ues Jn fact, if not In form, she has borrowed only to lend to others and if only one-half ths assets due to her were collected she could more than dlscharre everythlnr that she Is asked to meet. In London the Balfour note has been condemned. Hut not because of its contenta Ths note said what Britain thinks. It Is criticised only because what one thinks should not always be said. Americans, of course. Inquire whether Britain has not rained much territory by the war and also much German trade. The answer of Britain la simply her hlrh taxation and her wldenpread unemployment. Economically, the fact that Australia acquired certain inlands and South Africa certain provinces has ss yet meant nothinr. Ths disparity of exchange has been reduced, but while It was severe It caused much misapprehension. The rea son why sterllnr fell to such a discount was. tn the main, that the United States was suDnlTlnr roods to Britain and through Britain to Europe on credit. which assuredly was not an unfriendly thinr to do. American banks were obviously tryinc to support the exchange and they have welcomed Rs recovery' But. despite these facts, there arose in Britain, among masses of workers whose education rendered it Impossible to explain to them the mysteries of International finance the curious yet catchinr Idea that America would only rive us 14 shllllnrs to the pound." Of course, the French peasant might have retorted that Britain would only rive France one shllilnr for three francs, which would have been Just as Of all the anti-American rub bish that has floated about the British Isle during this troublous period, ther has been no matter more difficult to explain to the Inexperienced farm laborer than this of the exchenr. In which the United States has been to be frank entirely Innocent. The tariff has. of course, aroused dis cussion, not only In Britain but throughout the world. Our merchants have asked how our debt to the. United States Is to be paid, unless it be In roods. And If roods are excluded, how thenT Added to all this there are the perennial rivalries over oil and shlppinr. which. It Is true, only Interest particular groups In either nation, but are. none the less, topic of reneral argument. And. finally, there Is prohibition. It Is not simply that Britain has failed to ro as far as the United States in the direction of temperance. She has re- colled violently la the opposite direc tion. She has refused even to maintain the wartime restrictions oa beer and spirits. Never in her history ha the victory ef the liquor trade been thus oomplete. Tou have here a powerful vested Interest, worth billions of dollars, with 100.000 publlo houses at Its eommand. the aim of which must be to magnify sver crime and advertise every abuse reported from the United States. i a prohibitionist country. And this aspect of the cose has become the more prominent since Lady Astors return. Apparently she Intends to lead the women's crusade tn Britain aralnst liquor. To some extent, as a result of her chal-lenglnr personality, both sides will draw their ammunition from the United State and Canada. And the liquor trade Is not likely to be too scrupulous In Its use of the material thus obtained. -To sum up, there is this Incidental friction between the two countries for one reason, and only one reason: There Is friction because there is contact. It is In many respects an unaccustomed contact. But, sooner or later, there had to be this contact. It was bound established. And what Is meant by the above analysis of the mentality of Britain is this, and only this that for Britain as well as the United States the contact requires a new knowledge, a deeper sympathy, a broader vision and a more profound sense of what responsibilities to the rest of the world He oh the shoulders of both these rreat democraclea, PT.OT AfiATTMS AS GOMPERS SEES IT Conspiracy to Crush Organized Labor Charged by the Federation Head Names National and Local Associations and Quotes from Public Documeilts ABOR has repeatedly made the charre that there exists a con spiracy to destroy the trade-union movement that there Is under way a concerted movement on the part of the employers to restore and maintain autocratlo control of American Industry- This charre has been challenged by various persons, principally representatives of employers or employers' associations. It has been surrested that the pro duction of evidence mirht settle the question of whether there Is or Is. not such a concerted effort; but those who are engaged in a conspiracy or In a con certed effort to brinr about the destruc tion of an antagonist do not customarily send broadcast the full evlUence of their Intentions or of their plans. In a recently published book entitled Employers' Associations In the United States." written by Clarence E. Bonnett. Ph. this lack of direct evidence Is clearly recognized. Dr. Bonnett't book Is accepted by employers renerally as an authentic study of the leadlnr organisations of employers. The United States Chamber of Commerce freely suggests that Inquirers consult its pares, la this book Dr. Bonnett says: There Is much that la confidential er secret about associations. In the conflict, ope must not let one's opponent know in advance one's plans or proposed methods, nor one's real irhtlnr strength, unless that is so treat as to intimidate one's opponent. For this reason, much of the work of the associations is conducted secretly. In some cases. list of members are not made public because some of the employers fear that th union may single them out and punish them. It also permits an employer apparently to be friendly to the union, because he dares not Irht it openly, yet to flrht It secretly. Then there -sre doubtful practices which the Association enrarinr In them does not wish to be made public Ulegal activities are of the latter sort. Elsewhere In th same chapter Dr. Bonnett says: Nor I th full extent of the belllr-erency of an association always expressed In a formal declaration of Principles the utterances of its eaders must also be considered. The Nations! Association of Manufao-urers furnishes an excellent Illustration of such a situation. The government of the associations. Bo matter under what sulse. is la the hands of a few The rovern-ment of associations Is much like that of corporations, dominated by a few who choose what may be styled th Board of Directors, who in turn select the executive head under various titles. Some associations retain a greater degree of democracy than others bv the use of the referendum on certain measures. It is characteristically the belief of association leaders that democracy doe not conduce to efficiency. Ker Bitter Usee Werid Was. While the strurgie to prevent the organization ef workers has from the be-rinnlnr envared the attention of em ployers, thsre has been since the conclusion of the World War such a manifestation of united effort toward that end as to force upon any careful observer the conclusion that unusual force have been at work and that unusual plans have been laid. The fact Is. as labor sees It, that while prior to the war there was what mirht be termed a normal opposition to the organizations of workers, there has been since the conclusion of the war an abnormal or stimulated opposition Inspired and In all probability more or less actively directed from a central point. The evidence which labor possesses Is naturally to a laxr degree circumstantial. The basic Industries of our country are steel, coal and railroads. Of these steel is the undisputed leader. And the three exercise a combined leadership which Is felt down to the very bottom of our Industrial structure. Before the war was ended, and while. under the pressure of war necessity, ths dominatinr Industrial combinations were compelled to deal with some fairness la their relations with labor, the threat was commonly made, Walt until the war la over I It was common knowledge and It was commonly expected that when the war ended and there was no lonrer a national demand for production for war needs, the Industrial monarchs would turn on labor In a rreat effort to smash their way back to autocratlo domination. How dramatic, then, was the leadership assumed by steel on the heels of the armistice. The steel workers, durinr the lster days of ths war, had taken some advantage of the state of publlo opinion to begin the organization of union. They thourht that at last they saw a way to escape from bonders, to put an end to the barbarous 12-hour day and the Inhuman lonr shift of 24 hours at every week-end. It suited the ends ef the United States Steel Corporation to have these new organizations send their leaders with re quests for conferences to dlsouss employ ment relations and conditions. The defiance then thundered forth by Steel, the monarch of Industry and the leader of Industrial reaction la America, was the battle call which had been forecast while the g-uns yet roared for freedom In France. My terms or none," was the answer of Steel, voiced by Elbert H. Gary. The railroads, their profit guaranteed by the Government, set to work a movement which finally resulted In the present deplorable conditions. Coal, meanwhile, threw down the gauntlet and forced its workers Into a strike, cndlnr only after an injunction of sweeplnr and until then unheard of provisions. Steel as the leader. But at the head of the pack stood Steel. Itself master of more coal than any other corporation in the country. Itself ownlnr whole railroads and hav-Inr tentacles creeplnr through others through tnterlocklnr directorates. Itself the absolute master of a horde of lesser dependent Industries and the arbiter sf By SAMUEL GOMPERS President, American Federation of Labor ORGANIZATIONS NAMED BY MR. GOMPERS MR. GOMPERS attempts to prove by documentary evidence that the following organizations are allied In a conspiracy to crush unionism through the "American Plan." or open shop: The United States Chamber of Commerce, with more than 1.400 member organizations. The National Association of Manufacturers, with about 6,000 Individual and corporate members. The National Founders' Association, with 640 organisations in 44 States and a total of 23 national industrial associations included In these agencies. The National Erectors Association. steel, coal, railroad and banking groups, oontrolled through Interiockinr directorates. Space forbids tncludinr la the article th material oh interiockinr directorates, which Mr, Gompers presents from publlo records; and other detailed material la omitted for the same reason. the fate of thousands upon thousands. In West Virginia, Steel found a collateral opportunity to strike at Labor through Its ownership of coal mines, the result of which has come to be known renerally as the West Virginia mine war." I shall not attempt to burden th record with quotations, but it is Important to point out that every subsequent national conference those summoned by President Wilson, as well as those summoned by President Harding has failed of eonstructlv achievement for exactly the same reason that threw President Wilson's first Industrial conference on the scrap heap the determination of the representatives of high finance and btg business to permit no action which might Indicate 'an attitude fairness or of constructive helpfulness la the field of Industrial relations. President Wilson's second Industrial oonfareno was a lamentable fiasco. Samuel President Harding' unemployment conference encountered the same brutality and arrogant anti-unionism. And President Hardlnrs agricultural conference, though summoned to discuss agriculture, was dominated by the most sinister type of big business representatives and was sent to Its doom by exacty the same sort of ultimatum that wrecked President Wilson's first effort two years previous. Reverting again to Dr. Bonnett volume. It Is interesting to note that he calls attention In his Introductory chapter to the increase of belligerency on the part of organized employers that has been manifest since the war. Dr. Bonnett states in his preface that his sources of information have been Interviews with association leaders, letters from the associations, printed literature of the associations some of which Is not for general distribution." public documents, such as committee hearings, trade publications and other similar literature. His Information, therefore, is from the employers and their organisations. Regarding this after-the-war onslaught Dr. Bonnett says: The belligerent associations (during the war) did not make an unconditional surrender. The entire ground of the struggle is now being fourht over again and with more bitterness than ever before. The records show that we have been passing through the greatest strike period in all history. Any one who has studied thj attitude and activities of the belligerent associations during the past twenty years will be inclined to believe that the unions will lose much of the round they gained during the war of 914-1918. A survey of a combination of certain factors indlcstes that the, unions must lose much of the advantageous ground formerly held. In the same chapter he continues: lairing the period ISld-mi many i -oT? --v it Jr.t 4fS fASH weye(0 My TTTVJTOTSTS open-shop associations hav been formed in various localities. Employers In many industries are attempting to free themselves from union domination fastened upon them during the war. One of the most discussed methods of fighting unionism is the "shop union "that Is. a union of only th employes in a shop. Such a union has no entangline alliances with any other union. "This scheme is known under various names, euch as shop representation plan." "work councl," "shop-committee system." Eaborate methods of government for such unions have be-en worked out. Such a scheme is usually designed to displace the trade union of the A. F. of U. type, and the A. F. of'Lw vigorously denounces such organizations as "fake or as "employers' unions." Barr sa ths Open Shop. William H. Bsrr, President of the National Founders' Association. Is well qualified as a witness to show specifically what Dr. Bonnett has stated In general terms in the remarks Just Gompers quoted. Dr. Bonnett declares that the belligerency of organised employers has Increased sine th signing of the armistice. This means that their militant hostility to the organizations of the workers has been Intensified. Mr. Barr, who la proud of his hatred of organized labor, made a speech before his association on Nov. 17, 1920, In which he said: A change has been brought about by the determination of men to free themselves from the unsound and unnatural control so imposed upon them. Today, that determination is manifest in the open-shop movement. Its progress is a matter of economy to those who began it: of consolation to those engaged in Industry: and a stimulant to the patriotism of every one. A partial, but careful survey of Irresistible activities in behalf of the open shop shows that 540 organisations in 247 cities of 44 States are engaged In promoting this American principle in the employment relations. A total of 23 national industrial associations are Included In these agencies. In addition. LflfW local Chambers of Commerce, following the splendid example of the United States Cham-. ber of Commerce, are also pledged to the principle of the open shop. I wonder If It Is possible to picture adequately the tremendous force which has been mobilized for the purpose of destroying the organizations of labor. There reason to question Mr. Barrs statistics. It is a part of his business to know about all organisations engaged In combating trado unions. He has for many years been recognized aa the spokesman of organized hostility to trade unions. The resolution of the United States Chamber of Commerce was adopted by a referendum whlcn was issued on tine and which closed on July 54, 1019. This referendum was known as Referendum II and was entitled Employment He la tlons. The ction of the United States Chamber ef Commerce was In tended to serve as a warnlnr and a guide not only to Chambers of Commefo throughout th United States but to em ployers In this resolution which It may safely be said has beeom a text for the guidance of reactionary; employers. It la provided: The right of open-shop operation, that Is, the right of employer and employe to enter into and determine the conditions of employment relations with each other, is an essential part of the individual right of contract possessed by each of the parties. In the referendum on this section ther were 2.670 votes In favor of adoption and 4 against, so it will be seen t.t -Ir. Birr! flrurn m. mmt In aa far aa afoav relate to Chambers of Commerce, are underestlmatlons falllnr short of th full truth. Xaaafaetarers Beeera. The National Association of Manufae-turera, ranklnr In Importance In Its field with the United States Chamber of Commerce, is a militant union -hating organization. On Jan. 16, 1921, J. Philip Bird, described as general manager of the association, wss quoted as saying that More than five hundred organizations In 250 cities hav now endorsed th (open shop plan and prominent manufacturers declare they could not stem the tide If they wished." It would seem sufficient to have th word of th leaders of three of the most powerful, if they are not In fact the three meat powerful, anti-union organizations In the United States for what has trangplred since the conclusion of the war. Mr. Barr of the National Erectors' As- sodatlon. Mr. T3(rd ef th National as sociation of Manufacturers and the official declarations and records cf the United States Chamber of Commerce Mnnnt wil aa 4a fA ATint of the campaign against The effectiveness of that campaign is another matter. The outstanding example of th man ner. In which the advice ox open shop organisations has been put Into practice was furnished by Eugene Grace. President of the Beth lehem Steel Corporation, In his, testi mony before the Lock wood committee la New Tork City oa Dec 13, 1920. The follow In Is from The Associated Press account of Mf. Grace's testimony: The Bethlehem Steel Corporation will refuse to sell fabricated steel to build-, era and contractors in the New fork and Philadelphia districts to be erected on a union shop basis. The policy was disclosed by Eugene C. Grace. President of the corpora-1 tion. who testified, today before the Joint legislative committee Investigating the alleired building trust." replying to charges that his concern was sponsoring the open shop movement by withholding steel from build- era employing union men. I think It is a proper thinr to protect the open shop principle," declared Mr. Grace, who explained that his stand would not be changed even it building operations in New York were to be suspended because steel could not bs obtained by union erectors. Agreement ea Wares. With the policy adopted by the Bethle- hemteel Corporation the United States Steel Corporation is In full sympathy and agreement. This was made clear also In testimony before th TLockwood committee. C.W.m 9 7 tlonal Erectors Association, was called upon to testify regarding th National Fabricators' Association, on of a number of Interiockinr anti-union employers' organizations. He said that th National Fabricators' Association had adjusted th policy of the members so that th steel fabricated by them Is erected la open shops." He made clear, also, th attitude of the Iron League Erectors Association, another of the Interlocking -organizations, saying that at a special meeting It had adopted a resolution to the following effect Complylnr with the order of the Board of Governors of the Building Trades Employers Association, no advance In wares can be made, and the Secretary will so notify members." Thus tt appears that th Bunding Trade Employers' Association had reached a decision late In 1920 to th effect that there must be no advance In wages: and this arbitrary and dicta to rial command was accepted by th Iron League Erectors Association as a command to Its members and was transmitted. That the Steel Corporation Is In entire harmony and accord with the organised union-smashing steel fabricators and erectors is of record In various ways. It Is shown by the whole policy and course of action of the steel trust from the time of the steel strike to the present. It Is shown by Judge Gary's pronouncements in President Wilson's first Industrial conference, and by his later declaration te the. stockholders. It Is further shown In the appointment by the Erectors' Association at a meeting in Pittsburgh oa Dec 15 of a committee to see the officers of the United States Steel Corporation as soon as possible to explain' te them In regard to notifying the association before making any changes In the rat of wages, Jtc, on erection in tb future." LecaJ Orgaalaatlene Active. In addition to th powerful associations of employers there are throughout the country local and Stat organizations, some of which exercise' tremendous power la th localities. In highly Industrial sections these local organisations are frequently as puaofq) as many of the national association. One of the most militant and belligerent of the local organizations Is the Associated Employers of The Manufacturers' News, published In Chicago, declsred that Andrew J. Allen. Secretary of the Associated Eanvi has perhaps done more to pronua open-shop causal than any other Individual In the country: his frtetvls call Cowtiaaed Pag la,

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