The Daily Free Press from Carbondale, Illinois on March 22, 1920 · Page 1
Get access to this page with a Free Trial

The Daily Free Press from Carbondale, Illinois · Page 1

Carbondale, Illinois
Issue Date:
Monday, March 22, 1920
Page 1
Start Free Trial

f lUIHOli LIMARY MAR 24 Carbondale—"Athens - of Egypt.' /VOLUME 17 ' CA"RBOND;ALE,'. ILLINOIS, .- -MONDAY, MAR^H'22,1920.,' 1 • '' NUMBER'133 LJfoOR OPENS \ i WAR ON FOES Samuel Gompers Issues the Greed; Hostile Candidates HUGH S. CUMVilNGS \ on Blacklist. UNITED EFFORT CALLED FOR >' One of the First Evils to B« Attacked •Is the High Cost as Factor Contributing Most to Industrial Unrest. Washington, March 22.—The political platform of the 4,000.000 member* of associated trade unions was made public in an advance editorial 'in'' the American Federntioriist,' labor's official organ, by Samuel Gompers. The editorial entitled "Labor's Political Banner Unfurled" is considered to be an official "'analysis of labor's platform in the coming presidential campaign. A united effort by union labor is called for by Mr., Gompers to'defeat -all candidates "who are indifferent or Sostile to the people's interests ana the aspirations of labor." • A "political 1 blacklist" already has b'een compiled by the American Federation of labor containing the 'names of all probable candidates for office who have shown thenlselves inimical to labor. This' list is to be augmented as the campaign approaches to include all-, candidates whom iaber wishes defeated.' Failure of Congress. In enumerating the^campaign .principles Mr, .Goiupers states that "not one '.measure - of' really constructive character:', has been placed upon the statute books- since the armistice, and tha{ labor, -must.. take action in the campaign to bring about the selection of candidates who will change this git- tiatlou. : One of the first evils to be attacked, Mr. Gompers points out,- is the high 'cost of'living. , "No factor., contributes more to in- : dustrinl unrest and unstability.' than '.excessive costs of necessaries^'••'of' life," tlie editorial states*" - I : "It is a demonstrated truth that the cost of living has advanced; more rapidly than have .wages;- We urge the deflation of currency, prevention of hoarding and unfair price firing, establishing . of co-operative movements operated under the Rochdale i system,' makhig accessible all income tax returns and 'dividend declarations." N Control of Profits. • ' The publicity of profits of all corporations and their federal supervision and control by government eir aminers is a constructive measure, which: slionld have congressional at : tention, Mr. Gompers states. The establishment of a system of government credites) . whereby labor- Ing men might borrow money at 'low rates of interest to trcn'ld their own homes, the editorial points out, would free ownership of homes from the grasp of exploitative and speeulativ.e interests, will make far more efficient workers, more contented families and better citizens. "Credit should also be extended to voluntary nonprofit making housing and joint tenancy associations. States. and municipalities should be frfeed from restrictions preventing their nn- ijertaking proper housing projects." . A graduated fax jipon all usable land which is not actually cultivated Is recommended to prevent the private ownership of large, unproductive estates. • " •• NO JUSTICE IN IFF TfMf ESCAPE 'British Premier Tells Moslems' They. VV'iH •Get" Justice.'. ' Judge Landis Berates- the Federal Government as' Most 1 Unfair Employer. • No 'Indulgence '.far the Moslems—War Penalty' i.a.PJot' Due to Religion, ,{'• :• ' He : Say's. • - " 3, DIE IN REVOLT Martial Law and'/ Curfew to' Jame Capital of , Germany. DEMANDS MORE PIT FOR Makes Veiled Criticism of the Decision -of the U.\S. Supreme Coulct for Stock Dividends Decision— Employees Get No Raise. Specially posed photograph nf Hugn S. Cninmings, newly appointed stir- feon generator the public'heallh service at.Washington, D. G. - - . PLANS STRIKE CURB Detailed, Remedy , to - Minimize Danger of. Walkouts. ' Second Industrial Commission Submits Report to President Wilson— Public Opinion to Dominate. Washington, March 22,-^-A detailed plan.' designed to minimize flip d'uhjjer of. strikes and lockout-s in all inrlus- tries, to develop co-operation tn management between employers and- employees^ and. (fenerully to improve the relations of. capital anil labor, is presented in tlie final- report of. the second Industrial commission submitted to President Wilson. • • Retaining with • modifications the scheme of national anil regional tribunals for tin.- settlement of labor dis- piifes suggested in the preliminary re- 'port last'.December,''-the commission 'founds'its ^ntire."plan'tioii upon ,an-.eztensioh"6f the principle of shop councils:, of employers • and employees, which are said to he operiitl«g successfully in about 300 plants. Applying impartially to. union and no'nunion labor,- the plan does not prohibit strikes or lockouts, does not provide for compulsory arbitration, which organized labor opposes, does not enforce collective bargaining or acceptance of 'arbitral 'awards by either pnrty, and avoids compulsion in any -form. ••_• • The: plfm, however, is ' ingeniously contrived to invoke the force of p'ubllc opinion'to induce the arbitration of disputes and the acceptance ofawards'ge.strlkes and lockouts. The theory of. the .proposals is that disputes shall"be,settled; if possible, "at the-source" in. the shop councils, but,'failing that,! shall-go to the sys-, tern of investigation and arbitration tribunals. Agreement of both sides to arbitration.. carries, with" 1 it the obligation to desist from strikes or lockouts pending decision. . WORK FOR SEPARATE PEACE ANOTHER H. C. OF L REMEDY JNew York Official Says Education in; the Home, Not Legislation, 1 Is Relief, ' ' i ' New York, .March 22.—"The high •cost of living is in the hands of the individual—the very one it hits, hardest. The woman who feeds her family ten- ] derloin steak and the man who wears. : 'silk shirts are the ones who are. keep- • Ing prices np.' Remedies so far ..have • not been effective because they have been blanket measures, made to cover . groups, communities, masses. Better! than legislation would be a campaign j of education in the home." . S~ | These statements were made, by' Francis M. Hugo, secretary of state of Jvew York, who came down from Albany to help along- -one of the new plans now hanging over this harassed city for bringing down the cost, of living. Republican Senators Will Try to Rush the KnoSc Joint Resolution This. ' iVVeek. Washington, Marc'll 22.—A joint resolution, declaring the wnr witli ^Germany at nn.enfl, is the next step to be taken by'congress '•«• support of the senate's rout of the peace treaty, and Its return to President Wilson. With no break'in the silence which has. engulfed the White House since the defeat of the .treaty, and no intimation as to iyhen the ( prestdcnt would disclose bis 'plans', senate, leaders re-' malning in , Washington ; prepared to rush action on the Knoi resolution. Senator Borah, Republican, of Idaho, find one of the. irreconcilnhles. sa'irt thnt this week wou.ld see rin effort in the. senate to obtain; consideration of the Knoi resolution. YANK TO FIGHT CUMMINS ,Col. S.. W. .»rpokhart of Washington, la., Announces His Candidacy for the Senate. '••Burlington. la., March 22.—Col. S. AT. Brookhart of Washington, In.l nn- nounced his, cnndidncy before the Pie- publican primaries-for Albert B.'Cummins' seat In the senate. He will make his camptiisn as tin opponent of the Cummins-Bach bill, he sn'.vs. Colonel Bropkhnrt served in the world \vnr ns an instructor of small nrius practici:. Gibson Will Be Owner of Life. j New York, -March 22.—Charles Dana j Gibson, the artist,-has become the'p'ro- j prletor of Life. It was said that Mr. i Gibson had paid $900,000 for tbe property. . . . •' Mrs! Wilcox Leaves $77,223. Tvew Haven, Conii?, March 22.—An appraisal of the estate of Ella Wheeler .\Viicox has been filed lathe probate court at Brnnford. .It places the total value «t ¥77,223. ''......;_:,_.., Chicago. March 22.—.7ud.w Landis met his fellow jriivi.'rniniMir employees at :i niafw meet lux in the Curt .Ihetiter and berated tin; federal government as the most \mfnlr employer of hibor 1 In the.'United States. . The; judtre ulso made veiled criti- cisins of the decision, of tin 1 United States .Supreme court.- under wliich stock .dividends ure not'taxtible uilder the income law. aivl.hinted that a way would be f'qun'ir to force the taxation of war-time 'profits of this clitirticti-r. U. S. Called Unjust. "This is n conference .'to substitute justice for thp rankest kind of injustice In. the treatment of employees by the government of the United. States," said Judge Landis. "For 15 years I have been in tlie federal service. Not everybody, feels kindly toward that service. I don't know that anybody does. \ "In 191-4 the employees of the United Sf«tes governmont were underpaid. They got loss thiui inen and women of the same ability working for anybody else. In 3020 in many departments the employees are paid the same as they were pnid in 1914. I don't know of any great employer of -labor in America 'who has as low a si-ale of wages as' the United- States government. - • ."If,the United wants its influence felt with the other employers of labor it must adopt a policy of justice Itself. • Unless the fedeiyil government 1 does change Its policy Coward its employees i,t may. find ,the ojal op- .erntors and-'the, ste'ei bpeftito'i'S"offer- ing their.good services to Arbitrate the differences between the government and its employees. Demand for Justice. "I nm here in redemption of a promise. During the war I advised postnl and other federal employees to hold off—to go easy—to stick to their jobs because we were at war, and when the war is over, I told them. 'I will go to "the front, for you and try to get justice.' "If tlie wages of the federal employees were cut in half you couldn't get up u strike among them. That is all the more reason, that congress should settle this difficulty, and give them, justice. "The question has been raised, 'Where is the money coining from?' Even at the risk of being misunderstood, I will say Hie Supreme court of the United States decided it was beyond the power of congress to lay a tax against n stock dividend. Now I am. not criticizing that court, at least publicly, this afternoon, but I reserve the right to have my own opinion as. to that matter. "It is a matter of opinion that there are many melons to .be cut of the accumulated profits of 1917; that they are to be disposed of .through a stock dividend program. I will give'these^ men warning that a way will be found' through which the United r S-tates will have the power to tax n stock dividend. But, remember, I am not criticizing any court. "Keep Out of U. S. Service." - "To persons who advise with me about going into the government service I 'tell them. 'Under no circumstances go Into the federal service, because' of the Injustice with which the government treats Its employees;' all except federal judges, who are notoriously overpaid. If any of you can find anything to'do outside, get out and get out now. I don't know whether I am violating any statute in giving that advice. . , London. JMnrch '2'2. —I'l'emier Lloyd Gcnrge. discussed tin- question willi the.' Indian caliphate, delegation headed by Miiham'mett Ali, who cle-1 '(.•hired that "Turkey should have all her]' pre-war ,tei'i'itory restored. -Tlie' premier replied: ' . •••.•-.-• : "I do not understand Mr. Mohammed Ali to okiip.i indulgence I'.or, Turkey; he claim." justice, and justice, she will get. Austria has had justice: Gernuiny bus. hiid '.lusllw—pretty terrible justice. \Vliy should Tufke.v escape? ' "Turkey tl.ipught she'had a fend with us. Wliy did she come in and try to stab us nml ilijstvivy lih'orty throughout j tho world .wlilje. we were engaged in j tliis lite anil deaih struggle?". , | "Is there any reason why we should j. apply-a different measure to Turkey! tlian wo have nietefl out to the- Christian cnnuminiUes.of Oermany and Austria? ' . ''•:•'.. "I want the Mohammedans in India to get it well, into flieir minds that we are not trratlng Turkey severely because she is Mohumm'edan. We are applying equally the smnii principle to hnr as., to Austria, a Christian community." • ~$' Itpferring to the femperal power of the caliphate, the premier said he could not Interfere in a religious 'question In which Mohfi'mmednn.s themselves differed. . / The delegation ijeqnested that the Ar- 'monism massacres' he investigated by nn international-commission on which the Moslems were represented. IRON ROLE GRIPS BERLIN LAYS HIGH RENTS TO WEALTH I New Yorker- Says WaV Millionaires i and.Wives Insist on Living in City. New York, March 22.—War-made millionaires and wives^ of affluent workingmen wore blimied Tor high rents In. New York l>y Edward P. Doyle,, cluuuriiaii o£ the budget committee of. the New. York real estate board. Mr. Doyle declared the city was 100,000 apartments short—60,000 more than estimated by Mayor Hy- Ian. Half the new millionaires ip the country have come to New York tn live, he sairl, and are outbidding old residents, while women whose husbands now bring home a bulky weekly envelope no longer are content to live in the suburbs, and demand "a movio next door find -a delicatessen across the street." • . BELOIT PROFESSOR RESIGNS Educator Who Wrote "Book of Chaos" Quits—College Hqad Denies CensoVsnip. ' Beloit, Wis v ., March 22.—Jl. H. Hedges,v professor of literature at Beloit college, has resigned. President M. A. Brannnn admitted that and said the resignation would be-accepted at the end of the'School .year. "But," be; added; "this, resignation is connected in rio way with the fact that he has written a book."' ' The professor has written .a book— "Iron .City," a hook of chaos, a story of socialism, nkvr thought, industrial .unrests, reaction, conservatism, fast roadster, austere tradition, chijrch altars, strikes, bloody conflict, moonlit nlgnts, airplanes, and love. I CABINET MEETING IS NEAR President'Expected to Meet HisjOffi cial Family Soon—Five New Members. l --"• Washington, March 22.—Conf.nna- tiou of the 'appointment of Balnbvidge Colby as secretary of state will permit President Wilson'to hold the first cabinet meeting over which he will preside since last August. If the president should call a meeting of the cabinet this week he •will sit down- with a new secretary ol state,' secretary of the treasury, secretary of the interior, secretary of agriculture and secretary 'of ; commerce. '•• • - ENVOY IS SHOT 'IN "BERLIN Member of the French; Diplomatic Mission Among Wounded in Street. Fighting. ' ' r,.March 22.—A member ef the French* diplomatic mission was among those wounded In the shooting affray In front of the Atllon last Thursday. Tlie automobile of Genenal Nollettf chief of the French mission, was riddled by bullets. -One bullet knoclted a walking stick out of the hand of a British officer. D.RY LAW'S PAPA IS Irate'Citizen Blames Congressman Vol, stead When He Pays $22 for . Bottle of Tea. Washington, March 22.—An irate citizen, carrying a bottle full!of tfeaS rnshed into! the ollic_e "of Represent!!? t-ive Volstead nf Minnesota, author of lite prohibition enforcement net. "T -n:;id .«22 for :i nunrt (if that. K.tufC." he suirl, "nnfl it's nil your fault, you^who va-qt-o th-" dry law." Reprospptsit'vo" Vulslrcd replied: "IDcm'l- !.!••!"!• • ;>.-(>. Fin not a dry tiii'l never \vns.' Sonicliody hud to write Hio law. As cliairman of the committee, it fell to me. It migjit have been worse. -Now I am cnsseil from onp. end .of the country to the otVier," Miniature Battle ''Staged Occurs, Despite the Rigid Precautions—Mob Spirit' Is Now Being Hejd in • I Check—Strike Called Off; Stuttgart, ll:irch. 5:2.—President Euert | isj concentrating' troops from South'. 'Germany ugainst th<; Spar- laciits in.-the Ruhr valley and announces be will attuck unless tbe reds relinquish control. Berlin, March 22:—The number of dead throughout Germany during' the past week is now placed at S.OtK) 'by the ministry of defense. la the iron grip'of. martial law Berlin was quiet for 'the greater part of the day, though it miniature battle betwetm Kbert troops,and the Baltic britfuUe resulted in considerable: bloodshed. : ': With eitraordinury courts-martial, 'including drumhead proceedings, ready to crush all disturbances, and with.spe- ciftl military permits required for citizens to appear in the. streets,' the 'mob: spirit which'terrorized this city,for .a full week is for the time being be!d in check. ' But the geiieral strike Ijrts baaa called off—so far without; appreciably easiug the nation-wide paralysis. . ' ' Ebcrt Still in Stuttgart., President Ebei't is sitill in Stuttgart and in his continued absence lies, a source of increasing strength for tbe radicals who forced him' yesterday to yield — ostensibly at least — t'o 'their chief demands. , - " Drunk with power, the radical mass- ,es are 1 showing .signs o.f brealii-ng away from the more moderate leaders and'in- sisting upon making their' victory 'complete by establishing a soviet republic. . Even wherfe'the "i-eds" show a clispo- !slfldn-to.h<je.d. .the. orders from, the .Berlin, .chiefs: tiie-'Td'ffi^f- 'have' tremehdpus difficulties -in making their ' wishes known, b'ecause of the empire-wide tie- up of cotlmmmcatiua. Berlit! knows Iltrle of "what is going ou in northern, western aiid southern Germany.-but what little uews reaclie? liure by rqunduhout "routes ii not eri- eouragin's. - Miiny. diiys of civil warf«V« appeal yet ahead'and .nonia c-looe obssrvera be- Move-die decisive fcattle>-for sujjreraeej between tin- reds 1 jiiirt ' noh-rhdirals If s-till to come. ' ' ' \ Severe menHiires, aiupnnt'inf te -r utiite of siege, wer'e'pinc'eil iu effect b\ Presideur Jlbei't' f«i; Berlin. ' \; AH' 'pt'rsons Vu 1 *; ordrrcd off. th! streets sifter'sundown aa.d any ojje'car i'.ving Hrms v-,'ill lie -jiiol without, ftirthe! piirley. ' " " • • ''-.'.' ; Berlin Strike Called Off.'" "' ' Tho xenernV strlks in'Berliu has' beei ended'\vjfh' th's .grarttlnif i>T'lli«.\voi;t pr.v terms. Tluvnnlr.ns" demar.d.-. fb! low: • ''•• . . • 1. Disarmament 'nnd/punishment o! I he Kappist troops! 2. Push the punishment of -the government ofHcialB ' vrtio recosnizHd the Ivapplst authority.' / ' ' ..3. The dissolution of all counter-revolutionary organizations and the creation of'a- defense force composed exclusively of union workmen. '4. Immediate legislation on..'- the rights of ^employees to co-operate witb smploye'rt-m the mauasenient of enter- Drlses. ' . ' 5. •Socialisation of the mines, potash Industry, and/electrical industry. ' 6. Enlarirenient -of the -proci-ara of social legislation. . - ' % '. '7. The retirement »f Mlniste* of Defense Noske. .: • ' ' .' •"•'.'••'•'•. SAYS TELL WIFE EVERYTHING U. 8. Government 'Take* Issue With Vincente aiascp lb«hei, the /' Spanish.Author.. , .' , ' March' 2!,— Arid now the 0ntted 'States, government, has taken issue with Senor. Vincente Blasco Ibanez concerning the eternal ferai- uine. The 1 distinguished Spanish author urged "cave-man" • treatment' of American women. - Tlie weekly 'bulletin of; the department of agriculture, sort of. a' Koran of tbe American housewife,, appeared: with the advice, that American husbands should, tell their .wives everything. And,; if a husband should he unable to answer o'ne-of the' questions of bis better half.' the : bulletin asks thnt. the query : be referred, tojt. .- -.. . Turk Chamber Quits. Constantinople'," Maircli. 22. — Tlie Turkish dumber of ; depfities has" adjourned as a protest against 'allied' occupation of the city . and the. deportation of a number of Turkish nationalist leaders. \ ' V _;j ' ' '' "' CITY 0 GOES! Ktfi;(?nt photo of M. He.rthLMoi. Kjvwn minister of foreign .affairs, at present in London,- where'he'is at tending the allied conference*, in accord with the league plan. WARNS OF COAL TIEUP Operator Under'Arrest Criticizes Action of Government. Declares Lever AcO Prosecution May Cause Strike—Inconsistent With Wilson's Policy. ' .Indianapolis, March 22.—Possibility of another tieup of the nation's coal Industry, beginning. April 1, was asserted as a result of the government's prosecution of operators and miners for alleged the Lever fuel control act ; in a statement issued by K. IVLogS'lon of .Indianapolis. Mr. Logsdon is one of. tlie -.five, coal* operators arrested liy; federal officials arid one of the 123 me'ii.i.operators or miners, indicted by ".a federal grand jury here for alleged conspiracy to enhance" the price of coal. ' • .- . Mr. I.ojjsdon's . statement declare." that tlie government is proceeding on the hypothesis, that joint wage 'pan fprences are-and have been illegal. L this is true, he sa.i'rf. it is possible con ferences to establish a new wage seal; effective April 1 will be postponed in definitely and.that minors will refuse to work after April !•'. when the' pres ent contract expires. . . The stntemont asserts tlmt the ROT primipin's Hcfion is inconsistent witl the statement, given_'out by Preside!). Wilson wherein lie urged operator: and miners to get together under tin majority report of. tile connulssioi which investigated .the 'coai situhtior and in effect gave sanction to the idei. of collective bargaining- in the coal in dustry. ... • ' CHURCHES Tp FIGHT REDS More Than Score of Denominational Organizations Form Alliance to War on Radicalim. ' • • ^ Washington, March .22.—More than a score 'of church .denominational or ganizations have . formed an alliance to fight thq red menace, it was announced here by the Intel-church World Movement. .Seventy per cent of all tlie Protestant organizations in the Uniied States Will be represented jn the alliance, which, it js stated, is ready tn. spend millions, of dollars to cope with radicalism, and to aid' in eradicnting red doctrines.. A survey by. . the. cooperating churches has resulted in a definite decision to draw upon all qf their're- sonrccs, 'if neces.oary,- to' promote Americanization.' •'More .than '.$10,000,060 is available-In. the.relief'and. emergency funds of tlie affiliated churches and the expenditures on the "anti-red" program may even' excee'd this sum.. One ol the'initial: steps in the work will he the-use. of .large relief and mission funds to finance educational programs among foreign speaking and Illiterate elements in hundreds of communities. . ' ; • • • SEIZES WHISKY FROM MEXICO Booze Is Taken From Automobile at Wichlta.VFarta, Tex.— Five . Meti Arrested. ^y.i(•1li!tl rfajls.'. Tex... Starch. 52.— Federal omcifils seized 450 galiou» v %f whisky alleged to .have been smuggled here f rpm- Juarez, Mex. Five men are held in Jail. The ; whisky, was 'taken from five autoraol>lles .'said to have been driven o.vtirUnd .froin. Bl Paso. .'''»',._' "'• • " •*•. City Maj- Have Mausoleum —^Illinois Avenue to foe Repaired and Side Walks To Be Built—Specifications In Shape and Bids' 4 Will Soon Be Asked For • The city council lieli its weekly meeting at the city hall Friday evcn- ir.'g. _ in addition to the re,?u!'3r routine' of business the. commissioners went into the matter of -building and repairing- the sid'ewalks over the citj*. Engir/eer .E. A. Cox -inspected tiie walks in the-different, sectinni,-of the city and made recommendations for new walks and for_repairir.g the old wies. -Saturday the commissioners went over the walks and as soon as specifications are in shape bids for construe/ting the walks will be asked for.. . Attorney Lawrence Glenn, representing tire lijtei'ur.ban company, was present at the council meeting and agreed to put the north end: of Illinois, avenue in good condition' in thievery near future. The franchise was granted the street car company with the understanding that the street should ibe ptit in as good condition after Jayimr the. track as it .was before. The city commissioners have repeatedly asked the -corporation to repair this street. It is stated that inability to secure-materials is the 'cause of the .delay in repairing Illinois avenue. -.Raymond Hagler of Murphysboro presented a proposition to .the council to build a mausoleum for Carbondale. This would: .be a fine thing for our city. Many cities over the country" .are'Jmiidjng. mausoleums an-d-st- is believed: that our- citizens would support such a proposition. : If this mausoleum should .be erected it would" ±>e at, Oakland cemetery and it would probably be a. year or more before it -could be completed. A receiving vault -would be ;built to be used' until such time- as the mausoleum could be completed. ANTHONY HALL GIRL INJURED IN FIRE ESCAPE FALL . Miss Bernice Brim "suffered painful injuries about the chest and right knee when she fell 'from a fine escape, about twenty feet or more Saturday night a't Anthony Hall at the Normal. Miss Brim was demonstrating !;pr fearlessness to her girl churns .-> the hall s when the accident occurred.- She intended to swing to the ground "from an upstairs . window on the rope which lets down- easy, but instead, she took the opposite rope, caii'sing the sudden fall. Her injuries are not serious. CORONOR'S JURY HOLDS DEATH 0 WHITE ACCIDENT s Verdict of. the coroner's jury in the death of Henry White, who fell from ' a tree .which 'lie was trimurk^, to "nis. death Saturday 'morning, declared. White's death resulted from accident, holding- no one -responsible. \ It was brought out_at blie inquest •that White w:.s cutting liuius from trees and ip 'nis work slipped and fell 1 . s The body was taken to M-akanda yesterday, where the funeral aBxi imr-. ial- were 'held. OBev./J. ,W. Merrill conducted .the funeral. -He'-leaves a -wife Bind four children, three younger lones, and' a grown daughter, Cora White, of Christo-

What members have found on this page

Get access to

  • The largest online newspaper archive
  • 11,200+ newspapers from the 1700s–2000s
  • Millions of additional pages added every month

Try it free