Page 8 —Tuesday, September 16, 2003 NATION/WORLD ,3n6iana Gazette Weekend effect Temperatures change for weekend By RANDOLPH E. SCHMID Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON — Life is different on weekends, a distinction that seems to affect Mother Nature as well as people. Climate researchers studying records at thousands of locations have discovered that, in many communities, the temperature range between the daily high and low changes on the weekend. And, as with some people, there seems to be a little hangover of this weekend effect on Mondays. Piers M. de E Forster and Susan Solomon of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Aeronomy Laboratory in Boulder, Colo., noticed the weekend effect while studying records in an effort to learn more about global warming. Their findings are published in this week's online issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Some 35 percent of locations experienced a significant weekend effect over 50 years of record keeping, the researchers found. In regions such as the Southwest, the Carolinas and Georgia, Sunday and Monday had a consistently larger daily temperature range than other days, with Fri- days being the day with the smallest difference. In many communities the difference in range between weekend and weekdays was nearly 1 degree Fahrenheit. But the weekend effect wasn't always the same. Many localities in the Midwest had reverse effects, with smaller temperature ranges on the weekend than weekdays. In those regions Tuesdays and Wednesdays typically had the biggest difference between the daily high and low. Forster and Solomon found the weekend effect in New Mexico, Arizona, the Midwest and some Eastern states tended to be larger in the summer than winter. The researchers concluded the effect must be a result of human activity, ah important link for scientists who already had evidence that overall temperatures had increased over the past century. "The beauty of this weekend effect is it necessarily has to be of human origin, because we don't have something in nature that cares whether it's Tuesday or Saturday," said Forster, who is also affiliated with the University of Reading in the United Kingdom. Since the change in daily temperature range was mostly a result of nighttime minimums on some days not being as low as on other days, the researchers speculate the cause may relate to materials released into the air that help form clouds. Moisture in the air condenses more readily when it has something to adhere to, such as a tiny bit of dust or a chemical particle. So why does the weekend effect reduce the weekend temperature range in some places and increase it in others? The researchers aren't sure, though they have theories. While pollution and dusty aerosols in some areas provide nuclei for water to condense on to form clouds, in other places, there may be soot in the aerosols, which could absorb heat and cause the cloud to burn off — evaporate — during the day leaving less to warm the night, Forster suggested. Another possibility might be that pollutants that warm the air could cause changes in wind circulation patterns on a weekly basis. Or, the scientists said, there may be a gradual change across the country because of the downwind transport of pollutants from place to place. And, they added, they can't rule out the possibility there is some other human-related mechanism at work other than pollution aerosols and clouds. Backpackers still missing By MARGARITA MARTINEZ Associated Press Writer SANTA MARTA, Colombia — Thousands of troops scouring die jungles surrounding Colombia's tallest peak failed to find any trace of eight foreign backpackers kidnapped by suspected rebels. The guerrillas broke into cabins where more than a dozen foreign backpackers slept at dawn . Friday, took their valuables, then marched eight of the fittest tourists into the jungles surrounding the snowcapped Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range. The four Israelis, two Britons, a German and a Spaniard have not been heard from since they were seized by the insurgents believed to be from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, in the pre-Colombian archaeological ruins of Ciudad Perdida, or Lost City. "We think they took them to the south, toward where the FARC has its hideouts," Army Gen. Leonel Gomez told The Associated Press on Monday. Gomez said the FARC was likely responsible, but that other ille- gal armed groups had not been ruled out as suspects. The FARC and a smaller rebel group, the National Liberation Army, have often carried out kidnappings during their four-decade war against the Colombian government. Colombian President Alvaro Uribe pledged to personally oversee the search operation, reportedly involving thousands of troops and Black Hawk helicopters. Periodic rainstorms and high altitudes were hampering the search, officials said. Serving as pallbearers at Johnny Cash's funeral Monday were musicians Larry Gar/in, second from left, and Randy Scruggs, far right. (AP photos) Singer Cash mourned By JIM PATTERSON Associated Press Writer HENDERSONVILLE, Term. — American music legend Johnny Cash was remembered at his funeral as a man who kept his dignity while struggling with demons, and who made it a habit to help others. "He was so modest and humble, and so willing to live with his pain and not make anybody else pay for it," said daughter Rosanne Cash during the 2Vz- hour service Monday. The private event at First Baptist Church will be followed by a public memorial still being planned. A service for Cash's wife June Carter Cash was held at the same church after her death in May. Cash, 71, died Friday of respiratory failure caused by complications from diabetes. His death followed years of precarious health. More than 1,000 mourners listened to tributes from Rosanne Cash, Kris Kristofferson, preacher Franklin Graham, former Vice President Al Gore, and other family members and friends. Emmylou Harris and Sheryl Crow performed two songs, "The Old Rugged Cross" and Bob Dylan's "Every Grain of Sand." Kristofferson called Cash "Abraham Lincoln with a wild side," a nod to the singer's dual reputations as a champion of the pooi, prisoners, and other underdogs, and decades-long battle with drug addiction. "Cowboy" Jack Clement, an engineer and producer who had been friends with Cash since the Emmylou Harris, right, and Sheryl Crow performed two songs at Cash's funeral. 1950s, read a poem about Cash that said in part: "It takes a good man to take success, and not misplace his soul." Cash's career stretched from rockabilly hits like "Cry, Cry, Cry" and "Get Rhythm" in the 1950s to his renditions of rock songs in recent years like "Hurt," by Nine Inch Nails. In between, he was one of country music's biggest stars, scoring dozens of hits like "A Boy Named Sue," "Man in Black" and "It Ain't Me Babe," a duet with Carter Cash on a Dylan song. "There was something about Johnny Cash that went beyond the music," Gore said. "There were hundreds of millions all over the world who felt a connection with Johnny Cash.... He felt deeply for people, those who didn't have jobs or were suffering in any way." Recall election put off By BETH FOUHY and DAVID KRAVETS Associated Press Writers SAN FRANCISCO —Three federal judges threw a monkey wrench in California's gubernatorial recall timetable, postponing next month's ballot and leaving open the possibility that a vote could be more than five months away. "I thought I was running a sprint, and it looks like I may have to run a marathon," said Steve Smith, an adviser to Gov. Gray Davis, the target of the recall. "And I don't even like running that much." A three-judge panel of the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled Monday that California's planned use of punch-card ballots — the same kind used in the contested 2000 presidential election — would disenfranchise thousands of Californians. "The inherent defects in the system are such that approximately 40,000 voters who travel to the polls and cast their ballot will not have their vote counted at all," the judges wrote. The court did not set a new date for the recall, but backed a suggestion from the American Civil Liberties Union that balloting be held during the March 2 presidential primary. One of the groups behind the effort to yank Davis from office planned to appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court to keep the recall date Oct. 7. The circuit court's decision was stayed for a week to b allow for such appeals. "This recall has been like a roller coaster. There are more surprises than you can possibly imagine," Davis said. "I'll continue to make my case to the people that a recall is not good for them." Independent candidate Arianna Huffington praised the decision, calling voter disenfranchisement "the dirty little secret of American politics." Republican state Sen. Tom McClintock called it an "outrageous decision" by a court that is the "laughingstock" of the federal judiciary because it is the nation's most-reversed federal appeals court. Lt. Gov. Cruz Bustamante, the only major Democrat vying to succeed Davis if he is recalled, and Republican candidate Arnold Schwarzenegger promised to continue campaigning as the courts decide when.to hold the election. Anniversaries? Birthdays? Weddings? PAUL BEATTY JEWELERS 120 W. 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