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,-jPAGE J ISTp Nation Impoverished by Cehtuiies of Futile and Purposeless Struggle This is the third of four stor- fcs .telling (he trneic history of Sraln, giving "Hie background of (cdaj's bloody Internal warfare. BV WILLIS THORNTON NEA Service Staff Correspondent Though direct downfall did not follow the detent of the great Armada, Spain declined from that day. II was a hollow shell, with •vcnnl nnd Incompetent officials, stupid and ulgoled rulers, nnd a peojile whose every effort t>t Industrial or agricultural progress v.ns thvaited by taxation nnd n stilling bureaucracy. The Hamburg emperors used the country ns a pawn In the European diplomatic ynme; domestic f 01 eminent, was weak and tyrannical at once. A rebellion in Ca^lonla, which even lodny maintains eroat pride of locality, wns savagely suppressed. Portugal fell way without a fight, for when the. Braganzns took charge there, Ihe Spanish crown uns engaged in n fib-lit with the Freud], N;inl<>s levelled, nnd the Thirty Years' War look n dreary loll of Spanish ruouiiLs Conllnual nnd bitter warfare was necessary to keep n foothold in the Netherlands Wars with the French were continual. Inspired by childish intrigues of intermarriages among lha royalties of bolh countries Under llapsburg rule, the population of Spain declined from ->0000,000 to 8000.000, Public finance was n wreck, the army und navy demoralised and ruined, in 1700 lite-lust Hnpsuurg king died, le;w- IHTROl'K'S BATT1.KOKOUN1) Now Spain found herself in the middle, allied with France mrali-i, coalition of England. Holland. nenmnilv. Austria . and Prussia . was the battleground. Al- cd troops took Barcelona, frcca "ic Spanish Netherlands, anrt in- i ailed Spain Itself through Portu- E«l E\en Madrid wns cnnlmcd Spanish troops fought nnri died campaign i.., «* " -•-•-• Revolution I"- ^onnrchy hi France, intervene. every mtriguln" throughout Europe. When the French vaded France after Louis XVI had been executed, but ivns drlvc/i out, and Freiich revolutionary froops swarmed through Catalonia.' The Spankh people neither siip- Fcrled their own king nor rallied to Die revolutionary forces as the French hoped, They simply buffered. Peace had lo be made to avoid complete ccnqiiesi. FRESH DISASTER AT SKA Rebellion wns already rumbling In Peru nnd Mexico. And the Spanish monarch chose (his lime to form an alliance with Francs against England. Napoleon, who had tnken over the French Rcvo- lullcn. demanded that Spiiln, as his ally, declare war on Portugal, his enemy. Against his will, Kin? Charles had lo Invade Portugal, supported by a French army. This campaign was inconclusive, but left Snnin exhausted by a corrupt nnd licentious court. Into war between France nnd England, Spain was now drown, not so much through the French alliance ns through nrllloh nf- fronls lo her sen Irndc. Fur her pains, she sa\: her fleet beaten by Nelson nt Trafalgar. But Charles IV had offended Napoleon by refusal lo recognize some of the kingships the conqueror distributed among his rein- lives. So Napoleon, fresh from triumphs throughout Europe, filtered his .troops Into Spain as allies Inlent on Invading Portugal Dili when a revolution iirota out ngninst the Spanish king, the BLYTf[EVILLE, (Agig COIlRtftP NEWS French soldiers were In Mndiid ready lo take charge. They did so, but not without bitter resistance from the Spanish populace, who fought the trained French troops in Ihe slrects with much bloodshed. FIIKNCH YOKE TIOIITENJil) This unorganized resistance developed Into nn organized campaign against the French, for Napoleon had dnrcd to make his brother, Joseph, king of Spain. Napoleon himself had lo come lo Spain to conduct Ihe campaign lo subjugnte the Spaniards' anil beat the English, who were again Invading from Portugal. At flist Napoleon's genius won both objectives, but then came Wellington In charge , of n new English expedition. In his classic Peninsular campaign. Wellington drove out the French, which gave opportunity for Ferdinand VII, who had bc«i ousted by Na|K>lc6n, lo return lo his Spanish throne. He faced, in 18H, the final revolutions In the Americas, revolutions that were lo sweep away his empire overseas except for Cuba nnd the Philippines. This revolt spread to Spain Itself, nnd by 1820. Ferdinand was forced lo grant (he people a constitution. A conflict somewhat like thai of today Scintillating Stars Make a Brilliant Premier SATURDAY, AUGUST 8, 1930 Here's another treat-und not comet-s. cltlici—for Ihe nation's star- K , lrj . r3 Lc ink-re of "Anthony Adverse." these and other beautiful Hollywood n otnbics circ gazers. Lcndin entered the theatre for the Illm's Inltlnl showing. Happy in the Loy, Irene Dunne. Virginia Bruce and Norma Shearer reward "their" audience with i h " n r ' ultra-sum rt gowns. scintlllancc to the brilliant Los Angeles p?e- "ohs" anil "ahs" from a huge throng us they i about them. Olivia DC Havilland, Myrna breath-taking display of charming smiles nnd »M- ' order" with troops. Ferdinand resumed despotic power, nnd ns the last of the American colonies broke nway, he died. In 18II3. INTERNAL STitll'E AfiAIN Conflict Immediately broke out between the "Cnrllsls," whu wanted Ferdinand's brother, Don Carlos, to succeed to the throne, nnd the "Christines," who favored a regency by Christina for Ferdinand's daughter. Isabella. II. Savage warfare again swept the Peninsula for six years anil in its course the monastic orders were suppressed, and their piopeviies confiscated. Isabella, with foreign aid, prevailed. In the 1850's, radicals and moderates united against absolutism, and the forerunner of today's party lines Through the was GO'S, laid llK'Sl! lion wns Immediately greatly restricted again, and a continual frlc-ion between the restored monarchy and the rising socialist and .'town. liberal' parties grew in power, and In 1873 n republic was set up. Isauclli; wns driven out, religious orders abolished, nnd toleration decreed. Bui n military coup much liku Hut her royal house made it,' betwenV,thf m , M?' H*'""^ Si:R '"' " mt bel "' " Ucl »P'«l today broke mX™f Ie Vii w « s "Bainst the "n ?" , '^ ™ ! ' !!?""' ™<"»V» republic, and in IB74. ,he ..sou resolution A- Spanish army in- F >'™™\«< "restored I de , lobelia, Alphonso XII. was clared king. Religious toleru- Factory Trained Radio Expert llcpalrs on all makes of radios 14 Years Experience • II. S. Werner Refrigerator Expert Repairs on all makes of Refrigerators 12 Years Kxperience E. E. Lewis Hardaway Appliance Company Phono 233 — GlciiciMi Bide. Read Courier News Want Ads. Ed. F. McDonald for Governor Don't, he .misled by lalse newspaper propaganda! Read lliis wire sent by Governor Fulfil today. Tlio vol.er s over Ihe entire sta.e will endorse bis;accomplislnnems Tuesday by. vbling Cor Ed MeDonald who has promised to carry o,,t Futrell's good work. ICs Ed McDonald for Governor of Arkansas. A vole for any olher candidate is a vole' for enormous, wasteful spending. 1936 A i IK 8 AM 7 57 MGV31 147 NL-Little Rock Ark 7 I consider Tuesday's clcciion of ulinosl iniporlancc to this sialc stop Our stale is now on a cosh basis and the government i.s being operated economically although opcraling expenses should still be furlhcr reduced stop The one hundred fifty million dollar indebtedness has been refinanced will, a saving h, excess oI' thiriy one million dollars in interest alone to the people stop This has been accomplished.by .he present ac}- inimslraiiqi, stop I am certain thai Hie ,)eople do not want lo change tins policy .in government and inrn onr slale over lo a new administration with no definite policies and sin-rounded very largely by Ihe old politicians that were put out of power four years ago slop T know thai Ed McDonald fully appreciates the necessity of a co.ilinualion of the policies of the present administration stop He is so pledged and you can depend on him J. M. FUTRELL, Governor This advertisement paid for bv supporters of Ed McDonald for Governor m Unckasawba District, Mississippi County. radical parties harassed the country. In the 90's, with trial by jury only just established and the beginnings of liberalism appearing, anarchism began to develop ' Spain. It continues today to some extent. Catalonia was shaken b> strikes, and repressive measures were adopted against Ihe anarch ists, ' ' ' In the midst'of this interna turmoil, ranging from demand; for liberalization of the constitution to bread riots by the people and bombings by anarchists, trouble was brewing overseas. Cuba was stirring with revolt which the abolition of slavery In 1880 did not nbate. Belated efforts at reform in Cuba fallei to pacify the country. In 1805 the United States nsked Spain to recognize the independence ol Cuba. NEXT: The final blow on Spanish empire falls, forty yeii-i of Ihe allempt lo convert the lasi feudal • country of Eurujic into a modem slate. Today's Games Southern League ' Memphis at Birmingham. Nashville at Knoxvllle. Little Rock at New Orlwns. Chattanooga at Atlanta. National league Pittsburgh at Chicago. Cincinnati at St. Louis. New York at Philadelphia. Brooklyn at. Boston. American League St. Louis at Detroit. Philadelphia at New York. Chicago lit Cleveland. Boston nt Washington. Northeast Arkansas League Open date. MANLRY TOURS Wm. I.en Hotel, Memphis All Expense Tours to Dallas each Sat., $23.00 Mrs. E. A. Tcaforcl Osctola, Ark. I'houe 101 Elect An Experienced and Able Lawyer Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Arkansas VOTE FOR C. E. JOHNSON FOR CHIEF JUSTICE FOR A SECOND TERM Judge C. E. Johnson is a lawyer and Judge of proved ability. He has devoted all of his time to the law. He practiced law for thirteen years, was made Judge of the Chancery Court'of the Sixth Chancery District of Arkansas, held that position for ten years, was elected Chief Justice of the Arkansas Supreme Court in July, 1933, to fill Ihe vmexpived term of the late Judge Hart, now deceased. _Thc bar of the Sixth Chancery District, which is his home District, and which know him best as a man ami as a lawyer, is composed of 107 lawyers, and 103 of: them have endorsed Judge Johnson. Griffin Smith is now and has been Comptroller of the State of Arkansas since the fall of 1932, which office is not a Judicial office, and can be filled by a layman as well as a lawyer, ft is said that he spent a good part of his life as a newspaper man. He an- ?iounced himself as a candidate for Governor of the Stale of Arkansas. Shortly before the ticket closed he withdrew as a candidate .for Governor and announced for Chief Justice. Ask any man who knows how long lii'if fm Smith has been actively engaged in the practice of law, and what his qualifications for this office are. See what ever, he himself says about his experience as a practicing lawyer. When you compare his qualifications with those of Judge C. E. Johnson how can you escape the conclusion that Judge Johnson is the best qualified for the position. C. E. Johnson has made a good Judge. He is running for re-election to a second term,"and according to the Democratic Custom don't you think he is entitled to be re-elected to a second term? This ad paid for by the lawyers of Blytheville who ktiow the qualifications of the two men. The present rule for determining tnc date of Easter was adopted br the Council of Christian churches in 325 A..D. This rule «vs that Easter shall be on the nrst Sunday following the p asrtlal '}," •noon, on or soon after March "i Sediment so discoUirTThe Ann on river that its waters can hi detected for more than 300 niih- oul at sea. 'Hie sediment rum the course of the river, and ths waters arc clear only in the till,, ntnry streams. In India, after the wedding cev- omony, Hie bride and the bridegroom are tied together by the corners of their garments to si|- nify that they are united for life. Osccola, Arkansas. August 8, 1936 The Courier News Bljihcville, Arkansas. Gentlemen; In order that the fair and decent citizenship oi the First Congressional District, may up an- Priswl of a situation discovered in connection with the pending cam- Men. I desire to present the rre- Tl'cre was brought to my attention the following letter: "Ulytheville. Arkansas, Dear sir: J " ly "• 193C ' Hon. Zal B. Harrison, candidate foi Confess from this Con-res- slona District, is pledged against any Increase in l nx oll ai.Lomo- biles, gasoline or motor oils He Is Hie only candidate for Congress from this District that is so pledjld. Please contact all your local customers and urge that they aiin- nort Znl B. Harrison for Congress. Yours very truly W. J. WUNDRRLICH. Chairman, Legislative Committee," On the 7th day of Aususl. I received by mail the followhi"- letter bearing Blytlmville stamp- "Lfon Oil Defining- Company E! Dorado. Arkansas. August S, 1936.' Congressman Will Driver Osccola, Arkansas Dear Sir: The Oil Dealers Association would like lo have the enclosed questionnaire answered nt your earliest convenience. Yours very truly. W. J. WONDEKL1CH." I call the attention of the reader to the fact that the latter letter is dated just six days after the first in which the announcement was mnde that the Candidate for Congress mentioned was (lie only one plctMng suuuorl to the elimination of "the federal levies on oils. The latter letter requested an expression on the subject s'ix days later. At the time, the files of the Association lo which the purported writer is a member, disclosed that I hart fully and unequivocally stated my opposition 10 the Fedirnl authorities Invading the pledged field of slate 'emii! with which to care for highway maintainence and bond maturities. The attenlion of (lie 011 Dealers Association was called lo the mailer nnd the following telegram dated Little Rock. Arkansas. August, 7, ID3G, w.is addressed to me: "Hon W J Drirer (Member of Congress) Osccola Ark Answering your telegram regret very much that anyone should iil- lcni|il lo UKC our name in a political way and leave impression that yon have not boon friendly lo our Nnllonnl Legislation' The opposite Is true nnd your help has been most beneficial slop Our Information Is (lint, all candidates for Congress your District have replied favorably to our questionnaire stop We have wired Commercial Appeal as follows we understand statement purported to signed by W J Wundcrllch legislative chairman has been circulated First Congressional District, of Arkansas in which It Is said only one of three candidates for Congressman has replied lo questionnaire nf First Disliict Committee Oil Dealers Association of Arkansas on attitude Lownrd repeal of temporary Federal laves on gasoline nnd lubricating oil slop Mr. Wunderlicii advises ns he has signed no such stnlemcnl or letter and that all thtee candidates have replied to said questionnaire stop Our onr.mization Is strictly non-political and any attempted use of our name us such Is unauthorized and will not jc countenanced stop Understand his apparent fraudulent statement has appeared some papers .hcrcfore trust yon will sec that our position is made known through columns your paper W J Scarborough Secretary Oll Dealers Association of Arkansas slop Sincerely trust this will make our position known and prove beyond any doubt that we nre non-partisan and non-political. W F SCARBOROUGH Secretary Oil Dealers Association of Arkansas" In view ot the denial of authorship of the first letter. I am wondering t'f! source of responslbil- ty, and if the imputation fairly carried, will be met with an Investigation, and disclosure of the perpetrator of such reprehensible :onduct. I will not indulge in trickery nnd believe nil lionost icoplc will condemn the practice. I am, W. J. DKIVER.