Independent from Long Beach, California on April 1, 1963 · Page 10
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Independent from Long Beach, California · Page 10

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Long Beach, California
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Monday, April 1, 1963
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Page 10
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F«9* B-7--INDEPENDENT lr-» IIK*. CiW.. Vat* **rt V. 1*1 DcUcalc Tloilancc EDITORIAL Is LB. Mature Enough for Role in Nuclear Age? WORKING ON THE assumption that Long Beach is mature enough to take part in the nuclear age, the traffic manager of Long Beach Harbor recently sought a resolution stating the harbor's willingness to handle cargoes of spent radioactive materials. The Harbor Commission put the proposal aside for further study. Meanwhile, the government will ship these materials only through those ports w-hich have indicated they are willing to handle them. The materials, encased in lead and concrete containers, are spent fuels returned from U.S.-built reactors abroad for reprocessing or other disposition in this country. Harbor officials cannot be criticized, of course, for wanting to study carefully any proposal put before them. Several, however, indicated that they fear a public outcry would greet approval of such shipments. : * * * \VE THINK THE public has outgrown that sort of hysteria. In any event, if the public is uninformed about the safety of nuclear operations and transport, it is time for some education. Progress should not be thwarted bjr. official fear of public ignorance. I;Nuclear activities are becoming commonplace, and they are safer than many non-nuclear activities. I: Over the years, radioactive materials in one form or another have been shipped through the port of Long Beach and the neighboring port of Los Angeles without accidents or ill effects. Extreme care has always been exercised; in fact, greater care than perhaps required. For example, a device the size of a pencil will be buried deep within multiple containers and handled according to strict rules established by the Coast Guard and the Atomic Energy Commission. Similar care would be exercised with regard to the cargoes now under consideration. ' Hundreds of communities and ports in the world are adjusting to nuclear operations w i t h o u t difficulty. The United States participates in reactor programs in 22 countries. Nearly 400 nuclear reactors have been built, are being built, or are being planned in the United States. Shipments of radioactive material to and from the United States have been averaging about 250 annually for the past several years. The United States Navy has 31 nuclear-propelled ships operable and 47 planned. ·_·'. Here in California, a civilian nuclear reactor is being built at Humboldt Bay; another is planned for Camp Pendletonl Experimental power reactors and reactor experiments are in operation at Pleasanton and Santa Su- saha. Nuclear research facilities are in operation at Livermore and La Jolla, and other such facilities are being constructed at Hawthorne. Nuclear teaching projects are taking place at Berkeley, Palo Alto, and Los Angeles. California had 79 new AEC radioisotope licensees last year, distributed among medical institutions, colleges and universities, industrial firms, and federal and state laboratories throughout the state. It should be noted, too, that the nuclear merchant ship Savannah visited this port not long ago and, instead of creating public hysteria, attracted thousands of visitors, many of whom stood in line for hours to go aboard for an inspection of that vessel Finally, let's not forget that the city of Long Beach has given its name to the nuclear-powered cruiser USS Long Beach, which serves as the backbone of the U.S. Navy's modern striking force. It would be as unrealistic for another port to refuse that ship admittance as it would be for the port of Long Beach to bar the regulated shipment of well-protected nuclear materials through its facilities. The Atomic Energy Commission has just nude its annual report to Congress. In that report the subject of nuclear safety is dealt with at length. "Safe transportation of all categories of radioactive materials," the report states, "is vital to the successful growth .of the nation's nuclear energy program, not only from the standpoint of public health and safety but also on an economic basis. Obviously, overly restrictive safety regulations can make transportation so costly as to make operations involving radioactive materials uneconomical On the other hand, regulations which are so relaxed as to inadequately protect the health and safety of the public could result in a serious accident which would interfere with the proper development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes." This attitude has resulted in a sparkling record cf safe operations by AEC contractors and licensees making shipments of radioactive materials. Such shipments have been taking place for 16 years. In that period there is no record of a radiation injury in the transportation of radioactive materials! * * * THE AEC CONDUCTS a continuing program of education and orientation in nuclear transportation safety. If local harbor officials plan to study the question further, certainly it would be a logical step to request an orientation meeting. Long Beach has a right to share in all the shipping activity of the nuclear age and should not be prevented from doing so by timidity or ignorance. LANGUAGES in trie NEWS ly Charlfl r. I«rCtl QUOTES STRICTLY PERSONAL It 5 s Viewpoint Not the Facts HARRIS DHEW PEARSON Kennedy Ponders Halving Our Missle-Boniber Force WASHINGTON -- President Kennedy is considering a dramatic offer to the Russians to slash our missile- and-bomber forces roughly in half in return for a 10 per cent cutback in Soviet strength. This would still leave the r United States with a striking force that could match the Russians m i s s i l e for missile a n d b o m b f o r bomb, the advocates claim- PEARSON The President has contended privately that the armed forces already have far more nuclear weapons than they need to wipe out every possible Soviet target. "How many times do you have to knock out a Russian target with nuclear weapons?" he has asked. The Joint Chiefs have warned, however, that such a drastic scaledown would leave the United States short of weapons to protect our far-flung commitments. Simply stated, the civilian chiefs are willing to settle for mathematical p a r i t y with the Russians, which would leave both sides with . approximately the s a m e number of nuclear weapons. They believe this would create a ·balance of terror," which would constitute a m u t u a l deterrent against war. ;-AJril Foots" Day is variously called in different IaJtg)Jages. In Italian and French, it is "April Fish" (Kalian: Pesce d"aprile; French: Poisson d"avril. Portuguese calls it Dia das iilAPOTHEKEl NEW YORK--Mayor Robert F. Wagner, after the s t r i k i n g photoengravers voted to accept a new contract with New York City newspapers, ending tht 114- day blackout of newspapers: "We got down to the one- yard line and we finally got the ball over today." WARSAW, Poland--Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski, attacking Communist Poland's birth control program as "murder" and "crime": "We will never betray our position concerning this pro- gram. We shall always serve life. Our duty is to serve the Polish nation and cure the body and the spirit of the Potish nation even if it should cost us much. My mouth will never be shut" WASHINGTON -- Republican Senate Leader Everett M. Dirksen, on Cuban exiles" desire to free Cuba: "One fact that has not been mentioned is this show of spirit and determination of the Cuban people which has not been dimirashed." Strictly Business mentiras (Day of Lies), and in; Spanish it is Dia de Ins inocentes (Day of the Innocents). . In Russian, it is Aprcl- xkaya shutka (April joke), and in Scottish dialect, "April gowk," the "gowk" being a sort of cuckoo. In other languages, it is usually Fool of April," such as HuiigarUn, Aprilisi boEond; Poh'sh, Dudekprymaprylis- owy; Czech, Dubnovy blaz- en; Danish and Norwegian. Aprilsnarr; G e r m a n and Swedish, Aprilnarr. -A well-known German jwartiral ink* it tn tend i trnid to 'the drugstore to bef Mockenfett or Enten- rrukh, which sound lie staples, but which mean "mosquito fat" and "duck's nsilk," respectively BUT THE military chiefs are pleading for geographical parity which would require missile-bomber superiority, they insist, to stand off the Russians around the globe. In the secret debates, only Gen. Maxwell Taylor, the Joint Chiefs' chairman, has sided with his civilian superiors. He has explained to his military colleagues that he now considers himself a "political appointee." Note -- The Joint Chiefs are also irritated over a secret memo which Secretary of Defense McNamara issued on Jan. 21. scrapping the basic national security policy. This is a 20-pase stJtfmfr.t cf military aims. which ha» been tfw bibre of defense policy. Hereafter, the nemo declared, the statements of Kennedy and McNamara will be taken as military scripture. » · * » WHAT worries the State Department about the Cuban refugee raids on the Cuban mainland and on Russian ships is that national tempers win become inflamed and we may have a repetition of thy sinking of cite war and to the right wing press of the United States, one of the most needless wars in history was fought. James Truslow Adams, descendant of the famous Adams family, tells the story in his book The Epic of America" which is recommended reading for Brig. Gen. Barry Goldwater, the senator from Arizona, and others who are waving the flag so dangerously over Cuba. "Unfortunately, we had sent a battleship, the Maine, to Havana harbor, and while at anchor there, on February 15, 1S98, she was blown up by an explosion, the real cause cf which has never yet been ascertained by the public. "Spain immediately urged investigation by an impartial tribunal, and arbitration. We declined both, though we had always stood for arbitration of international disputes. An American investigating board announced on March 2S that the ship had been blown up from the outside: a Spanish board, which was not permitted to visit the ship arid which had to judge from the outside, announced that she had been blown up by an internal explosion. * * * * -SUBSEQUENTLY t h e United States government had her towed out to sea and sunk so deep that no commission will ever be able to investigate her again. "Inflamed by the yellow newspaper press, the public meanwhile had pone mad. (Theodore) Roosevelt, always bellicose, and then assistant secretary of the Navy, demanded that the Spaniards be driven from the new world. McKinley was for peace, but was weak and feared that hj would disrupt the Republican Party and interfere with the smooth-running machinery cf tariff making and other interesting functions of government if he tried to lead thi country and stem the tide of insane jingoism. He noted a year later that if he had been left alone he could have secured the withdrawal of Spain from Cuba without a war. "Presidents of the United States can hardly expect to "be left alone." but some of them have had the courage to stand alone and to lead. as did John Adams when he saved us from war with France. pendence of Cuba or even the annexation of the island to the United States, and that Spain was loyally ready to make any concession. The next day after receiving this cable, McKinley sent a message to Congress asking for a declaration of war. Perhaps he had been too deeply stung by Roosevelt's remark that 'he had no more backbone than a chocolate eclair,' and so proved the positive in trying to prove the negative." Note--Scene diplomats say that the analogy between bellicose Republican senators today, a harassed Presi- ctent. and Russian withdrawals from Cuba is all too similar to 1SSS. By SYDNEY J. HARRIS What is wrong with the ·'realist* who believes in "looking at the facts" is his naive belief that we get our . perceptions from the things around us--when, actually, · the perceptions come from us. In his book, "Education and the Nature of Man." published a decade *go. Prof. Earl C. Kelley tells the old Austrian folk-tale of the three wayfarers stopping at noon to rest beneath an oak tree. One, looking up through the branches, said, "What a fine mast this oak would make for a ship such as 1 used · to sail upon." A second, who had been a draper's assistant, said, "What a fine brown « cloth my master could have dyed from this j fine bark." The third, who had spent his youth as a swineherd, said, "What fine fat j pigs could be grown from the acorns which £ fall from this oak." ' * * * WHICH OF THEM saw the "fact" of the oak tree? As Kelley points out, after recounting some psychological experiments at the Hanover Institute, "since the perception is the usable reality, and since no two organisms can make the some use of clues or bring the same . · experiential background to bear, no two of us can see alike. We have no common world." If we truly understand this, it will make us more humble, more tentative, more tolerant, more flexible in our opinions and in our disputes. If, as Kelley indicates,' no two persons can know the came thing, and no item of knowledge can have the same effect on each of them, then we can never go from the "facts" to values about them. He uses the example of Abraham Lincoln. It is, of course, a "fact" that he lived, that he was President, that he was assassinated. Bat, in KeD'ey's words, "there are as many ifcrrdn* as there are learners." He explains what he means in these words: * -A- * "UNCOLN IS ONE THING to an Old Guard Republican, who holds him as a model but believes little that he believes. He is something else to the descendents of the slaves whom he freed. He is stni another person to the Southern aristocrat ... To some he does not exist at all,' ; and to others he is far from, what we hold him to be." -'. This does not imply that we cannot arrive at common , judgments, at basic value-agreements. It does suggest, · however, that such judgments cannot be rooted in '-· "objective facts," but only in the ways in which we grasp ' and combine these facts with our memory and our ex- I · perience. It is not the hard facts of the objective world '.; that keep us from working together, but the hardness of ; heart that makes us think the oak tree a only for masts,. -; or for cloth, or for pigs. . -" JOHN S. KNIGHT Clay Foreign Aid Report Good; Could Be Tougher The Clay report on foreign aid is a belated recognition cf the fact that the United States has been dumping too much money into other lands and petting too little in the way cf tangible results. Gen. Lucius Clay it quoted as saying "a lot of money h a s b e e n wasted in the aid programs ... it's got to be tightened up. To continue giving economic assistance to countries that h a v e d o n e Jittle or noth- KNIGHT ing to help themselves is throwing money away.TM The general"! observations are neither new, nor startling This column has been harping on the same theme for the past decade. But, until recently, anyone who questioned the effectiveness of foreign aid was dubbed an "isolationist."' or worse. "I eta lick any secretary in the boose!'' tff the Spanish-Anerican War in IS3S. The American p e o p l e never krew it at the tim;. but history now shows thit Spain was so anxious to avoid war that it had offered tn t'n-e us Cuba. However. thanks to Cuban "patriots" who were determine to in- - G E N E R A L Woodford. whom I happened to know and who was an honest man, cabled to McKinley within 4S hours that Spain knew Cuba was lost, that sh« was willing to let her go and do everything possibte to placate the United States as rapidly as might be consistent with avoiding revolution in Spain itself. Shortly after that he cabled again that he could secure, before August I, the acquiescence cf Spain in either the Inde- GEN. C L A Y expresses surprise over the number of countries to which w e are giving assistance. "1 didn't realize,- h« said, "how far it had tpread . . . and the amount of aid some are getting in proportion to others. The amount going to Southeast Asia is very high." Why Gen. Clay, who has had long experience with foreign problems, should be surprised by our lavish handouts, is also x surprise to me. The aid to«»!« have been fully publicized -- to- grant abuses of our ;retr- osity. But, as of today, the im-' portant thing is that a Presidential study group it finally conceding that many foreign aid programs are poorly conceived, badly ad- ministered and fail in their objectives. This is a heartening development which should inspire the Congress to take a long, hard look at the prodigality with which we dispense our favors abroad. · · · · SOME editorialists fear that the Clay report may. bring an assault cpon "the principle of foreign aid." Others, such as Walter Lippmann, think the document may provoke unfortunate reactions abroad because "it is peppered with criticisms . . . which could apply to som or all recipients of foreign aid." Actually, there is nothing sacrosanct about the "principle"* because it has already been contorted by its administrators. As the committee has said: "Some aid projects have come into being as gifts to prove our esteem for foreign heads of state, hastily - devised projects to prevent Soviet aid, gtmbtes to maintain existing fjvern- mer.U m power, leverage for political support and similar reasons." THE MARSHALL Plan was a compassionate undertaking to rebuild the war- torn economies of Europe. It succeeded magnificently. But then, foreign aid became a permanent arm of our foreign policy on the theory that our money would make friends and influence people. WeH.it just hasn't worked that way. The United States is cordially disifxcu in a-M'f are** where twr benefactions have been the largest. Prrviiit Sutureo of Indonesia eulogized T h o m a s Jefferson and freedccn of the press, pot a bundle of foreign aid dollars and then j u m p e d into bed w i t h Khrushchev *nd Red China's Mao Tse-tung. Despite official insults, _ our government is currently I arranging a new $62Z5 mil- lion, 40-year loan to Brazil at three-quarters of one per cent interest and no repay-. ments for 10 years. American aid administrator David E. Bell calls the loan "hard-headed"and says it is conditioned on President Joao Goulart's ability to institute financial reforms, curb inflation and streamline Brazil's already, debt-ridden economy. Anyone who is acquainted' with the instability of Bra--" zilian political leaden can tell you how meaningless' these assurances are. There are countless other" examples of how our gener-. osity has been repaid in' counterfeit coin. · · · · In my opinion, the recommendations of Gen. Clay's committee are too restrained. But at least they point the way to fiscal sanity, something we have not seen in Washington for many a year. Gen. Clay is no politician but he said a mouthful when he told Rflrtun Morin «f the Associated Press that the American people won't continue to support foreign aid "if they think their money is being thrown away." Let the administration and Congress take heed. INDEPENDENT _ V. Ertt* C. fioti

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