The New York Times from New York, New York on December 13, 1916 · Page 14
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The New York Times from New York, New York · Page 14

New York, New York
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Wednesday, December 13, 1916
Page 14
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After Ail thm" trnmpctr tiiat -awuaced iu eomlair to a fererUbtr -pfCtAat wyrld. Oenfiany8i offer to xcAk pac 13 be reAd with puzzled vupris. Thm note requestiar tbe rood fOcea of neutral Powers reads UXe a bljeH of tie ploua proTm of Ai iitsni I.'b IWy AlllAno with tb iDnjbrmtlona of th tAaerNAroLE09 put forOi In t! " IdAA." or latr from U ffriffaa of J Una. Th put41 Asnnonc. metu thAt tt Identic not bAd 6utral rowrTt, tl Chowl-lofi tpwh la U) neithstAff yrster. Ur. Ui dljipAUheii foreciiAtfotrlnr: the verturefl. thee AUrodta clrcurn-rtAru.-eA. so cartfullr elAborAtrd. bAV ths look of a tbentrlcAl settlny; for as sctloa ctiatotnArtly Accomplished tlsrourh seAled dlspAtches. IoevttAblj tkf re rt 11 be two constructions put Bp?3 It. It will be "Aid that CermAnr. victorious In the field, has so tax demonstrated the superiority ct her 'military furre that she Is la a position to be magnanimous, to offer terms of jfi.-e which enemy rowers will fce well advised In Acceptlnj. - On the other hand. Germacjr's mm e will be coAstrued as a sure proof that, the objects for which she began the war t. !? mAolfestly beyond her reAch. she aeUea the AdvABUReoas moment of tier -JiVnanUn triumph to propose terms wr.irh she ferrrntly prays may be ac rented st once, since sLno futnre time a at, a hope to make peara oo tnn - favorable, or to maka peace At All en terms of her own choostnf. Tbe Japanese precedent will occnr to every rolnd. for It was After notable victories Cat Japan, coo fronted by the ep-rroschln exhAustioe of ier resources, requested-rreaident KoosrrrXT to use Us rood office. The question of Immediate Interest Is whether peace will reaily come from ti::s overture. The picture presented to the new of the. world should be At. tetatlrely studied. .The ChAncellor's rpeech yesterday fires ne definite ln-f omatloa About the terms ; proposed. The note proves to be equally barren f definite proposals.' Titer Is vsJn. telirSous boastlnc of dirantlo AdVAn-a-a " rained over the enemy, end the rnjfrxwe Is Announced to continue to a victorious end. Beyond thAt. we Lave f.oihlna; hut a request for rood offices. Tf,a note sent to the Vatican Is In oo ens! more ctflalte. If U will bear ary construction, we 'mlrht look apoa tt s-a a move to rt a conference as-rr T.Med la the bop thxt from it might come some possible framing of terms an which peace could be based. If the (alls, then Germany would expect the world to. put the responsibility far oontlnulnr the war upon the AI a mattfr as to which th world w.u!J form its-own opinion. . Xow contemplate for a moment the petition of the Entente Allies, with a vi-w to formiojc an Intelliirent opinion ef ft heir probable reception of peace prcpoal now. We see them one and a3 rirdins; up their loins for renewed and rreater effort. Cng-tand has reor ranUed her Ministry, in France the announcement, will be made today of a complete reconstruction of the C&b-inet. end chAnires'are Impending In Ue direction of mUlUry Affairs with a view to rreAter efficiency la the rJ- In Russia the frreatest transfor-matioa of an ts beinx wrought. The Xuma now has a control Her majority, made up in coruHJerable part of for. mer members ef the FUrht, resolved to raand a Ministry responsible to tbe riatatJve body and to the public opin n of the BAtlon. while theImperial CoundU hitherto an Instrument of the Actocratio Government, now for the first time sires heed o the voice of the people. And by a'rreai majority sia n Is m1tb the Duma In tnslstlnr ttpoo a fundamental change In the Government system. Both chambers are resolved thAt the secret And para-lyrJnr CermAB Influence shall be ab-. srJutely rooted oat and destroyed, and both reflect the determination of the r.osslAa people thAt the war must be f ro-ecuted to a succeAzfuJ end, What CsrUshmen. Ftenchmen, and ftuaalaas mean by a successful end of the war has been made plain to the understAndlnr of the whole world by the repeated utterances of their repre- eeatAtlve statesmen. They mean that the war oust end ta a way thAt win Ir.-fore them arslnst farther wars, that hea tt comes pea9 must be perma- bent and ruarantaed. When Chan cellor run Bxtbiiakm' !!ou.wm de-ctared yeeterdAy, Aocordlnr to the Ber Da dlspAtcbea, thAt tbe proposals new put forward were appropriate to the esUbrbihmeat of a Untlng- yaoe," he used the same formula, but In a sen a pot the same, thAt has been often employed la London, farts. And Petro-rrad. The tndispensAbte And foundation rusrantee of Isetlns; peace has been declared by AsorrTH. by Baukd, and by TsxraiT to be the destruction of Prussian mflitsyism. To remove the staadlnx men acq, that ta the way to make peace permanent; to destroy the thine that broorht on this war ts toe only way' to- make sure that it will net be followed soon by ether wars. The German Chancellor And the note say nothinr about this. Silence on thst point 1s slrnincAat. we may be sure that tt is also fatal. To conclude a peace which would leave Germany free to believe that the Achievement of ber dealrns ef con. a;qec and world power was only deferred would Imposo upon ths Allies the ImpersUrs necessity to continue and increase their military preparations eral nst tier, K would put upon them the burden of enormous expenditure for armies and carles, it -would lesvs the whols world a prT to the deadenlnr Apprehension of .future WAra. No one of the Allies can hint at the Acceptance of peace, on such terms, tir all the . others and the whole world beside would oppose and condemn any Power that entertained the thought. Tbe fACt And the Ideal of Prussian militarism must be Annihilated, the German IdeAl of Oerroany triumphant, dominant, tbe rent of the world -In subjection, must pass from the German mind. - That is the only basis of AO endurinr peace. There has been much' strange talk lately la Germany of the people. We hare been told thAt the war Is no lonrer one of Governments but of peoples. And HiMDCxsirsd, the popular hero, has been repeatedly and ostentatiously praised In Imperial quarters. Is It the condition, the dire sufferinr. the complaint of the people that has ferred the hand of the Government? The . Rumanian triumph bulks larger on the map than It does in reality. There Is little deflnlteness la the story of the stores of foodstuffs fallinr lato German hands. And the military achievement there .is more then balanced by the failure at Ver-dun, by the I demonstration . on the Somme that Intrenched German-Droops can be forced back. If the people have made their voice heard In: the Chancellery and . In the pAUce. the new peace overtures are . explained. Thrro are dark rumors, too, of a charred spirit In Austria. ' More nig. ntficant even than the not Itself Is the official sUtement from Austria ex-presslnc the opinion thAt now a loyal effort should be. made to bring about a diMCtundon of terms of An amicable peace. Emperor CiiaaUM has been under the tutelage of a statesman who had little liking- for German dominance over Austria. If there Is misery l Germany, certainly there Is torturing want In the Dual Kingdom. Can It 7 be that Emperor CiuKixa. fully realising that the trl-omph of Germany would leave htm only a puppet In the Kaiser's hands, has resolved upon a move that would at once deliver his people from sUn-f-Uoa And himself from effacement? That, too, would explain the note, so strAAge In form And void of promise. WhAtever insy be the truth About that, the cote does not leers upon the mjnd the Impression that the overtures come from a Power secure In Its triumph. Qu!te the "contrary. Cer-many's freedom to " expand would have to be won In her next war. It has not been won In tbls. And what of her trade upon the seas? Has she destroyed England's oavy, has she achieved that freedom of the seas about which her statesmen hAve Ulked so much? It is strange that Germany should ask the world to believe her victorious In the war when her navy dare not leave Its refuge and no ship of hers cow flies tbe German flag Anywhere on the waters of the ocean. It may be that Germany has merely wished to open the door. It ts not oar custom to act Jointly with Europeed Towers in European mat-ters. but there Is nothing to prevent the President from transmitting Germany's request to England, France, Russia, and Italy. He cannot urge acceptance of the proposal upon those Powers unless they dlsplny a willingness to consider it. : The most that can be hoped for Is that the Allies may make use of the opportunity to propose counter-terms. , We may be sure that they would be very different from the terms of the German note." All these things may be viewed as s strp toward peace, but It can be an Assured step, a step not to be retraced, only If the German people are ready to force upon their Government a change, of form and a change of heart. WAR OH1 IlfGIISH SPARROWS. While it la well-nigh universally Admitted thAt the English sp attow Is a nuisance, the New Jersey Audubon Society has rightly set Itself Against the propotiAl that a day should be appointed in that Bute for the killing of these birds by the Boy Scouts And the population In general. Tbe society Is not concerned so much with the fate of the sparrows, which ft agrees should be exterminated, but with the effect of such a battle on unoffending bird life, and. most of all, on the boys who do tbe killing. ".While It Is freely conceded," says THE NEW the society, " that the Introduction of " the sparrow has imposed an evil "greatly to be deplored, and while " sny practk-Al means of ridding the " country of these birds would t " welcome, the preient proposal of en-" Hating the oo-operAtlon of Boy " Boouts fn the work ef wholesale " bird killing cannot be sanctioned by " this society. In our opinion it can' not be sanctioned by any humane " people Interested In wild life or child " welfare." Aside from the ethical anpects of the question. It Is more than probable that on this sparrow field-day hundreds of ' birds of quite unoffendlnc epeciew : would be killed. The proportion of j adults able to tell at a glance and with j certainty the English sparrow from his many useful and harmless cousins among American song bird Is surely-small, ll Is undoubtedly "till smaller among tho Boy flcout. The proposal is' unfortunate from many joints f view. The problem of the Kngllwh sparrow is ai wriou. ne, however, And one to which anil) bodies as the Audubon societies should Apply themselves with vigor. The extermlnstlon of these qusrrelsome and destructive feathered pests by proper and effective means would te a work fr which the whole community could be grate-fnl. MISPLACED APOLOGIES. Scbreckllchkeit ought not to ajol-pglse. To bo imprefme the ideal of ruthlemness ought not to be blurred and marred by , evasions, tergiversations, childish denials, and excuses, like a boy caught In the Jam clonet. The thing is plausible, admirable. In a nse, only when It Is defiant. The Superman made this mistake when he Invaded Belgium, lie should have been challenging, arrogant, deftsnt; In fa'-t, he was st first, but After a while tie begun to explain that he hadn't been ruthless at alt; he had only been foiling a conspiracy of embattled Belgium to denccnd on bis empire and e'enquer it, proved by document which he found in Brusnels after he had successfully defended Ms libertine. Schreckllchkelt, on ita apologetic end least admirable side, is busy again, thl . ne over tbe slave raids In Belgium not jet over the elave raids in Poland and Northern France, because the horror of the -world, an usual, is vocal chiefly over Belgium. The explanation at first was that the raids proceeded from economic necessities. That not serving, we heard thai the true r"aon was tbe m-res-slty of weakening the German garrison In Belgium. Now it seem thut the Belgian population Is luxy and won't work, so it must bo made to work. If that reason does not stop the outburst of Indignation from the neutral world. Hchrecklichkeit will find something still less convincing, for If the lamb is enslaved by the wolf it mutt be becauae the lamb muddied the stream. Mwiv knew that he was defining human selfltih-nees and unreason in that story, but he did cot dream that he was defining Frighlfulnees; he would not have supposed rightfulness, had ho ever heard of it, to be so awkward and clumsy about Its spologlea, or, indaed, to feel the need ef Any. The Belgians, In former times, had not the reputation of Idleness: but if they have become ro, hoe shout Poland and Northern France? Belgium may have bocn pauperized by the world's charity, but Poland has had mighty little of that, and so tins Northern France. The slave raids began In Poland a year ago, spread to France Ust Winter end Hprlng, and were not Inaugurated in lasy Belgium until this last Autumn. If they were made necessary by Belgium's laxluea, were the deportations in Poland and France Instituted as practice games, to get the band of 8chreckUchfceit used to it before tt was applied to the real source of the evil, the real home of Idleness? " Search In; and deportation," telegraphs the Belgian Minister of Justice, reach with no distinction "men wanting work and men want-M ing cone. Workmen ere forced "wy in full Ubor." Doubtless, however, Schreckllchkeit tears these men away from their tasks because it knows that, being Belgians, tbey will sooner or later become Infected with the national vice of laziness and wishes to take time by the forelock. Nevertheless, the Ingenious explanations of Fchreckllchkelt, for some strange reason, make no Impression, except one of deepened horror, upon the neutral nations, and the Holland section of the League of Neutral Nations, disregarding them altogether, appeals to the United mates to take At once the lead in a movement to end "this hellish scourge, which at this moment lacerates the whole of " Northern France and Western Uus-r sin," as well as Belgium. A VETO XZSSAGE WORTH READING. Mayor MrrCHtx's message to the Board of Aldermen vetoing certain Salary reductions in the City Budget of 1917 is a model of clear exposition and destructive criticism. He doesn't leave the Honorable Board a leg to stand on. Ue shows thAt, After twenty days' study of a budget of $211,115,-018.82, the board has essayed a reduction of $120. 420, one-twentieth of 1 per cent., and some $4,700 of that sum does not belong to the budget. There could not be a gfeAter. if wholly unconscious, compliment to the foresight, care fulness, and pondered investigation with which this Board of Estimate and Apportionment builds the YORK TIMES. WEDNESDAY. DECEMBER 13. 101G. budxet thsn tbe beggarly tittle decreases which the Aldermen have been able to suggest; and the Mayor shows lliut not economy, bin politic! or per. aorittl aplte, ho moveO I be Honorable Hoard. Tbe Aldermen acceptai, and rlgbtty, some 20..VX) increases of salaries. They manifested their saving Instinct as to only sixty -six. They laid down the rule that they would oppone in creases of salaria which would produce more thAn $4,000. Then they smashed their own rule in six cases. The increases they approved and those they disapproved were alike deserved. And they refused twenty-nix increanea tf nalartes under $1,000. Small politics, personal Ill-feellnK, secrna the only explanation of this unfortunate intrusion of the Aldermen into a subject with which th'-y are peculiarly unfitted to drol. Tbe Mayor Htandn on the solid ground that Ibe (.alary nhould b " the " incaaure of the value of the work " done." Tbe j'rr-sldent f th' Hoard of ' Aldermen, si a member of the, Board of Estimate, hits a renponsibll-Ity, a power. In the City Goverument which should Iw. rccngnlwd by something llk$ proportionate pay. Certainly $7,5'). the salary provided by the budget, If not too large. The pout should be made attractive, no that the fittest candidates may be found for it. The cuMlnr in two of the pay of Mr. Wirt, tbe distinguished spo-lallnt. under whose advice the reorganization of the elementary schools is going on, appears to have been promoted by the Indignant local pride of the Aldermen, unable to forgive him tho crime of coming from Indiana. Tb' Aldermen also arose against the new post of Executive Manager of tbe Board of Education. The Hoard of Education spends every year, the Mayor tells us, more than fl'J.OOO.ono on supplb-. repairs, und so on. That means work for a competent admlnlxtratar. It cannot be, done, save cursorily and Inefficiently, by the members of the board, v. hone main tacks are different and take all the time they have to give. Another Instance of the curious lr-illutlon which Intelligence, precision, anil a steady, far-reaching policy seem to cause in the Aldermen, whose old tradition la of a haphazard way of doing things, In seen In thlr seal to eraje from the budget the consulting -architect and three other members of the city planning staff. The problems ot a great city havo to bo thourht out and worked out. It prrows no fjt in the prcsenl that Its future must be studied und prepared for. Its future bnlnesn convenience, baKti-y, Ita orderly and healthful Increase, must le pondered by expert. Any municipal council In Germany would Ixi astounded by oppei. tlon to ctty planning. Everybody who likes vigorous style, everybody who is interested in the civilised City Government, should read this veto message. "I consider! it Important." writes Mr. Mitcmei., j "that the people of the city should; " know the character of the action " your board has indulged In, In order " that tbey may have their attention " properly turned to the Importance or "electing members to your body who " will co operate conscientiously and " Intelligently with other city officials " in furthering the businesslike con-" duct of affairs." Has New York ever had as con-ecientioUM, intelligent, and businesslike conduct of its affairs as under this odmlnlst ration? j. .... v TOPICS OF THE TIME8. Whether or not the No Lowering, present cr.argea for of Speed mail transportation n -1.1 by pneumatic tubea xeMWV8 a question which the public, having no Information on the subject. Is quits willing to let the Poatmaater General dlacuna as much as be pleaaea with the companies owning the tube. Should he be able to get better terms, of course that would be regarded with satisfaction by, so near, ly everybody tliat the grief of the few objectors would not add appreciably to the world's woe. Hut when the Tot-master General proposes, a ho does, to abolish this form of service in all of the cities that have it except New York, and to cut it down here, then the public I Instantly and deeply Interested and will remain In a state of resentful apprehension until he gives convincing proof that the chance will not reault in slower deliveries than those now made. Even as It Is. almost all of ua am growling a (ood deal of the time over the iJowness of the mails, or at any rate over the fact that thny are not faster than they are, and tt will take A lot ot showing to convince un that any available, or even imaginable, mean of carrying mail matter cao glva a speed even approaching that of the pneumatic tubes. Auto trucks may be faat, but they ara little better than ox carts compared with tho speed of the carriers driven by air through the smooth conduits where no traffic policeman ever ralsns a warning hand and no obstinate driver ever om-aerts the proud privilege of consulting his own convenience Instead of oUiti people's. It Is, indeed, a pity that the tubes cost a good deal to Install and do small mount to maintain and operate. They render excellent service, however aerv-Ice apparently not to be performed with equal expedition In any other way, and service that would be severely missed by those who are Its beneficiaries. And thst means everybody, directly or indirectly. New York, the greatest ef all taxpayers, would be especially grieved if its mail facilities were in any degree, cut down. Tbey are far from being too largo as It is. and. though economy In the expenditure of public money Is highly commendable, there are economies that are worse l)i an extravagances, or at any rate Just as bad. Of course It Is the There's No business of nobody ex-Accounting ce&t the British them-for Tastes aelves what forma and ceremonies those whom they select to manage their affairs choose to go through kfore unsortaolng that honorable and momentous taek. No matter how seemlnrly inconsistent Xlmua forms and ceremonies may seam to be with realltl"a of a-ivernrnect :m e,'t -ed In the HrllUh Kmplre, we all know Itiat II U In seetnlfis only- '" 'hey ara merely pl1iiremua siirtlvali from another BS, and that their .rearvallon Is only a matter of lists and bahlt. Nevertheless. It does produce somethln of a shock in American minds to read of wnter colors thai ch.illetise mm-that the great lords and tho possibly ! virlon with the txet of their kind, greater commoners who constitute the 1 They lire Innacc3 and Tn lies, new British Cabinet, before they settled ranriiiK In eubje.-t from a Porto Ki-o down In their respective offices, went to evening to the harbor at Hongkong; the King's palace and kUied the Kings and mot of them show a building up hnnd. of structure, with color elo-iuent of a They did it because It has been done hand and vision working together in by all their predecensors because not to j unity. It is precisely tho spontaneity do it would hsve been a violation of and Joy In these direct notations of na- preeedetit. of Ions established custom. And probably the hnnd-kltwins has an air of absurdity only when viewed from such a distance as across the wide sea. That It can be done by men as self-respecting as any In the world is sufficiently demonstrated by the fact that these, men did It. And yet and yet-well, in the klndhect of ways one can express Jut a little wonder thai those eminent Knglislun'n felt not even little reiu ten-""' for nmrofekilng tlielr li.lty lo what their K m rcpresriits by a gesture the mult lug of Hlih h wouM be nlmostl unthinkable In " re lsied untry. Our own higher offi1aln are not conoid- ered really In office until after I hey have sworn to support and defend the Constitution of nation or State, as the case may be, but never a one of them kisses anybody's hand. That Is not our way of dolnjr. thin;?. When a Queen was on the throne these oscuUtlonH did not at ail offend the remote observer-seemed a rs.ther pretty eremony. indeed. Hut u Klmt makes It r different 1 in (lie pro. Uruntton A Surprising united by the Gorman Word Was Used. iovvmnlenl. the other day. half appealing nd li.'ilf commanding the Cerman women of every rank to en-tor the public MTVlce u in tual work-era, there was one eurious and significant phrase. As tr.nsl.ited. It characterized o "Idiotic class distinctions" those lines which, more, ns.dlv in Germany than In any other Kuropean country, except perhaps In Mi-ttta. have divided th population Inu llnlo less than separale species. If these distinctions have conie to seem , tdiotli: " to the rulers of Germany. I then it would indeed be 1 in possible to exagaerate lb Influence toward democracy which the war lias exerted, for ri.inlv before the war. the dividing lines between class and rUss were" held to he natursl. lmn.ov.ible. -nd ommenu-able. In short, necessary for tho existence of society us. In Germany It oiifht to be. Tlifre a mun or woman w:is born or was not, and that ended the matter for him or her. and It. al-o d-cldcd the .1,1... ha or ."he culd und could not do. All mat is really were caneo iuin. " - 1,-1 1JU , I .. 1 .11 .1111. 1.1.1 procbunation of high provenience. The! Chan, would I so swever. that one is almoM f .r.ed to ,ht the ,o..liac) of the l ablation. ho dot British " Slsckert" In America. ) r-'llur l Ihr yir i r i Iirlutn t a. t--n " . " for nol enforeliif r 1 1 :- t so "t' tha P'-'T'e but. at'tr ejiit irl' u i.i'.""- t,a ha hr v llhft I'." l"iU'le. aetllns a ftp ii thins rtio slaekirs lb Vnrland. a !v had hf.p'd h. wt. i'il 1 " mu'id a throiish ' l-othcrli.R them. tve been r'"'S ""e rJ'", :iurli' . w .. lai tlST aloal-. but very anreiv. inn, inoej and led imo thr trah.ii. -'""!-.' . very d:.y. Th latMt pr..poan io... U.e UnUn prrra tnai .xnirr.. bolp tn raid -m Urltlh alacken, all tertl.e Lmtnd HUM ho, under ona uli and are hldlrR -ehi"d a' rtars KnS b-trlpes. There ar lots o( them, younf. abla-bodlrJ men. nul' fit I" bo flhttn tn th trenches or North Hes, who bring forward th cowardly cxeuaa that they have bustnaaa, fRmlly. and other Ilea which Und lham. foiwd h. la Ait.mlcs. Mart. you. Iha ara the slackers .M luira seen them In New York. Huston, and Philadelphia) who. after a bljf lunch, over a Benedictine and cigar, freely rrithls tbe Erltlsb methods of eon-dueUiig tha wr and bsvs th tnipudeii.-e to ask: "What la England dolrg?" Sham en their heads! M .y t ielr sons grow up to asy . '" Wbat did you do. Uddy. tn th big war? " j hof American women will get after those fellows and doeorats them freely with tho a bits feather lht they will bo (ta.! t" Tilt- f'oo, lis k and mora lower to PretJent Wtlaon o elbow If be will fla his seal en this lateot rropo"ea movement and help the Britlab Consuls sumtuoo all thaao men to show just nauan and Impediment why Uiey aliould not clear off at ence and do their bit. Meanwhile. 1 would like la tell them that a month ago four girts e( ona family, all gentle-bred and used to luxury, gave up borne, rrlonda. and erarr-thlng In Victoria, F. C. and went over to London, two to go as nurses and two as ambulanro drivers with lh Red Proa. raraoaallr. I am a tirltlsher. fJ year ef age. and havo been rejected four times for service as ber,g " too eitl." Nevrrthelrss. 1 have had three lucky escupea trvm tlng torpedoed by submarine arid am thankful I am still aJtve to sign nijaelf WILLIAM A. JOirNSTONIi New York. Dec. 0. IMG. An International Court. To tlte Editor pf Th Sew l or Timn: In today's pjar " Cosmos " advie ate. as a basis of peace, in International court similar to our own Huprerne Court. As far a tt gues. tills Is well enough, ndt a court I bound by lis own prarelcnl-t any rata, our own courU act In practice oo tbe doctrine of aloes derm. " Coatnns's " proposed cou;-t would, to quote hie own lansuasa. " build ft gradually and by a aeries of det-lalons a body of precedent that would, so to speak, lake the form of .an IniemajlonaJ camniun law." In building up thl Intf rnatlonul common law the court would be (and quit properly, despite the theurr of the separation of powers.) legislating. If It has to follow Us own pre.-o-dra.ta, ll bas too power to n ial ll own legislation, b'lnoe sny iswrnskltig boly Is fallible, any system will surely bruak down unless there Is a power somewhere to repeal leg. Islatlon In our own country. If the Supreme Court creates a precedent of common Uw or of th Interpretauon t'f a statute, Congress has power to altar that precedent by statuto. and If tl.e Supreme court crania a precedent of constitutional Interpretation, a It did, fur InaUnce. In the Income lax decision, a con . ... v.. - -I, A 1 ,1 stitutional amendment Is not lmpoastbla. Is It not oet.tlal to any s heme of government that Lher bo power aome where to reverse rule of Interna tlcmal common law established by the court? Is not lertslstkm also essential on queationa suwh as Uios which "Cosmos" rocognlxea a ooo-JuaUcta-ble? For those object a full-fledged formal rirllament need not I created at once but might suggest aa a temporary expedient. (II that In tha procedure ot any such court aa " Coamna " auggesta. It bo understood Iroia the outset thst the Judges themselves have power to alter their own precedents on grounds of International pub I poll. y . -) that various permanent commissions be established tn create a body or International law, each In Ita own ai'here. as sugsec tod In Walter Lippmann's " Stakes of Diplomacy." After all, the sooner we re ocnlae that cou.ts and commissi ona, In domestic as well aa in International affairs, nol only do but must legislate, and that they may therefore use legislative discretion In forming end In altering precedent, subject, perbape, to aome higher and more repreeentaUve lexislaUve body the sooner we recognise this, tbe more realistically shall we bo able to deal with do-meat Ic. as wall a International, problem Of readjustment. itUataaalT la Hla Mow TatK. Dos, a ART NOTES. Lsndscapes and Ocean Scenes by Psul Dougherty. I'm id I i'ik'ln rty, v. ho In It's P1'' t:it-e tuts worked ilurlliff the lnl ten vest with l staddy ll reaslng a.r-H.illon of rlironwiilc viluea, Is show- I In nt the Macbeth (Jn.'lerie a group . Jure that arfirm the preliminary train Iuk thn Intellectual readiness "ai m.ik.- possible a prompt response to Impressions The lntellwtual element in the pictures keeps Iteelf out of sight, but it does Its work. Kven the artist hardly can have known the loicic with which his happy brush conveyed his deiluht In the visible world. The structural form re tullt with so much sensitiveness to the relation of the planes thut I he palest color acheme In the arller hns the siun forre as the fullest ""l mort rsMonant chords. In Iho k'jed littl- picture of the slorlouw auniii mountains of lianff you have violet and yellow and t'lua dirrering iy enaoe iT.d veiled with sunlight a theme m th variations. In which nothing Is trvi-trsry ind every touch contributes t.- the ne of atmosphere and Hg d. Nothing In the room mere positively i.f-Urma its character as color. Mr. Houpherty reconcile objective representation with the rxpresslon of his mom! In these water colors to a de- i irre Immensely cheenn- to the JaTC" j ,-ubllc beilevtng that objectivity and j subjectivity are lndlssolubly united in any healthy art. His exhibition will be open until Jan. 1.'.. Riving the pott-r.ohd.iy public a reason;, ble hanc-. A Suffrage Error. Tn Ihr IMtnr of Thr .Veir york 7 m. In repudiating the powerful militant wltR uf the suffrasa '' cau.a " Mr- Carrie np-man 'a't says: Tli 1eept arid hardest r)U'Jlc In is public mini which th wman movamatH has ha1 !' ovrci" is th c nmmon si-eaptanea ef 'hs Idea tnnt armnee are a lni.. rUe. ru h llidl I1JI posslr. lha name mnili. kim IMlllne, and the am rhsruclerlatli as eery othsr. 1. has refjilred threa gnratl"ns of ssttatl'.n and of dffnonsfratl'm in eollrsa and sehonl. fartnry. workshop, hntne. and club to prova to tl.e world that thra ara as many kinds of women as thr ar kind of men. Yet the rellr. of that old li-Urf RrUen rontinu-p!!y to rur anniHernent or tmr discomfiture. Any one at all familiar l'h tha wrltlnss. prnl-e. snd Fpewhea of K'iffras'"- kn.j-wn that iMm notion of woman be)"S a ci&sn has be.n promulrid by the nuffmsUts and 1a t.o one Jt haa been the ufrra1""' 'dep. hard rjudlrn." not the P'jblle-. that women would vota always ax a rUui-. I ,s., , tt.. -i.jra" ta nolltle, I MIO, - " Ihat Is, either all Democrats or all Ilepub- aft lhw ppjinim1y .j, ratlonii of Jarnaoatra- aet lllon, Mra. Call Uncovered t hat woman sri I ,,' h';t '! 'a frsliryinc ' Wnow that Mrs. "aft has h-r.if learned thli .l-illfilry a lal-dlll al lxann, al'lfnah I' i ( , oufii ry o dar 10 lach her the ! obviou. Ii vlrx t att own admission, the suffraT hmi ., t.ui) I on the fo.jttdailon of " wmuao itn., ant H solidarity." falls to pleea. II I. a. though Mr. Ca!t were on the vera of heeomJr.f an antl-uffralat. CHARlXnTE E. KOWE. Vonaers, Doe. 11. ItilS. Mm Meetings for Belgium T(J lht jl(or 0f rht .tic J r tmfti. la two recant editorials The Kvcnlns Pos- ha a. ken of the mm mectlii.,- to be held !n Camesio Hall. nd haa r.prwa-il the wl.-h that ither such mass meeting!" should t held all over the ro-irrtry ti p'otest ael"t the Helglan deimrta' Ions. Stimulated portly t J this and partly by the report In tho Bewpapern of Sunday that our aovernn.ent had published i rwrrefndn. with tiwi i.Tinan (rovirntiamt In oMer ta elldt an expression of the fee ting of the country on tha mutt nr. we are organising a iras mating of the cltlrens of tha Itorough of iUdgewov.l, N. J. Our lwp Is that our m-Uoii iu lead ot;"er towns In this part of the country to frel thut no com-nunlty is too m!l to refiner Ita prote,! cn this fadnt. ar.d thai thus as may do small part In erystalliKlnT the failing of tho uounlry Into definite expression. PAt.'I.INK I'HOVI.VK CLINTON. rjclgtwood, N. J.. lJn. 11. 111 Dividing the Rush Hours. To XV KUtor of T4 Nrv Tori Tv: Tho present discussion ef the daily subway crowd seems to confine I teal f to ratber unaaUafartory racayni nation of tha aubwwy auihorttiaa or a hopeful waiting poller for the marked benefit ts be derived from lh bow euewaya. If they are ever completed. The new runway may help and tba p meant efficiency may be Improved, but surely Uiero la a fundamental eondltton that bas been store or tees overlooked. Tha fact Is thai everybody, from long habit. 1 suppoeed to get to work tn tho roornirf exactly at o'clock., and to suit work (far more exactly) at 0:30 P. K. In thl fact and long -aoeuatoroed habit la the real trouble, ilow about changing tho bablt? A modern Chamber of Commerce might find time to work out tho fallowing suggestion: Kxc-M far tlwi uptown retail itiwai and a few special buataeaoea such as stock brokers, bunkers. Ao., there is oo real ruaaon, aa far as I know, why aa office should begin lis day's boslnaaa at precisely A. at. and atop at C JO i. at. If the different groups of business aeUvltlee could get together through the various trade organisations and formulate a plan of regulation by which the butcher and baker oouid begin work at 4. M. and close at ft P. M.. and the candlestick makers open at H:. A. If. and close at tj I'. a great puoue oes-flt would cutiue. lUBrmT K. rtTNAM. New Tork. Dec. 4. 1HPL THEWIDER VISION. In rormer times, as Christmas neared. I was content with gifts thst cboered The little few I called iny friends. Whose thought to life Its sweetness lends. Or thosn who nearest, dearest are, BeDeath Uie glowing, mild Home Star. Kor theae I planned, provincial, fond. Kln-bouml. nor ever looked beyond. My household circle, narrow street. My native town. It seemed but meet In these should centre Tuletlde Joys. r"sr from tho wider world of noise, Each year like other years before. The circle narrowing, narrowing more Glft-glvlng, dull, perfunctory, slow, A bnblt Ilstles3, a mere show. Now I look out across the world. My snall-soul from Its shell uncurled! The limitations of my purse I mourn, as sadly I rehearse The needs of friends I long to cheer-New kin of mine, this Christmas year! And I would own the fabled gold That Midas stored In days sf old! What matters rape or skin er creed? Suffice it, comfort millions need! The barriers are broken down; No more I count my street, my town, But of my scanty means I give That unknown kin of mine may live. And earn my cheer on Christmas Pay, Cy gifts sent to ths Far-A way! KtXaft. A. FAN N IWO. OLD CAUSE OF WARS Oetermlnallcn cf Small Peoples to Win freedom. T t IS' .oe r! Thr ,ir yor Hmi: As an offh er who u.i ' a volunteer for ttvo jfiira In the rWMen Army, t hnve taken grnt Int. -rest In the letters of " i.'osrniax " and of his critics I may be dangerously conceited, but I hnve received Iho Impression that al! these writers have omitted the one essential point in the entire controversy. A very superficial knowledge of history will prove conclusively that war ran never cease so lonn as tnjuatlces toward entire peoples continue to be practiced. AH progress has begun by an appeu.1 to the rvaaon and to the higher elements In humanity. All progress hes been checked as soon at It reached the danger point where the privileges of exploiters have been threatened. All progress had finally to be brought anout aid maintained by physical force on the part of would-be. reformers Now, It ia the pacifist's Igiiontnce of this Invariable riile in history which makes him tiik" such 'i foolish attitude toward ar, which Is nut lv iv incuri so great a horror as as Hijuxtlre perpetrated for cent lines. 'Thr rreiieid s'kIi IfiJ'isMre lias been fh enslivement of ifitlfe races by stronger power during msny ages. The Prrbliiris, for Irmtarwe, have been under Turkish or Austrian tyranny between -o und .'." ye;irs, during all of which time ihey hate kept up s ceaseless el tog,) for liberty. Ami they have not the slightest Idea of relinquishing their efTorts until success finally rests upon their arms. Kven If subdued in the present war. they will start again from the beginning th terrible struggle for national litwrty. And let not tbe pact-flu Im.iKlne that a coalition of all the powers to enforce universal peace will avail him. The heroic Serbs have more than once defied the miKht of the entire world; more than once have they pit. ngcvcl the nation into war. Ware been ended dishonorably before r.ow -notably In tfci-wlth the op-prc.4ed stl'l under the lash. If ths pacifist U really sincere In his love for humanity, be cannot advocab a peso now, which does not right crime, else lie permanently defeat, hi Own cherish.! ideal. Me inni' regat' the facta of history and universal nwoiemerit of mankind. Ilo must study human pay-ehclocy and learn from thst study that In every age there a sufficient number of lofty souls bent on human prog-re, and determined, If necessary, to sacrifice blood and treasure to secure human advancement, to make pesce v. 1th dishonor n Impossibility In this present war ho must learn that there sre two real causes, not on.-. Th-; wicked monarch and aristocrats plunging Kurope Into war for pleasure or ambition is only one cause. A much tie. p. r and stronger cause Is th- Inflexible) determination of Berba. !"olf. Italians. French, r.umanlans, and otl! -r races to f n e their brethren of f.-How race from tho chains of the Middle Ages and of a foreign foe. If the pacifist wants peace, he baa th. grnndeat opportunity now which lie likely ever to have. It him ad-t . .tie tho freeing of the 7.m), Herbs who fortn from ''' to vr, per cent, of a doxen Austrian Provinces; of the Uu-iiiinlans In Austrian T'-anat and Tran-s)lanla and In ll issian Hessarabla; of ill Itallaiiu In isirU and In the Trn-ilno, of the Pole in Germany. Austria, and Una la; of the rinns and Lappa, of the Irish, and of the Jews. .Syrian snd other ruined races In Tur-kcy. Here Is the only program which liaji a rhost of a chance of securing peace to the world. And It is a grand and noble Ideal for a processing fhrlstlan nation to bold be-f..r- 1U And it will go far to wipe out the reproach that Americans thrive on the blood of the unfortunate without giving even moral support to the century-cherished ld-al of those on-f. rt mates so similar in their alms to the heroes of the American Revolution. t a Kw New York. LieC a. IB1C The Baeia of Peace. To Ihf y.4Wt of Thr ea- rort Tim". fl.r ira-llnx the c ri'lclsms of "," l y tcany arl'rs In yoiiT columna. one I m.3ed to second the plea of " ' 'wrao " th-.t hi' arll-le le r d l.-foro lliev s-e a-uira. Wh) do th" cj-tics p.rl..t :ti de-,m.i:vtit.ff sn Is-m-ltate and tnroncluatv jes. ? The urntindatlon t ao easy and ubvloua-arul unnecessary Ihst every ona waulu aobac rlb to It, " Cosow " mn the first. Ill articles ar dlrecleJ agalnat an Uioondusir peace. If I understand hire oorrectly. ho U trying te elocldat and Sonne the oiostlona which will have t M dlac uiaaul at oonao tin whan tha Allien oe able ts dictate term of peace. It win W easy, at rues a time, for hat or greed or mere oxpedlaoey to oevor op th real taaooa. A renal awutral natloe) ought to be able to prevent tha obscuring of those tawoea and ought to bring a sane, unbiased, Intelligent point of view La the peace esgoUatlooa Hut before tt own do ao. publlo opinion must be made Intelligent by constant discussion of the problems raised by the war and by careful conelderatlen of Hie measure which might anrrs to prevent another ouch cataclysm. " Cosmos " U endeavoring to focus the dixusslon. Lei s walcomo say effort to force us away from our habit of using vairtio and lofty phraeaa while we urse every-txsly elao to keep on flghUrg Indefinitely. HAIUGET JX WHICH Bit. Amherst, afaaa.. Lec- . 191. Dion Bouclcault'a Grave. To th fcoHltfr of Th Xtte fork Timet: My attenUwn has been called to the pubflo pre to a recently published biography of my. lute tusbanl. Dion llouclcault. written by Toansend Walsh, and a copy of which I 4 found at the Put !lo library. ' Tmlcwl of Its tenor. Its detraction, the 1 refutauon of which would be almost, If not quite. Impossible at thla ktte date, and which Mr. VVslsh hj.a aeon fit to continue and again clreulste. I ona atatm-.ent which ra-floCta too grossly, too nagraot'y. on the deep respect and affection in which I hold Mr. Houct'Wult'a memory to permit m to lot It pa unrecognised and urbaJInged, via. the very laat eontne of lb volume, which &rxls that no gravestone marks his reatjug place. Mad Mr. Walab shown too same aeaJ aad regard for simple truth, to say nothlag ef justice and fair play, that he ha exercised In disseminating muriniormatioo, be could have evidenced by hi own oyealghl, within aa hour's time, th monument placed In Mount Hop Cemetery by my order a few moo tha after Mr. tmuclcault's death In tSSu. JOrlgPHINB CHB.VEY, LOi;iB Tlt'iItrtl'TKH IKJUOICAULT.) New Tork. Dec. 11. 1910. "On Lea Aura." To thr Kditor of Ihr Srtr York Timm: The Allies asy ef the Germans. On tea aura." (We will get them.) and put tt tn thla fashion: R Oumaale FraNc BeLgique Angl Kterro Hu Sale JApon Tort I" gal BeRble ItAlle WIUJAat IABTAIN. Saw Tec. Dan. T. DHsV CHANGESJNAUSTR!A. - Speculation on ths Futurt Halatlona of the Central Powers. New York. If4. , JIV - T ll , rHt:' f Thr .Vrtr J'ors 'lSvs; v our "Germany la llaateil ad aQst Knows It " tdliorlul remains raua la plte of Itucharest, and shoubj STwn Const Mine succeed in Joining his las-perls l brother-in-law. thers U not thl dig litest d.ubt In my mind that 'Germany Is, slowly bur surely, walking down hill. Not only are. aa yoo hava : pointed out with rare vigor and a fro-found knowledge of tbe whols complicated world situation, her initial purposes Irretrievably compromised, bot , she haa lost the' highest stake. Dot only. In Individual but also national life, her honor: " Oeld verioren, nlchte verloren; rJhro verloren, aUes verloren!' Kings can lose, battles, wars, and even their countries, and preserve ths lovs of their people, the respect of posterity. But William II. has, before ths wsJIs of Antwerp, forfeited bis honor; Is losing for hlmaolf and his nation through his wholesale sieve trade in Frane. Delirium, and I'olsod the Isst shreds of tha respect and sympathy of tha nsutral countries, snd, last but not toast, un-tsinaclotialy, Is digging lita rwtt royal grave by chasing Into culls on worthy and valiant King after ths other. ttra-V gins with him ths German Empire). - I am however, less concerned with ths fate of tho Hobemlertia than with ths foturs of my old tuntry Austria. And as an American cltlsen of Austrian descent. I heartily enjoyed thr "chill William had caught two days horej the funeral of Francis Joseph. Could hi Amb.iador snd other bench men la this country tell us whether that chin, which prevented the robust Gorman war lord from rendering his last homage to his faithful ally, was of a medical or dlplomatlco-dynastlcal fjrtgtaT What? A man who, for tha last tw years and a half, braved all sort of weather on the battlefields of Franoa. Poland, and the Balkans could oot . . stand, for barely fifteen minutes. ' funeral ceremony In ths well -baa tad at. Htephen'a Church of Vienna?.' This has probably been ths first clash between the two mowareha. CbarleSJ L ha mads tb" first to rje)OaVUwr bis capital for his dynasty and bis faithful AuslrUn poopls. Not Wlfllam -11.. but Charles I., with ths King f Havana and Saiony ths deewendaiyU of Francis Joseph's faithful atl-rr-slan allies of 1WW, elosa behind! hlov heaxded th royal pageant and William's hetr, the Pickwickian her os Verdun, bad to take a back seat. Poor Francis Joseph bad not tsean "Emperor of Austria since Jons SS, IW. the day ef Archduke Frauds 4 Ferdinand's assassination; Emperor William was the overlord of Vienna, hi Aaa-baeaador, Tcblrsky, was boss at ths Rallplats, and the Austrian General , Staff a more annex to the Grosser Gen-eralstab in Berlin. Meagre aa the news from Vienna Is. we know so much that within leas than one week Charles 1. dismissed the old Meld Marshal. Archduke Frederick, as Commander In Chief v of tha Austrian Army, replacing hlin with the young, abb. enargcO Archduke Kugeo. s the earns tlma taking, In the person of hla confidant. Prince MohenlrtJie. bold of the supreina direction of foreign affairs of hla Ample, , Ue also took to the field, not as a royal vaaaal but as consul of equal rank with th armlea of the GuadrupM, AlHanoe. In a few days Charitsa I. will, open lbs .... Austrian Parliament, whose doors wera -closed since the outbreak of .tha ' war, ., and place Hungary's crown on hi bead. hlnce General Joffrw and his officers, yea. even tbe ultra-radical French statesmen, are not ashamed to attribute the victory on tbe Mam to the aplrtt of Joan of Arc I. an old Austrian, n-ed not hesitate to conf eas that I see ths spirit of Km press Maria Theresa hover over her old palaos In Vienna, elttn revenge for the Slleslari robbery. AUSTRIAN. Badly Vantllated Thaatrwu To th f;.ilr ef Th fsra Tlas Plnce a week ha been eet apart by lbs Health iwpartmept to demonstrate lh aid of freah U U bltb. It U a good Oto t wmsldir rompoiorr regutaUo ef air la h.tres iho saroa a firs and other - laUon. ! ; A vsntllaring engmoer bas staled that It rqtiir onty from ten to twenty- ttilnota t poi'oii evory enblo f"t of a soboolroes ao by 00 bj- 10 feet occupied by frsea twa tr five to finr ehlldras; slss that we breata to 20.000 time a day. How mucb physical Injury do we then do ouraatwas ta a crowded theatre for nearly three anrs breathing the vUa polsoa that bas bows ts-baled mlllleaa of Uaseg beore. Ts amouat of oisow If all drunk ta ewJ oswaaj would vary nearly mean dawtb. The Sao become sa absorbed vttb what ! bstof Cwn that tbey do not rwsJlsw ths lajary asasaT dasie tbara by breathing ta tho gitsiiniss ass. They nee protactloa ta Huno aa Craw fit or ether manacoa. bVsna tbaatraa and ass-tng picture smmss not nave wlosowg ef most of thatr sxlu opened durtng ta eartxe Winter. Tha managers soy It costs ts much ts reheat a bouse for every performance, and. moreover, that the noises oot-atde disturb the audiaaoa during the s4ay. Manager win not m by ventilating thatr theatres, on th contrary, by censldsrtnf tb euiDfort of patrons they would increase thatr houae raralpt. Players would aloe ha UtU trouble in fatting a hearty - reaasoas If tbey aare s ansioua about tha osnUart of their aadlonc as they are t got tSar luuglis and aipiaaaa. Dee. . !;. C WARDB TRAVKK. A FamHy Needing Help. 81 lillie Utlldraa, ranglsg from 19 te mo lbs, wcew recantly tart fatbert a destitute when an automobile strew kuled Mr. M. Alone at hone, his was piaaxratad with grief at this calamity. Te take oars of many 11 eMMeea was beyond her etiwexth. supply noctsslttes of food and clothing theoi all was aa Impossible task. M tare of tua cblldraa bad tickets, and ta- vation and suffering of every kind war I un dermining tt health sf ths whole -Caoillr Theae tiling cade a fofiorB Utile same ta day la s tew Sara Uoeraeot re lira Uttl Bobble was tbe only bright spota perfoctiy sormaj little bay of 10, trying1 ia tbe meat grown -op manner t help Bia mother lu bar diatraaa. Now two of the cblldraa ara curt of thatr troubles, sad Artbar Is getting better, while frean air and good food have put tho wheU family s tbatr fat. Mrs. M. is work'ng la a luMgirooat and trying her very beat ts so port thea alt, bt the undertaklad requires help. Far Brsi -Usa, food, sad elothlsg duruvg Iho WUiiar for thaae six ehlldree thai their mother oaa-004 provide th Charity Organtxatlo aaetwty asks tor 1130. titf! aent to the society's office. 10ft East Twebty-eooood Strast. will be promptly aeknowladgad. Tbe fallowing eoatnbotloos la' reupa o ta a previous appeal ta TUB Tists for aasthw tamUy are acknowledged with thaaka: Iff, J. Culbert Palmar. t5,4ias U JL Craaa. IX Miss Mary N. Wllmordlng. t9; Miss Laala C. WU.-aerdlBg, g&: Mrs. Parso MerrlU, gS; Aaoaymoua. flO. Alexander Mrlmo. Si Mra. J. A. Haakelt. S5; kC 8. B.. SS; J, O. Uragaw, Jr., fit; " A Blncere Byaspathlxor." IS; Mm. H. Ii. Colm, 1-1; W. C B., Hi boutberner. $2:' Mr. David Proroot. JlA; " In Memory ot Mother." ft; Hamilton Cssoil.' 13; U B. H., S20; H. & H.. 10; tash; gS; Caab, II; Mra W. B. Bright fl Cash, l; Mrs. C. W. Wstwiar, tai; Mrs. Caar'aW Wood. So. Aaoaymoua. la; Staxa wiuoo, aj. wubow Md . tel. fotas

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