The New York Times from New York, New York on October 4, 1903 · Page 27
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The New York Times from New York, New York · Page 27

New York, New York
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Sunday, October 4, 1903
Page 27
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SCHOOL TO TRAIN WORKERS FOR ORGANIZED CHARITIES Methods of Practical, Philanthropy, to be. Taught, and Diplomas to be Granted at the Conclusion of a Course of lectures and Visits Extending Through the Winter. IT Is some t!m now since philanthropy ! came to be looked upon as a business; since a relief bureau was first organised nd conducted exactly, as any great mer cantile enterprise would be. But this year philanthropy has been' raised to' the dig-Bity of a profession a profession, that Is. with schools In which its members may take a regular course of training and .study, and receive certificates , or diplomas upon graduation, as a guarantee of excellence la their chosen calling. Such a step for the advancement of charitable . work will ' be taken in this . city to-morrow. ; when the Winter School of Philanthropy will open Its coo'rs to its first class of students, under the auspices of the Charity Organisation Society, in its building at 105 East Twenty-, second Street. It is the first school of'its kind established, and without doubt ushers In the day when every city will have its school or college of philanthropy, and when a diploma of graduation in such a. course, will be as necessary to the professional philanthropist as is a diploma from some good hospital. to a professional nurse, at present. . . Already Prof. Henderson of Chicago and prof. Ealch of Wellcsley College have followed New York's lead .and have estab-' Hshed classes, on a smaller order, for the study of practical philanthropy.. And many charitable organisations In this city havs pledged themselves hereafter to draw their salaried workers from among those holding certificates of the Winter School of Philanthropy. To those who do not realise what a great businesslike system practical charity today t .s grown to be. this last statement may be surprising. Several thousands of Ben and women are at present drawing salaries from the numerous private institutions and the church and charitable organisations, which form a network stretch-tag north snd south, east and west, atl over the city. Many mors are employed in such institutions and organisations which are under State and. municipal control. And though it is a work in which, so far. the salaries are poor In proportion to the amount of labor required, it is one -!n- which the demand for skilled workers is steadily growing, and In which, as the need of truly competent people is more and more recognised, the compensation for services is gradually being made cora-Bwnsurate to the responsibility involved. Some years ago it was recognised that something more than a kind .heart ' and fondness for such work-was necessary In one who, wo aid be successful in -church acd parish visiting and organization, and schools for training deaconesses and " pastors assistants" were established by va- : J..AinlnaHftnr T A Vi a nrnvi to be most successful In their field. Here the pupils receive a training which will fit tbem for the little duties they may be called upon to perform. In a limited sphere of sction. To nurse and cook for the sick., to sew. to sing, conduct a meeting, or teach a Eib'.e class, art points in .which such workers are carefully drilled. ,Y "DUTIES OF THE TRAINED 'WORKER. Tint tticu duties ir vprv different from thone which fall to the lot of the salaried efficer or visitor of most large charitable organizations, and the course ofj study napped out In this new school for training professional philanthropists is. therefore, spon entirety different lines. It comprises a broad and comprehensive view of the whole' field of relief work State, munici-wil. and private its organism and divisions, ll will give them -a thorough understanding ef the many agencies they will have at their command to help tbem In their work, asd when and how to gain the aid of these. It will teach them how to deal with any rase or meet any emergency which may "confront them In any branch of philanthropic work; where to turn, for the services of the trained nurse or "physician, when such is required; how to obtain relic! lor a destitute family; what powers to invoke in order to correct conditions which threaten the moral or. physical welfare of .the community. It will also include special information in different branches of philanthropic endeavor. - - ' ; ,' The course will cover seven months, from Oct 5 until May. and will include lectures, rfjtilar class work, and practical experience. Already a gratifying number of pupils, both men and women, have enrolled for the course. Some of these are already raed In . work for charitable societies and institutions, and wish a broader knowl-dse , of ideals and methods, and of the lources of aid they are often required to - Others are beginners seeking to enter Philanthropic work as a profession, or people of independent means, who wish 'to know how to make themselves useful In Srwlal l - The school Is under the able directorship ef Mrs. Anna Garlin Spencer, who bas n for years Identified with many tranches of philanthropic work, and Is Wen known as 'a lecturer on method of fiodern philanthropy. Robert W. de Forest will be Chairman' of the special corn-Wttee governing - the school work. The Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, the United Hebrews Charities, the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, and th Department, of Public Charities. - and "her charitable agencies are co-operating ith the Charity Organization Society In jt endeavor to make this first attempt at training professional philanthropists a Suc-sful one. . - ; . An idea of the general scope and method Instruction to be given m this school Philanthropy may best be gained by a -n. at that part of the course so far ppd out. The first seven class ' seasons, on Monday and Thursday evenings October, will be devoted to a general ""7 of the charitable field by the stunts under competent guides. . At the Erst rln i -i . : . . cmuu nuDrn h. q roresi preside, and representatives irom va-"us charitable societies win address the Indent briefly. Mrs. Spencer will de-er the lecture of the occasion, speaking the qualifications of charity workers. The second class lesson will be conducted r Edward. T. Devine of the Charity Or-fmiation Society, who will explain the lT?U na mean charitable re- T r m neral. He will point out the. deference between agencies and Institutions WWic, private, organised, and unorgsn-J-giving an idea of the ends each of wm"! ' lntnJe t serve, and showing ch should be applied to. for aid In cases Vim riU" ki"J- Ia th third clase session """am Rh-iander Stewart, President of 8ut Board of Charities, will expUla i scope and functions of the institutions r his care, and in what cases these hould be appealed on. He will enter Into whole reUUon of State and -National governments to citizenship and social conditions, as affecting charitable work. At " fourth classsesslon Jhe students be addressed by Homer Folks. Commoner of Clarities, who will explain ut the Department of Charities, its ln-tutions and otganlsm, when and how to -J At the fifth session representatives r the Catholic. Hebrew, and Protestant or-Uatioas will tfve the students an la- sight Into the general scope of the relief work carried on in these different fields. The lecturers will Include Dr. Lee K. Fran- aei, ran; Tucker. Thomas Mulry, and the Kev. David H. Greer. . .. LECTURES TO BE DISCUSSED. - After each of these sessions an ooen dis cussion upon the subject of the !eotur will follow. The classes will be kept strictly private, as those in ; a university, so that the students will feel free to ask questions snd give opinions without fear of outside criticism. After this first series of lensons a session will be devoted to- Class work. In which Mrs. Fpencer will review the preceding studies and examine the class upon what it has so far been taught. The students will be required to tell of the various functions of State, municipal, and private charities, &c.. and to explain how they would deal with various cases of distress which the teacher will cite, v ' , All students enrolled In the courts of study will be required to keep notebooks on a prescribed plan, and to hand them In for inspection when asked. From these notebooks the students will be questioned In the session devoted to class work, and they will form the basts of examination for certlfli-cates at the end of the year. ' ' t The second part of the course of study will contain four lectures explaining the charitable work devoted to the aid of the sick and preventive methods In behalf of public health. Dr. Herman M. Biggs will speak of " The Scope and Functions of the Board of Health." and the treatment oi contagious diseases. Dr. Silas F. . Hallockj will give the students a good understands tng of the medical charities and allied help both public and private, at their command. The scope and function of the Tenement House Department, how to use it and ln4 crease Ha efficiency, will be explained by Dr. W. R. Patterson. The care and preven-i tion of tuberculosis among the poor will be discussed by Dr. S. A. Kneff and Miss Lilian Brandt. ' ". I In the session of class work which follows the students will be called upon to explain how they would . procure aid ' for persons suffering from various complaints and Deeding assistance, medical and pecuniary,! while disabled: how they would add a tu- berculous patient In, various circumstances,! bow they would deal with contagious diseases, and how they would go out to rem-' edy evil conditions ia tenements, c ' ! Four class sessions will then be devoted to studying the Important toplo of the care of delinquent, dependent, neglected, and de. fective : children. Different lecturers will explain to the students ' bow delinquent children are dealt with by the city the police and the courts. The systems of probation and parole, and reformatory institutions and agencies for juveniles, public aud privates-will be spoken of and their methods compared. Commissioner Homer Folks will speak ef the care of dependent children who are normal.' their care In lnstltu-: tlons and through agencies, and the law and practice regarding the separation fit - children. from their parents, when this last Is advisable or necessary, and under, what circumstances an effort should be made to seep me zamuy logewer, . xne suoject oi aeiecuve ana negieciea cnucren, ine institutions devoted to their care and protection, the laws against cruelty and neglect; and how to make complaints in such esses will be ably dealt with by Dr. Luther Gullck of the Board of Education and Miss Julia Richman. i TWO SPECIAL SECTIONS. . After the class has thus gained a general Idea of the whole field of charitable work, it will divide into two sections, according to the special Work for which the students are preparing.' One section will be composed of those interested In the care and treatment of needy families in their homes. The other will comprise those particularly interestedvln institutional care and treatment. The meetings of the two sections will be held on different evenings, so that a student desiring to do so may : take both courses. But the branches of philanthropic work represented in, this class division are so entirely separate that the majority of students will have a decided predilection fnrnu W..J ri , ZZCltoTZto.Z Ject the keeping of the family Intact and taking relief into the homes. The other be. lleves in the institution as the best way of gl-ing eomfort and aid to the dependent -T The spirit of the school, however, is to impress upon all the students that! each case must be considered Individually; that the course which will bring most permanent relief with the last drain upon society Is always the one to be pursued. : The students interested in the work among the poor In their homes 'will learn how to make application for relief for a needy family and how to investigate the worthiness of such cases. How to gain employment for people, the treatment of families in which there is sickness, as simulation of Immigrants and Industrial removal, treatment . of needy cases caused by desertion, rice, 'and crime; the treatment of needy families with delinquent or incapable parents, not deserting or in prison or workhouse, will all be subjects of study for this section of the class, i ' The. course for students fitting themselves for institutional work will include a study of the institutional care of children, problems of educational and Industrial training, problems of discipline and character, training, care j of defective children, reformatories for boys and for girls, the laws governing these and . problems of management i Institutional care of adults In - prisons, . Jails, workhouses, almshouses, hospitals, and asylums;, the care of the dependent and unfortunate In private-Institutions, and a glance at the opportunities open to and training necessary for Individual caretsklng of these unfortunates. For the last six class sessions tha two sections will be reunited, and together will study questions relating to general moral reform, the educational advance, and social uplift Aids to thrift such as savings institutions" and Insurance, will be . explained. Standards of living and distribution of family incomes will be discussed. The work in the evening, vacation, technical, and special schools; people's lectures, child labor and school attendance, , neighborhood work for social betterment! settlements, and civic clubs will be studied. .-1 STUDENTS TO PREPARE PAPERS. Besides attending the lectures and class work, students of the School of Philanthropy will be required to prepare (papers on special subjects, case records for! study, written synopsis of points of discussion, and such other material, either; fo? , their private benefit or that cf the class. hall be called for by the teacher. A certain amount of supplementary reading . Is also required of all the students. J Visiting in institutions by the class .will be discouraged, as such visits lead to a suspension of the regular 'work of the institution, while the crowd Is being conducted through the building. Instead, pn-pils will be given opportunities to spend a day or several hours separately in sthools. kindergartens, or institutions, or irlU be ffHE NEW YORK sent with I experienced workers, one at tune, on t lelr round of visiting among the poor.; Th is they will be able to study and obser e the dally routine and methods employed, as would be Impossible if they went in si body. - v Note bodks will form the basis of exam ination at khe end of the year, but prompt' neaa and regularity of attendance' at the classes, fbtra work . accomplished, and, above all.tbe spirit of the applicant toward charitable Jwork will be considered in Judging of the! fitness of a student for a cer. tlflcate. aid In recommending him 'or her afterward J for a position. There are no requlrernetlts for admission to the classes except thoke of suitable age, moral char acter,, geieral Intelligence, and ' a fair school education. . t ) Many volunteer workers who support by their mondy or personal service many of the philanthropies of New Tork. and other people of I dependent means who wish to learn bow to make themselves useful in philanthrope fleJds, will -take advantage of the cou'se of lectures, ' without under taking the k-lass worlor seeking for a cer tificate. . A fee of $10 entitles such people to become I lecture : attendants, and "places them unded no pledge of service. They will he wetcom to such advice regarding related read ilg. observe tlon visits, and other matters coi nected with the course; as the Director can give. i The 'social responsibility for intelligent discrimination resting upon those who sup port : Charlies or who help govern them by service An boards and committees makes all educational opportunities as much need ed by volunteers as by salaried workers In the field of charity. That many feel the need of erfpert information who do not desire certificates as professional . philan thropists Is I shown by the large number of lecture attendants already enrolled for the course. TRANSLATION OF - INDIAN NAMES Work Bexna Done Bu a Govern- nt Commission; ' . ..-.. O OME TIME ago the Government ap- pointed a commission, consisting of geogra thers, historians, . Post Office Department officials, and an Indian, for the purpose of translating into concise and correct Em '.ish all Indian names to be found In tie geography of . the United States. , Th task was to be performed 'in as to retain In the English such mann translation much as possible the true significance, of the Indian ork of the committee Is. well meaning term. ' The under, way. nd when finished promises to add a . large I number . of picturesque place- names to th already rich and varied collection. Tb enormity of the task snay be comprehend 1 . when it Is considered that all over the and. from Maine to California and from tl e Red River of the North to the Mexican boundary on the south, 6,000 Indian name commemorate the fact that the red man lonce was the sole possessor of the land. T names of his chiefs and of tiiA in memorv. In- ! his tribes ar4 forever dlan tradltiois are perpetuated and musical f Indian word have been incorporated Into j our tongue, t legacy or poetry ana romance even in this practical age. v Every nam the Indian gave meant something. ' He le t to his pale-faced brother the absurdities o : prefixing to 2,700 towns and 3 settlements 15ie stale descriptive terms oi East andiWfst, worm ana bouui; oe ien to the white! man the confusion of thirty- three Sprir.gflelds In one Union, not a fifth of which werfc ever built In a field or by a spring; of evilles without a pine, uaa-. an oak, Weyraouths and dales wlthou Plymouths at are not at the mouth of the Wey. the Plym, or any other river;- of Mount Vera e twemy-iive iuwi, nn it even a hill to their credit. of them with nd of 1.100 New Havens, New yoras, new- towns, and iNew-everythlng-else. all of which have ling since ceased to be new. Not so with the Indian. He pitched his wie-wam besife the stream. Through the curling water i the ong. dark Yosemite. except that It has the appearance river's bed lo -ked like otter. PjJJ of a aom that has ' been partially flat-forthwith the camping plae lh Untd out. In loowt down tn6 canyon the name it bears tayal" i " uir Dome bears quite a resemblance to Hke-otters" ii.tha Indian .to W- E CaPtn. and .Unds out in a massive be saw on a ri ver bank a ph tree thed M a in flames; for hour. It threw torch-ke ,. mldway of the canyOQ tr is a full ylare over tt " w0U,dJv ; view of the Grand Sentinel, so named by beamed the g low of. some council flreed j , M Hutchlnrs who, bullt the tJr8t hOB9. by attendant warriors, and Potomac that ln the , To8emltft valley, and who wss also region Decam. a- . .- t which is "tht place of the. burning pine. that resemble a council flre." Poughkeep- I sle U sal harbor - for small boats '; Onta-; Sar- KOmagewocai m F ;rlo. - the villlge on he mountain fianaCl the ,-er that flows under rock," and Saratoga, the place of the miraculous waters In a Similarly. nectady lr-" the river v al ley beyond t pine trees"; Schoharie Is that throws its waters ; the tribute strong over a the Wabash 1 d across the main stream "; M a cloud blown forward by an equinoctial rind "; Monongaheia Is the falling-ln-ban river ": Rappahannock, "the iver of iuick rising water.", and Toronto, ; oak trees ri ilng from the lake." , Such words show, a wondrous skill In the art of Word painting, and' their expressive Indian tongue reflect i , their .impressions with a vivid minuteni ss Impossible to more cumbersome Engli; h. . . ; There is no c mmonplace in Indian names. All of the Ind an' a terms are picturesque, because alive ind full of meaning to him. A thousand ex , no plea could be given. Once, before the whi e man's day, a caving-ln of ia river bank i tvealed the huge fossil tusk jof some prehli torte monster.. At once the river, received the name . Chemung. Big Horn." and g neratlona of squaws told to generations of papooses the traditions of the big bones i nd wide Jaws that once had been, found tl ere. In 1675 a portion of Maine was vl; ited by a most devastating fire. The Indl ins at once gave the region the name of ichoodlc,. the " great burnt lands," perpet istlng forever the memory of the terrible lisaster. Orinoco Is " coiling Snake," posslh a reference to the crooked Course of .the stream, but more probably marking the. rotable killing of some ven omous reptile. f Sometimes ii was the physical features that were nam reflected. Thus Wetumpka Is ' " tumbling waters": Sandusky, - the f eold spring Katahdln, . the " htghest place ";i Hogs the " swift current Ni- agar a, the k of. water"; Nahant Is Vat the point ! . Passumpslck is " much Clear water, gy place." E reflected his is spirit" d Chautauqua is the " fog. e times the Indian's names iperstitions. Thus. Manlto ontauk i s , manlto or Spirit tree," at Mtnnewaukon mean! the T devil's lake. Sometimes his names cele- brate his hu Ung or : fishing exploits. Mackinaw is abbreviation ef a longer word meaning "the great turtle place." cans " the. fishing place for Ouinslgamond pickerel" Th i are several Ammons, vernment lias a peculiar which, its tho penchant for pplng off the termlnatlve syllableir of Indian words, may not unrea sonably be take i to represent Atnmonoosuc, an expressive I id lan word meaning "fish-story river," a proof positive that the red man, as well s i his successors, was given to telling tall stories about his luck , in fishing. : ' .. . ! Even the Jn iau hstes, 'and hereditary feuds find expression in names. The members of a cerla! t Indian' tribe,-despUed for their peacefuln -ss. were in contemptuous parlance Otu tas, "traders." while fiercely flghUrig tribe were . admlrin.w termed Cries, lor wild at-. r their TIMES. ; SUNDAY. enemies. Our lowaa are a corruption of a derUlve word signifying drowsy or sleepy ones," a, term given by the warlike 'Sioux' of the North to his quieter red brethren; of the ." plains. ' The scornful Iroquois called each Algonquin of the New Tork mountains n "Adirondack." . signifying "he eats bark," The latter retorted by dubbing each Iroquois a "Mohawk." or "man eater a grim testimonial In Us wsy to the fierce and relentless Iroquois character. The family- of the Sioux, the famous fighters of the Northwest, divided as'they were Into eight great branches or sub-tribes, gave to themselves the comprehensive name of Dakota a. "allied together In friendly compact"; but their Indian foemen colled them by the bitter term of Sioux, " cu threats." 1 ; The Indian was a born story-teller. Every lake and river, every rock, and every phim had its story, its incident, its legend. The Indian gave ever those names that recalled these legends to his mind. ' ,AVInons, Minnesota, has a beautiful legend. Winona, " first born daughter." was the child of a stern warrior.- He bade her marry one of the notable braves of his people. She loved another. - Rather thin marry the brave, whom she hated, site thrw herself from the cliff of the Maldeti'a Leap, that overlooks the point where ths Mississippi-, waters flow through . Lake Pepin, and beneath the - river's turbulent waters .found the peace 'that was denied her ,on . earth. Another Minnesota legend, that of TMlnnehaha, recalls to most minds Longfellow's famous poem. He, however, took the usual poet's license in the matter. In the real legend Minnehaha. ? laughing water." did not become the bride of Hiawatha, but was crossed In love. In her despair she Sought the Fells of Minnehaha after which she had been : named. Here, over a precipice 00 feet high she took the fatal leap. . . , ; All Indian traditior s are -not sorrowful. Quite the reverse In many cases, as the story of the naming of Wakarusa, Kanl, wDI whow. , Once a party of Indians on the trail were, stopped in their progress by a swollen and angry-looking stream. - Deep wster. bad .bottom! " grunted the braves hesltating at the brink of the river, unwilling to turn back, doubting thst they could cross. At length an Indian crept up behind his squaw, who was seated on la small Indian pony, and deliberately pushed pony, squaw, and all over the bank Into the rapid,- muddy current, meanwhile looking stoically on to see whether she would gain the opposite bank in safety or drown be- xore nis eyes. The , astonished and eri-H w equaw struck out for midstream. THROUGH KING-S Special Correspondence Ths Nxw Tokk TlMXa WAWONA. Mariposa County, CaL, Sept ; 18 While no other section ttt ihm ' ' Sierra; noi no' other spot, on earthi so far as Is known, fully rivals the Yosemite in Its ensemble, there are other gorges that present marvelous formations of cliffs and domes, of cataracts and fall. The most coni ",cuu " iwng a Kiver Canyon-t so great a distance from road na " "wever, as to oe accesemie only ,,"'"7 . . 7 ' "r" u"a Yi difficult mountaineering and have plenty of time. ' i The King's River Canyon Is shaped like the' letter T, and Is long and narrow, an presents none of the beauties of the floor o: the Yosemite. having few or no grasses o shrubs, nor so beautiful a growth of This valley la nearly 1,000 feet hither tha the Yosemite. In most of the walls of th King's River Canyon there Is more vertlcal-j tty and a greater overhanging than- exists in the Yosemite. There are - peaks that greatly resemble the Cathedral Spires ofj the Yosemite and rise to a height of about 2,800 feet. These and other formations arei strikingly beautiful and Imposing, and pre-l sent some of ' the colors observed la the' Grand Canyon and In the spectacular gorge of the Yellowstone. 1 The Mulr Dome Is the most imposing formation In the KIng'a River Canyon, and much resembles the North' Dome of the on8 o tb. xlrBt explorers of the King's CtLnyo 0ne m. farth.r nn the canyon . and Mount Hutchlngs is reached. This is at lesst 3,000 feet above the floor of the canyon. .' - t-' ' This 'great gorge is the longest In the Sierra,: but it is much narrower than any of the . other noted ones. From the top, then, the view is magnificent and. imposing, and for the moment more sensational than the Yosemite. In a word, the view Is more startling and more instantaneous than that from Inspiration Point : From this point of observation in the King's .River Canyon a massive -procession of rocks may be seen, net the least of which Is the White Woman, a monstrous layer of - nearly snow-white granite, suggestive of that extinct volcano Istacclnuatl, a good many miles from the City of Mexico, but seemingly very - near. and also called hi English the White Woman, because It more than a little resembles a white female laid out in a winding street several miles in length. The White Woman of King's River Canyon wss so named by C D. Robinson, the artist,-and la,' some three' miles in length and 6.000 feet 'above the canyon, which is even higher than the Wolf Dome.- Unlike any other formation In this or any Other- Sierra gorge, directly opposite the White Woman Us a monumental object 3.000 feet In height and . half a mile In length, which C. D. Robinson named Grant Monument,- In honor of Gen. 'Grant Just beyond; this massive cube of granite is a precipitous rock which almost completely resembles ' the t ambus Glacier Point In Yosemite, except that the latter Is over- reached by 1.70O feet tbe former being nearly 8,000 feet Beyond this magnificent elevation is another that" has not been named, and which rises majestically COOO feet above the floor of the canyon. And from' this point may be seen a great many peaks of the high Sierra, several of which are-between 6.000 and 7,00u feet above the level of the canyon. As strange as It may seem, there are no waterfalls to enliven the prodigious heights and deptha and ' to sound and resound through the main, and lateral canyons of this stupendous gorge of the King's River. There are here and there -a few. rushing descents. and often a series of small cataracts only. The Hetch-Hetchy, besides Its peaks and domes, contains two waterfalls, one of which surpasses any of the falls in the Yosemite. Besides, there is small verdure and no gorgeous flowering plants in the King's River Canyon, like the asale&s and lilies and lilacs of the Yosatnlte. . The KIng'a River Canyon pilgrim, however, is rewarded by one great sight; and that la Mount Whitney, the highest mount, aln- In 'the United States. It being 15.000 feet in height. To the naked eye this noble elovatlon presents a smooth appearance and a conical summit that is between . a buff and a gray in tone. With a. powerful glass its rugged sides and deep gashes and Its , glacier can ' be distinctly soen. Not only Whitney In the south, but many other peaks In. all directions for : hundreds of miles can be plainly discerned. . While there are many enormous masses in the great canon of the King's River and a tremendous vlita from Uu head, of the OCTOBER d. 1003. anilo! the waters had but spread overa shallow basin and the danger had been but apparent, not real. Derisively the squaw rose and scornfully shrieked at her liege lord, who had been so willing to have been summarily rid of her: "Wakarusa! Wakarusa! " (Thigh-deep, thigh-deep.) And Wakarusa the reilon has remained until th! day. . , ; , i ' I Teepee City, Squaw Valley, and Sachem's Head show that She Indian was once a power, and so, also,, do Indlanola, Indianapolis, Indian Bay. Indian Bayou, Indian Botiom. CampT , and Creek: Indian Diggings. Falls, Gap,; Gulch, and Head; Indian Mound. Neck, i Ridge, and River; Indian Rock. . Run. Springs, and Town; Indian TrJl and Indian. Valiey. He Ve left behind him his Klnnlkinnlck'that he used to smoke, his Moccasin that he used to wear. Medicine Lodge that he used to visit, and the Wampum for which he bartered his pony or his beaver skins. He has .left- behind - him, also, the Indian names of many familiar objects, though the memory . of these meanings'" has all but been " forgotten. Mondamin means corn; Wawav wild goose; Opeechee; the robin; Dahlnda, the frog; Roanoke, a' seashell; Chicago, the wild onion; Omeeme, a pigeon; tV'awbeek. a rock, Ac . . The Indian has left behind him hundreds of musical alliterative . names. In which the consonant or vowel sounds are doubled. Good examples are Wawaka. Wawasee, Kankakee, ' Kennekuk. , Tuscaloosa.. Tallahassee, Ocklocknee, Ohoopee,.' Oshkosh, Mlnnetonka, Massabestc, Contoocook., Loo-gootee, and Hatchechubbee. . We . like to roll ; his Kennebunk and Cutty hunk, his Nantucket and Wachusett,' his Klckapoo and Tetonka over our tongues, and It woutd be deplorable indeed If they also should have to go and be translated Into " cornjet and concise " v English. I Other historical landmarks closely Interwoven with ' Indian history. ' but whose names will remain untouched by the commission, ;are the place-names that preserve the memory of the early missionaries and explorers; and of the first pioneers, sturdy men of the wilderness, every one of them mured .to hardship, and . skillful in expedient, as he literally took his life In his hand as he ventured among hostile redskins' In an unknown land. The names of De ffoto. Ponce de Leon, Hudson. Cham-plain, and La . Salle,, and of Fathers Hennepin and Marquette are Interwoven .with' the very beginnings of our history. Just as the names of Fremont, Lewis, and Clark are Indlssolubly linked with the early days of the Far West. . . -' u RIVER CANYON fforge. there Is no view to compare with that obtained from either Eagle Point Glacier Point or Cloud's Rest; while the vision which embraces Mount Whitney and est extent of high Sierra is a pronounced second In diversifying scenery and exaltation to that secured from : Mount Lyell, 13.327. feet above the sea, and which may be reached In f rorn two to three days from the Yosemite Valley via Eagle Point. . From the summit of Mount Lyell may be seen a vast expanse of southern peaks, and a great line of Sierra curvatures to the north, while In the far east Mount Bryant of the Inyo Range. 14,400 feet Is often visible. To the west the San Joaquin Valley and Coast Range may be distinctly seen. Galen Clark, tha discoverer of the Mariposa big trees. Informed me a tew days ago that npon one of his trips to Mount Lyell (In 1883) he came across a flock of nearly 2,000 sheep In what he called the Lyell meadows. 12.500 . feet above the sea, or nearly 8,000 feet above the Yosemite Valley, and that at the' base of Mount Hoffman, about 11,000 feet, he found a pioneer named John L. ' Murphy; 'who had Uvea there many'years. -The nearest approach to the Yosemite Valley Is the Hetch-Hetchy. situated on the Tuolumne River, about sixteen milts in an air. line from the Yosemite: and If. Indeed, Hetch-Hetchy does not fully rival the more famous valley, it is entitled to a place among the natural wonders of California as a companion picture. V I first visited Hetch-Hetchy nearly a quarter of a century ago. in company with Tom Madden of San Francisco and Albert Blerstadt the artist and I was greatly impressed with its resemblance to the Yosemite, as it contain many majestic elevations and cataracts which compare favorably with El Capltan. the Sentinel', Cathedral Rock, Yosemite Fails. Bridal Veil, and others. It is much smaller than the Yosemite. but . beautifully . ' floored with grasses and flowering shrubs, while many of Its Imposing objects are grouped very, grandly and charmingly together and at once entrance the beholder. . Still.' Hetch- Hetcby lacks many of the features of rock and waterfall, lake and expanse of meadow, of the Yosemite. If there were no Yo- semlte, though. Hetch-Hetchy would command the admiration of all who visit it and would probably rank as the grandest and most beautiful aggregation of rock and water In the worId-ln fact it would be Yosemite, In'brlff, Hetch-Hetchy Is 3,650 feet above the sea, or about 400 feet lower than the Yosemite.: It is only about" a third, as long as the great valley, and about a quarter In width. In Its centre is projected a spur which nearly closes It up.- The lower part is fringed ' with ' a timber line, between which Is a very pretty meadow full of grass and small flowers during Spring and early Summer. ' Above the spur the valley is well grassed and timbered. On the northern side Is a 'precipitous rock which resembles El - Capltan and seems as large.' although it Is only one-half as high, being 1,800 feet A' little further along, on the east is the Hetch-Hetchy fall of 1,700 feet ' This fall makes a clear Jump of 1,000 feet and then descends in cascades and rockets the balance of the way. A greater volume pours over this fall than over the Yosemite, and yet it is not so great- and glorious. But curious to relate, It occupies a position exactly like that of the Yosemite fall. and there Is a tremendous formation oppo- site greatly- resembling Cathedral Rock, i opposite the Yosemite fall; 2.270 feet or only about 800 feet lower. There Is also a Sentinel, and also a fall resembling that of j the ' Bridal Veil, 'except that it Is more t: lacelike and much higher. BEN C. TRUMAN. : New Directory Holders. " THE PENNY-IN-THE-SLOT, machines for a peep into ' the City Directory. 4 Introduced a few years sgo. were not ; a success. Frequently the machines refused to work, after gathering in the penny, and the proprietor of the drug store, rather than risk losing a customer, would pry open the machine with a chisel. Then tbe.Di- ! rectory was "free to everybody until the i man who owned the machine '.came around to collect the pennies and get a tongue lashing. Now a machine Is on the market In many of the up-town drug stores. It is a handsome-looking affair, made of nickel, with a broad base, so that it does not topple on the floor, as so many of the old ones dldV The Directory (s held in the firm clasp of hooks, shaped very much like those carried by icemen. The hooks open promptly . when the penny Is dropped in the slot, and ; everything works as smoothly as silk while the man looking for information keeps bis hand on one side of the book... But woe be to him if he has to feel in his pockets for a ' pencil or a pair of spectacles. The moment jhts finger Is removed the hooks snsp together again like the claws of an angry lobster and the mas has to Invest another j penny to look at the Directory or have It out wlUi the dxus clerk Porto Rico cPfpt Under White Government Is Not Entirety V&sponsibte for Exhtinq ': Conditions ', It Has Not Helped Native ' Industries to the Same Extent as Did the Spanish Authorities.' . 'T lii SOME people entertain the idea . that Porto Rico, our litt'.a tropical poe-slon. Is on the flood tide of prosperity, but such an Idea Is fallacious. ; . Porto Rico has not prospered under the rule of the United States. It was far better off when Spain governed It. To-day there Is . widespread suffering, people are starving ; in every, village , and town? no crops are being raised; tax collectors are unable to collect the taxes; there Is no money In circulation. , .... ' In how far these conditions are directly to be attributed to the now-ruling Government is not easy to determine, for there are other than governmental causes lor this lack of prosperity. But even a charitable view of existing conditions must contain an. indictment, of , Uncle Sam. He has not done what he should have done for the betterment of Porto ' Rico. For instance, he has not taken .Spain's place as a buyer of Porto Rican products; he has not lent the financial aid to the Island that Spain did. When Spain, resigned Porto Rico it quit buying Porto Rican coffee. That was the worst blow the planters had to "survive. Before the war Spain opened wide Its doors to the .products of the Island." Spain paid '15 cents a pound for the same coffee that goes begging In American markets to-day at 8 or 9 cents. ' Spain now buys Its coffee elsewhere. It has a'tarlff'wall over which Porto. Rican coffee cannot climb. '- . Though Spain had a reputation for cruelty and barbarity, it also bad a reputation for giving its dependencies a chance to live. Such widespread suffering as there is in Porto Rico to-day wss not known at any time during the 400 years during which Spain ruled the Island. , , Spain la accused of having robbed the people of Porto Rico of millions, but -'It gsve the people the opportunity first to earn , these millions. It never . robbed so much as to starve the populace. Then, when tha officials stole great amounts, their pilfering were attended with doing the island some material good. For example, Spain built a military road across the island from San -Juan to Fdhce, a distance of about ninety miles. . It cost the taxpayers many millions more than was necessary for Its construction; yet with all the boodllng and all the crookedness, Porto Rico to-day boasts of a roadway Us equal being nowhere, (except possibly In Switzerland) to be found. ,- . .. . : PRESENT OFFICIALS HONEST. ' Thus far ' Porto Rico has been blessed with honest American officials. No grest robberies of public moneys have come to light There have been some shady transactions, such as the buying1 of public utilities from favored contractors and the like, but on the whole officialdom In Porto Rico has been remarkably free from taint But the American Government while not cruel nor barbarous, is not as far-seeing as was that of Spain. That American big-heart-edness that is so far-famed has not reached Porto Rico. .... , - True, a paltry million was voted by Congress, as a trust fund, the money , to be spent in road building. This money bas been well spent But: what is the good of good roads if, though they pass through the most productive soil in the world, these roads are not busy avenues Of -commerce; carrying to the seacoast commodities easily convertible into cash?, -' ;. - Money Is what the Porto Rican needs. He hss none not even enough. to till his soil ; not even enough to supply his physical needs. And what can the Government do? . That Is a oroblem which remains fn. Uncle Sam to solve, and to solve quickly at that ' : 1 . . Tho United States undertook to free Porto Rico from a yoke of tyranny and fought a war of humanity. The yoke of Spain was undone, the war of humanity was fought to a finish, and Porto Rico was destined -to reach a brilliant pinnacle of happiness. But Porto Rico jonly changed yokes. The new. collar ddes not fit well. It Is chafing the neck of little Borinquen. The load is a heavy one to pulL- : . -. It is not fair to say that the, taking over of Porto Rico by the United States Jg alone responsible for the straitened con dition of the people there. In August of 1800 a terrible hurricane swept over the inland, devastatinr It from end to end. Every Industry was laid low. every estate was stnppea aesoiauon - zouowea in:. its wake.. From this blow Porto Rico has. not recovered,' nor Is It likely that it will til( that Government which fought a war for humanity's sske shows some of that humanity toward it. . s . . ARGUMENTS AGAINST BOUNTIES. ' . Financiers will forcibly argue the ab-surdltv'of bounties, of loans bv Govern ments to the farmers. They will cite in stances without number of the fallacies of that economic avstem which embraces rov- ernmental monetary help toan unprosper ous people. Historians will support financiers In their argument against governmental aid. by pointing out the failure of France. wnen, tnrougn oounuea, it assisted manufacturers in their competition with Hol land. But all that financiers and his torians may say or. write will not counterbalance the necessity of srovernmental monetary aid in Porto Rico. " It must be: recalled that one of the first acts of. the United States upon taking possession of Porto Rico was to change the standard of money from a silver basis to a gold basis. Again financiers will say there .was much wisdom in the change, basing their conclusion from papor.. calculations. What-happened? . Where formerly the per capita of circulation was approximately 4 pesos, (2.40,) to-day it Is lesa than $1! Commodities in-Creased In value easily 60 per cent. Rents Jumped from 30 pesos to $30. The shrink age in tne circulation, accompanied, as Is natural, by the' rise In mice.-near! v har.v- rupted the merchants. . .. - Then in. the transition period. Porto Rican s had to contend with a government entirely different from what they formerly had, had to do business with men whose language they did not understand; the courts were In a more er less rhntl- - and in a few words, there was every rea son for failure and no auguries for success. When the civil authorities succeeded the military Government In Porto Rico. Gov, Allen was all at sea. 'He had to 'perform miracles. ; He read peculiar meanings In military law In order to establish a government at all on the day set for the begin-nlng of civil government. Finally things righted themselves, but that chaotic cr dltton of affairs sent men of means away from the island. Thy took their money with them, th result being naturally to Porto Rico's detriment. . As a reflection of the status of tha Porto Rican money market. It might do to say It is Impossible to borrow money at a rate less than 12 per cent, and little-can be secured at that figure unless the security be gilt-edged- It should be wsy to reckon the amount of prosperity there Is In-Porto Rico when the basis Is a per capita of less thaa tl. There are some few men la the Island who hold-$100,000 each, and that 'J--included in the "one dollar per cerKa." i it a wonder peepia are atarviag? l - Prospering ( ; United States Ruh 1m Many Port0 RJcacj lost their all In that memorable: hurricane. The native is not a man of resource such as is our Wester, farmer, who, after a hurricane hat rwpt Ms farm clear, returns sad with renew energy plants hfs seed again. .The Porto Rican has not recovered from that shock. Each day finds bias nearer the le of hiw small holdings a day. nearer hli reduction to pauperism. ., , , i': . Porto Rican soil Is productive beyond the wildest hopes of : one not acquainted with, its TaxurHnce. Yet this land is all wests. Marketable; products grew anwatched and untended at every turn coffee beans are ripe on the trees, but there is not one to pick themjor to, handle them after they are picked. for the planter has! no money to pay for labor. j . ' . Tha condition of Porto rMco is' anaiiiiroiis with that qf the South after the civil war. Hundreds Aipon hundreds of planters own-d lands, but jthey hadnot the wherewithal to cultivate them; Even here, in this land of wealth, jit has taken since 1S63 to bring the Southern States somewhere "hear the bonier ltnejcf prosperity.-- 1 . American! capital seeking ; remunerative .Investment; haa a great opportunity la Porto Rico. . Lands may be bought far a song. Properties worth $50 to $60 an acre can be had at from $10 to $13. .The voice of the auctioneer ;is everywhere to be beard, for estates are going under the hammer for taxes and to satisfy mortgages, j . . Porto Rico will grow oranges. Sugar, cof- imj, conon.1 tooacco, ana tropical; iruits. in Porto Rico grating land for cat tie abound. Porto Rlcoi affords opportunities galore to wide-awake Americans .who ran improve property with: American ideas and push. The climate is delicious, the scenery tin-equaled, and the : health unsurpassed. In short. If ever ' there was a paradise on earth it is jPorto Rico, To the riaUve the climate i a drawback. To quote from ex- flnir lKn't rnrtrt .n .Vi T-vwA n-rt Vn- ure has done so , much for these people and has required! so little in return that tha problem of life ' has been free from those lerrlble anxieties which possess the soul of the tollers of other climes, and. by their very Inexorable demands develop those qualities of thrift Industry,; end perseverance which underlie lndlviduil as well as national prosperity. In -a climate where the temperature ranges between 70 and, 85 degrees .day and nlghtj week in and week qut where little clothing Is required, aadj shelter means protection from the : tropical sun rather than! clltnaUo changes: where a man can. lie in a hammock, pick a banana with one hand' and Sir a sweet TiotBtA with nn tnnt hii ih. eentlve to idleness Is easy to yield to and brings Its Inevitable consequences." ,; SHIFTLESS NATIVE I.ARfiH '. The peon J (laborer) is a shiftless follow, who Is cot pveranxlous to work.! ' He only bestirs himself. when necessity calls upon him. If he jean obtain work three days a week he isj satisfied. - With thej $1.20 hi earns (40 ccts a day Is what he gets) he can" live a Week. He lives In a house, that Costs nothing; to construct and on lands for Which he pays no; rent He only wears .nouth el ft h Ml tr mnfArm with tha tA- mands of civilization. . . . . .... It has keen said: that labor Is' cheap irt Porto Rico, j Americans who employ it say that they would rather pay an American farm hand $3 a day than a' native his 40 cents! An American can do ten; times as much' work aa a Porto Rican, and do it better at that. The JPorto Rican laborer is a composite jof laziness, illiteracy., and very little i morality. The vital statistics show that out of tevery 2.100 Trtrtbs nearly JLOOO are lUegttimate. This percentage is smaller than it was! under Spanish rule.. ,i j;. '; Morality s rather lax,- too. among ' tha better classes, notably among men. Gov. Runt in a report lie made to the President regarding a Judge, j against whom charges of immorality had been preferred, ; said It is not an unusual thing for a married man Jid. 4 UllU U LUJ k J I IP ... ....I. U 111. 1 women tbap his wife." Which, remark, by the by, Was the price of the Governor's popularity Thi remark, however? is dangerously near the truth. . S j. . . j, . Education has made wonderful strides In Porto Rico.) The enthusiasm for study is unbounded and' the chance to go to school is-grasped Iwith avidity. It win net be many years before the percentage of HHt-eracy,. whl0-ta now 80 per cent, "will be materially reduced ; A question has been raised as ty-the wisdom of giving very much education to these sons of the tropics. It Is argued that once these young fellows have an. education they wUl not be content to l?ve In Porto Rico and ;that they will leave their native land and go to the United States. It ia feared that an education will unfit them for their future work of tilting the soil for that must be their future. , Porto - Rico is an agricultural country. - j . i - - To guard j against this "condition. Commissioner ofj Education Lindsay has established la great many industrial schools., th curriculum 6t which' includes only a general education which will teach boys how to read and write, but the particular stress and effort of these schools is laid along; lines of teaching agriculture, miechan lea, and other . iiaeful arts. Girls, jtoo, era taught; useful things, such . as '.domestic science; and j dressmaking. . Porta Rlcd boasts of a very fine JCormAl School.' where . natives are being taught pedagogy, ao that 'thsy may go out to teach other J natives. This Normal School is In connection with the rather ambitious effort ;the Cnlverstty, of Porto Rco. This Institution l!ds fair to be one f great weight, ' .' . ! . . In San Juan." Ponce, Maysguex, iand Are-cibo sewerage has been, or la being. Installed.! In these cities as also In on or two others. We will find Jt-any other aoi- - . I . . .... i.l- . .1.... .V ern vojivetv-pocco, suvu c.tpviiitt i-ftiKS and trolley bars. . ' ' j . American j Ideas, especially those of a mechanical , nature. are quickly taken , up, particularly those which are labor saving and coet little- These Improvements nre certainly the results of the American occupation. : "They, have made wholesome cities. cf unwholesome ones. The streets of San ' Juanj are- as clean as those of New York, but those of other cities are borrTMy dirty. In the smaller towns the streets are In a condition that beggars description. Summing ijt up, the Americans have done some good for Porto Rico In "he line or education ahd sanitation, but he UnlteJ States has been remiss In provi&ng Una most Important or ail thlnss a market far Porto Rtcar products snd a little temporary help for the planter In-a financial , Spain h!ied Porto Rlcar.s . wlir 'a n.i when, under similar circumstance ihcy found themselves in the throes of a fia in-tial catastrophe. Caoe-ot the United States do as much; for her ;tttl eclony lis bsr.Vi. rupt Fpatn jtlid? The United States mat Iteten at once to the cries for succor thst com from j every part of the or rorto PJco,! lr.uead cf fcfiEff a )fr.rEa; 13 aa laJsr -

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