Northwest Arkansas Times from Fayetteville, Arkansas on April 18, 1976 · Page 5
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Northwest Arkansas Times from Fayetteville, Arkansas · Page 5

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Sunday, April 18, 1976
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Ne-rtnwejt Arkamoj TIMES, Sunday, April 18 1976 r*TISTTEVII.I,K. ARKANSAS · f ' SA American Issues Forum A Distinctive Culture Emerges On Tfie New Continent - EDITOR'S NOTE: This is tlie 'sixteenth is a scries of '18. articles exploring issues of ,11 ic American Issues Forum. -This scries has been written especially lor the second sc-g- Inient ot the Bicentennial jprograin of Courses by News- Diaper. L Here, historian Neil =H;irris of the University of -.Chicago discusses the emcr- ·'geiice " or a distinctively ·'American culture and t h e " 'impact 7 of the mass media on the ppputar culture of today. By N K I L H A H H I S \. The search" for an American culture has gone on almost continuously since the early nine- tccnliV" omUiry, In the first flush of revolutionary enthusiasm, patriot, fathers felt less impelled . to 'demonstrate the national genius in art and litcrtilure. than they did in politics. The revolutionary cuuse, moreover, was cosmopolitan, not narrowly nationalistic. K aimed ni nothing, less than transforming the .world. Rut by of wealth and energy that great ,irt required, not many Americans regretted their cultural deprivation. The material pros p c r i t y progress of and technological the United States In the later nineteenth ccn- ry, as the technologies of nginecring appropriated new methods and materials of seemed more significant contributions to world civilization. Art would arrive later. By the lime of our Centennial most American artists, critics, ami.laymen agreed that a national culture was desirable?, but that it couk come only through absorption and imitation of European models. . BUT NOT ALT, Americans subscribed to, .this .dubious standard, Some declared tha Americans already hud devc loped a .culture" ot '(heir · owi and warned that imitation ci Europe would prove disastrous In the 1840s a sculptor name Horatio Grecnough argued fo "Greek ·-principles, not Grec American folk tales, Muideville, · engineering, handicrafts as dJSr tinctive American contributions __ _.._ deserving study and respect. onslructlon.'Louis Sullivan and Instead of berating Americans ich Frank Lloyd Wright took'for - f a l l i n g below European p where Grcenough bad left | standards, they ,urged ^ that we T, American M i c e build...,, . .aliens, prairie houses could )ccomc our cathedrals, palaces, nd old masters. But however eloquent their things," principles and efficiency be fitnes found em , , · . *-· . . ·,. t Hiuay. ijiiK- io uui uiunuiLat j, the early : m n 3 c o n l h c c r , t u r y Emerson cri j d . If the A m e d a bodied in American locomotives and clipper ships. His doctrin of functionalism was applaucie by men like Ernersnn who too Nature and not Europe for the muse. "Life. is our dictionary, Americans ^identified the cause of republicanism with the f a t e of the United -States, alone. .Repeated, disappointments in Fiance,'"England," arid L a t i n America convinced, many ot Ihcm that liberty', would, continue to be persecuted everywhere but in their own land, European hostility took parti 'c'ular forms. By "- the 1820s "America's enemies could not · deny the ~ permanence of the .United Stales. iTh'e 1 political tab ric had survived despite' pre'dic lions of ' failure.' ' America's .'weakness secme'd now to He ir "art rather than politics. "WHO READS AN American book?" Sidney Smith, an English clergyman,: a s k e d ' i n 1820. "In the four quarters of the globe, who reads an American , book? or goes lo fcn American play.? - or looks at-an American picture or statue?" Raw, dull, 1 uncouth, uninleresling, Ihese were Ihe adjectives European .critics .Hung at .American crea- tive.works. Stung by Ibis abuse, · American crilics . inflated- the ,merits o f . homcrgrqwh artistic _producls,.. -Backwoods poets -.became the equals, of Keats or .'WorrlswoHh, while sign, painters ; and limners Sverc. proclaimed youthful Michelangelos. Despite the exaggerations _ of f r i e n d l y critics and Ihe helping hands of patrons, mosl of our carlv nineteenth century Artists acknowledged the bitter truth: lhat America wilh...ijs size, wealth"" and political "destiny, remained- 1 ^'jbil .player on the stage 'of "world culture. The treasiire-house'of the polite arts -- music, pointing, sciilplure, arcliileclure -- · r-e m a i n e d In Europe. Occasional American genius did appear, but 'as exceptions, often resentful of their isnlalion. Taughl by.politics or religion to suspect the expense rican skyscrapersY|lry lo'uncover und" evaluate our lies buildings, railrgad;own originality. c o m and belief. To a large extent film and television huve replaced school and church as the" sbapers o[ public values. · THE POWER OF the mass media, that central feature of contemporary popular culture, lies in their application of m e r c i a I values and itc. The genius for mechanical popular culture breaks down old reproduction, which found its boundaries between I he sacred vords and achievements/ Sulli r an and Wright did not rcprc- cnt the majority view of cul- ure. The guardians of taste, he defenders of high culture, letermincd what was legitimate Ihe arts. _,. illegitimate ... 3 aiiiting and! .sculpture deserved respect, not cartooning and rug- weaving; Chinese pottery could enter the museum, contemporary book-binding would not; grand opera (sung in foreign tongues) was the Pantheon musical- comedy was not. admissible of Culture, into More than " t h e energy and methods. Image-making is iitclligencc of 'critics contributed to the self consciousness of American popular culture. Characteristically, a scries of specific inventions and tcch- n o I o g i e s liberated native achievements from the restraint of old categories. In film, recording, tudio and television, vast and unformed audiences permitted the creation of new traditions. Certification came not from academic experts or learned commentaries, bui lackground or political bcUof.lits colonial origins, its racial I r c a l m of self-absorption. But in . -- n___ __ heterogeneity, its .capitalistic (the bicentennial year, American mericans come together on he playing fields of mass-con- .umption. :base of united in dreams oE the p u r - outlet in the artifacts of Ameri- ethos and rapid mobility. Domi-'Involvement in creating, mani- tialed by private interests and 'pulating, and consuming this ' ' o f . e m p i r e of dreams and images ·appears to have greater-.con- t e m p o r a r y relevance than belter i private fa sic. the world ca's first industrial cotton gins, steam and profane and invites" new traditional political ideals. NEXT WEEK: Professor age r - definitions. Called, variously, ium E.UJ.I, =«.».» engines, conservative and revolutionary. illoon Frame houses -- is now .instructive and clichcd. reality- Harris discusses the problem ol resolved through' sound and'oriented iinrl rcalilv.driivnig. -n maintaining individualism in a mage : generalization can cover this mass sociely. POPULAR CULT.URIC defines ; · . '- · . ·· '""' - : as well as integrates- The.sizd of the mass market permits' the cultivation of some-variety;' do- it-yourselfers; hobbyists, collect o r s , amateur musicians; college theatricals are integral Aipportcd either by advertising other products or through self- commemoration. The celebrity, .be sUir system, the talk show, [he golden record, the Oscar, .he Grammy and the Emmy, all are central lo the American e x p e r i e n c e . They .signify competition, the .search for exposure, and the desire lo legi timatc both through popularity, parts of today's popular culture. Fashions, fads, and . cults Indeed, many define themselves , . spring as easily from the television screen and. the phono- from the test, of the market- graph records as profits return pluce: How did it sell? Aggressive merchandising but techniques enabled cultura to their promoters. Conlempor- beroes develop their definition whatever was popular or widespread was suspect. THE SPLIT BETWEEN what most Americans read, heard, and consumed, and what custodians of culture considered entrepreneurs to reach enorm- ons= audiences. And with them came influences more .decisive Ihqn those exerted by church, "the worthy did produce reactions. family, Ironically, or " school systems. several decades America has. passed from a society whose culture \\*as ovcr- are dis- audience jry ; _ _ . . . _ strength not only from [wlilics, business, education, or religion, but even more importantly from this world ofo entertainment and new production. Increasingly, our common experience is based upon these media of e x p r e s s i o n and their stars. Eras are d a led shadowed by its. political idco- by., their son-gs, their .soap logy, lo a society almost cultur-'operas, their films, and their ' ' ; heroes, packaged and iy their membership in such groups i ethnic, class, and poli .ical commitments played by -acts of aarticipMtion. Despite its activist sectors, however, American culture is popular through consumption rather than - production habits. It is the code of .the,spectator j rather tbati the. performer that is mosl powerful. Arid in its- hostility to or high culture.- ness, its .emphasis -on magnitude and measurement, and its certifying powers, this culture derives from the larger character of American society-- vulgarisation of its competitive- shaping rather than prepared for m Summer Sun Set ilothe ies for easy, living . . * polyester/cptlon wide slrip«-tis- waist shirt $9,98, over a cation kmt-ble'rid narrow stripe elastic tube top ttlo T-HAT-- AFTER AUU ^HIS.TIME.THEYV£ TUEM£D : UP SOME POOR GUV WHOTH1WK5THE COUP WAR IS STIU- GOING ON.''' US. Stance is Questioned By Bay Of Pigs Men Backways Look Reveals: . . B y 1KB FLORES MIAMI (AP) -;-- Veterans- of the Bay.of Pigs Invasion, com- memmorafing ; the 15th anniversary- this weekend of that brief, disastrous struggle. !o not believe this country's latest tough stance against Cuba's Fidel-Castro will last. . So Ihe 1,200 members of Bn- " gade 2506, living in exile in the United Stales, 1 want the John F. Kennedy -Library to return their invasion Mag, presented to Kennedy al a giant rally in Miami after the invaders were freed from Cuban prisons In 1962. They are angry at "the long- term American policy of givinj in to Caslro," despite a recenl toughening of Ihe U.S. stance because of the use of Cuban ' troops in Africa. Tho flag-return campaign is Hie exiles' latest show of dis pleasure 1 over what' they view ' as Ihe stubborn refusal ol this ·. country to help them 'overthrow "the Caribbean .tyrant." U.S. officials carefully slec clear of any debate on exile ac ' tivities and views. The Amcr can government has ignoriid ei : forts by'·'Hie Brigade and othc i Cuban exile groups to involv - this country in any con , frontal ion between exiles.; Caslro, Partly to overcome warn \ interest" in the cause of Cuba ', f a d i n g memories and the pas .'· i.ige of time, loaders of the A ; :ociation of.Veterans of Assau Brigade 2506 conceived the ide ' of demanding the relurn of th symbolic invasion flag. When the flag^was presenle .- to President Kennedy al Ihe 0 ·· angc Mow! in December iM ·'. following the return of the br · gadc from 20 months' impnso · mcnt, Kennedy promised to r ·: lurn it to "its valiant dcfende ·· in n Cuba free from the tyra ny of communism." · But 'Juan Perez Franco,- pro '· iilent o( the brigade associalio ·" says Kennedy and successi v administrations became increa ' ingly complacent about t n ' C a s t r o regime. - Directors of the Kennedy brnry «l firs' refused !o rclu the brigade banner, saying was government property. 1 alter tha group retained «n ney, U. S. officials agreed tc urn the flag if a majority ol gade members voled approy of the action taken by their Franco says the bri ile has written consent no ly from the majority of its ic MS. ?crez i denim shorts with -'s'elf vetty buckle : $10.9Si''; J U N I O R GALLERY · SECOND'FLOOR WhUi belt . embers -- now sealtcret oughoul this country, Latin mcrica, Puerto: Rico and ain -- but 7,000-8,000 sign, arcs from other exiles. The brigade expects lo gel e flag back in a month or two nd plans a big rally when il is turned to Miami. It will be it on permanent exhibit here. Officials at the Kennedy Li- ·ary, part.of the National Arrives, have declined comment the issue, except lo say Ibat rrangements for the flag's re; rn are being made. Despite the passing years, NEW YORK (AP) -- Back «n [he 1700s, frugal Benjamin Franklin proposed an idea for saving al least one hour a day. Franklin called his idea "Daylight Saving Time." ' His reputation as a scientist wns so great in America and in Europe -- where he had been the first American to receive an Honorary Degree from Ox ford " . University and was serving as the first American Minister to France tha erez Franco argues rigadislas · would invade th* Inn land again if- given anolhcr pporlunily. Olher veterans are ot so sure the three-day in- Jose "Pejie" San Roman, ^thc asion, winch began on April 7, 1951, was an act of glory, vcr-all leader 'of the attack, etuscs interviews and is slill nder medical Treatment as a esull of -Ihc invasion and his nearly everybody ben'oves tha his proposa 1 \va s made fo purely scientific reasons. Not so. Ben loved science but he also loved parties. At the Court of King Loui XVf and his fun-loving Queen Marie-Antoinette, Franklin \va a great favorite -- and Ben considered it his duty as a U.S. diplomat, never to leave a big parly too early. Consequently, getting up Into one morning after having stayed up late the night before, Franklin wished the day includ.- ed just one hour more of daylight -- and be relayed his thoughts to the King. All -that mprisoumenl. His voice chok- ng with emotion and his eyes widening when asked to comment, on the mission 15 years atcr;' San niman replies, "You ·an isay, simply, that il de- troyecl my life.' Manuel Arlime, the liaison ochveen the Cuban exiles and CIA, says the Caslro government is.now much stronger md rould easily repel a simialr nvasion. "Our hope now Is that this country gives us a green light o proceed in our own way against Caslro," he says. Tins would mean "a non-conventional war of ' infiltration, sabotage, guerrilla warfare and terrorism'-- operations launch ed from Lfilln America." Brigadislas still enjoy a special standing in Miami's exile community of 350,000, As Pere? Franco proudly points out, the organization: Is the' only exile bad lo be done to assure one extra hour of daylight al the end of the day was lo push the hour hand of a clock forward one hour. The King allegedly kept thinking about this revolutionary American idea until ihe French Revolution, and then million Americans .living in 20 tales advanced clocks, walch- ;s and other timepieces by one lour. Hut. more than 80 rnjllion other citizens either" were hot chednlcd lo go on DST at all or were lo do so on a laler dale n Ihe-spring. There were then 18 states hat observed DST on a stale- wide basis, and 18 other slates where il was observed in some way. In addition, there were and are isolated areas and communities across the country thai observe whal has been do scribed as "wildcat. DST," a sort of voluntary compliance bj everybody without any fonna legal sanction. In Indiana there was no official stale lime at all In Pennsylvania, on the othei hand, the slate was on Stand arri Time, but BOO communitiej moved (n DST on their own. fn parts of Texas, North Da kota and Alaska some 500,05 Americans observe lime on hour ' slower than Slmufarc .Time; "1,500,000 Americans scat lered in communities in part of Alaska, Idaho, Miclilgar Oregon and Utah observe Urn , Ihi revolutionaries took all his clocks away from him. According to Bulova Watch Company's researchers, DST was not adopted by anybody until nearly 150 years Ia.ler, one hour fasler than Standar Time all year round; and an other 45,000 Americans in cer tain Alaska communities ob serve time two hours fasto than Standard Time all yea round. In 1967. of 130 cities more than 100,000 population, 7 observed DST and Sfl didn't. LAW ADOPTED Complaints about the Croup representing of Cuban,society. ill sector work observance of DST ' uring World. War I -- as a emporary emergency measure o aid Ihe war effort. To be spe- itic,' DST cut electric power onsumplion in war planls by dding an .extra hour of day- ighl at the end of the business ay, .while simultaneously niak- ng wartime plnnl blackouts more effective. MOST AREAS COMPtA' Today, most Iv.'r no'. ; American communities move clock and watch hands ahead an hour when DST starts, hack ,vhen il ends. But many people, ncluding experts on time, refer ,o -DST as "America's annua lout with confusion", because observance has, not been \\ [orm throughout the nation. For example, al 2 a.m. on April 2-1, 1966. more than 10 patcl - tinall led to the passage of a bill b Congress in --1965. Kffecth starting In 19G7, it required a slates that observe Dayligl Saving Time lo observe · uniformly from Ihe last Sunrla n April through the last Sun- ^ lay in October. However, the law affects on stales; cilics and other comm nitics -remain completely fro o set their own standard lim and switch to and f r o m Ihc standard times whenever th choose. , By 1970. only three states Arizona, Hawaii and Michig -- did ;not observe Daylig Saving Time. Michigan had o served DST in 1965 after t slate legislature had voted do so, but the legislative dctw on the issue led lo a slalcwi referendum -- and DST lost : story O/OSI margin of 488 voles. Some f. armcrs consider DST illogical and impractical because "the cows and chickens won't n langc their schedules." - p ^ate in 1973, as a result of ic energy crisis, nearly every- j xidy agreed that the United itates should -switch . t o Day- t light Saving Time as soon as o possible, in the middle of win- i er. Congress acted with unusu- spccd and President Nixon r jromptly signed the legislation r o law -- and on Sunday, Jan. , 1974, all over America people ^ umped the hour hands of Ihcir matches and clocks forward one lour. The law required year- round DST. , MOTHERS UNHAPPY In many communities, chil- rcn ,, had to leave home for school in the dark before rtawn Inthers discovered they had .to et up earlier than their :chll- ren to get them up -- ^ and · lany fathers .found a 11= these I'cdawn shenanigans objcctio- ablc. Mothers began to organic protests. The idea was that less elcc- ncity would be used at the end i the day, resulting in big sav- ngs in oil consumption. But loo hat summer, · studies showed, nany people switched on too nany lights when they got up n the dark in the morning. By vinlcrtime DST had not solved any problems or saved any i energy, through it had caused f Tiillions of problems. t So Congress decided to l~ change (lie law. and President · Ford signed Ihe new law, which ~ shifted DST back to its previous April-to-October schedule. Awards Presented To IE Students S i x oulslamling s t u d e n t . awards and 16 certificates ot merit were awarded (o University of Arkansas students in (lie Icpnrlment of Industrial Engineering Sunday nighl at the annual awards dinner in Vyatt's Cafeteria. John Killingsvvorlh of North Lilllo Rock received Ihe Tulsa A 1 1 E "Outstanding Senior Award" and Stephanie Galaway, senior Irom Pine Bluff, r e c e i v e d I h e Engineering lean's award. Leo Harlz of SUlltgarl received the Central Arkansas Chapter. AIIE "Outstanding Junior Award"; Cart Imhoff ol "ayellcville and David Cousins of Fort Smith received the Alpha Pi Mu "Outstandinf Sophomore Award"; and Scotl Mnndy of Fayelleville receiver .he "Oliver Galchell Mcmoria Freshman Award." Certificates of merit went !o Mark Weaver of Marshall. senior; Charles Wacaster of Ho Springs and Richard Young o I.orton, Va.,. juniors; William Olivers of Dantanellc, Terry Baker of Springdale, Timolhj McKenzie of Little Rock Itobcrl Johnson of Board Camp James Scroggs of Fayelleville John Hargrave of Mounlai Home, Thomas Vincent of For Smith, Gregory Anderson c 'esl Fork, and John W: Jaco Little Rock, sphompres; a m c s W. Alexander · of f LiltleMock, sophomores; lalvcrn, Thomas Clifford b( Little Rock". Kevin Williams'of Joricsboro and Dcwey Magar of Little liock, freshmen. Dr. Mclvin .D. Springer, professor of industrial : engi- leering, svas recognized as Ihe "Best Instructor ot the Year. 1 ' Award presentations \vere made by Dr. Vernon JlcBryde, nd Dr. John L. Imhoff, pror essors, and Charles Wacasler, who represented Alpha PI Mil. Workshop Set T h e Arkansas league" f o r nursing will conduct a workshop at the Holiday Inn in Rogers on April 29 and Hay 12. The workshop is part of an on-going effort by the league to Bassist schools in the region to formulate and develop i. school health program, coordinate health activities o[ the school staff and coordinate programs of health agencies and community groups in the development of Joint school health activities, The Together Look : of.. /. Separates Vivo coordinates provides the classic look for spring. This new c/roup includes a plaid blazer $55.98, . solid vest $29.98, and panl $29.98 -- all in a polyester, linen and. silk blend -- ' a n d a houndstooth print shirt in 1007= collon $25.98. SPORTSWEAR SECOND FLOOR

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