VOLUME 103-- NO. 28 !D ails TUCSON, ARIZONA, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY I, 1973 F B 1 A 1 f "V f\ ff* I / I N A L S T O C K 52 PAGES--15 CENTS The enemy? -- Citizen Photo^by Manuel Micra i. Burros are targeted as w Illy DOUGLAS KREUTX Cillien Staff WritÂ«r Arizona's; wild burros, leftover's from early mining days and protected from hunters only two years ago, are eating native animals out of house and home, says a member of the national Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board. Charles R. Hungerfbrd says the burros adapted so well to their environment that they are a threat to other animals, consuming large proportions e 'menace' of available food, fouling water sources and permanently damaging some forms of plant life. ' Hungerford said some burros may have to be killed to protect.. the delicate desert ecology. "I would say the. wild burro problem in Arizona is critical . . . and I intend to ask the board to take action on the issue at a meeting next month," he said. Death penalty bills advance Citiitn Phoenix Bureau PHOENIX -- A bill to reestablish the death penalty in Arizona was approved today by the Senate Judiciary committee, and may be debated on the floor this week. The only opposing vote came from Sen. John Scott. Ulm, D-Tucson, who said the intent of the committee "was well-intended, but misdirected." Under the amended bill, the death penalty would be mandatory for murders committed by a person while serving a life sentence; or in connection with rape, kidnaping, robbery, burglary, arson or hijacking; or for the killing of a peace officer, prison guard or fireman acting in the line of duty. The bill also defines all other types of deliberate murder as first-degree murder, and provides a minimum 15 year sentence before parole can be considered. An amendment offered by vSen. Sandra O'Connor, R- Paradise Valley, to provide a three-member panel of judges to pass sentence was defeated wbss committee members feared it would introduce a discretionary clause. The O'Connor amendment was similar to a provision-outlined by Atty. Gen. Gary Nelson, and is included in another death penalty bill in the House. The House Judiciary Committee .today quickly approved the lower chamber's capital punishment bill. It provides the death penalty for basically the same crimes as the Senate bill, but requires automatic review by a three-judge panel of any conviction. Sen. Leo Corbet, R-Phoenix, said that the final version will probably be determined in a joint conference committee., Sen John Roeder, R-Scottsdale, predicted the Senate bill if passed would be found unconstitutional because of a clause providing for a mandatory life sentence in case the death penalty itself is ruled unconstitutional by the courts. The U.S. Supreme Court last June declared that existing death penalty laws were unconstitutional because the punishment was applied in a discretionary manner. Hungerford, a professor of biological sciences at the University of Arizona, explained that the problem is caused in part by a 1971 federal law that imposes stiff penalties -- up to a year in jail and a $2,000 fine -- on persons who harass or shoot burros or remove them from public lands. According to Bureau of Land Management figures, Arizona has about 7,500 of the 10,800 wild burros in the western U.S., and they are reproducing rapidly, he explained. (Some wild burros and horses roam in the Tortolita Mountain area north of Tucson.) It might be possible to limit' the wild burro population by encouraging people to use them as pets or ranch animals, "but I wouldn't leave out the possibility of the killing of some of them by federal agency officials," he said. He explained that the buiTo population used to be controlled by hunters and ranchers who shot them before the federal law was passed. At that time they were considered livestock and people just "looked the other way" when they were killed, he said. But a group of conservationists, led by Wild Horse Annie (Mrs. Velma Johnston) of Nevada, claimed the animals were living symbols of the West and obtained the protective legislation. Hungerford, who was named to the nine-member advisory board last November, said the group is made up of scientists, a veterinarian, ranchers and livestock and wildlife experts. It will meet four times each year, and report to Secretary of the Interior Rogers Morton and Secretary of Agriculture EarlButz. Hungerford said Arizona's wild horse population, estimated at 115, is neither threatened with extinction nor harmful to other animals. Pullout speeds up TROOPS RETURNING AT Fewer than 20,00.0 left in Vietnam SAIGON (UPI) - Six chartered jetliners carried about 1,200 U.S. servicemen home today, dropping American troop strength in Vietnam below the 20,000 mark, the U.S. Command said. Command spokesmen also said the 900-man. U.S. Marine fighter-bomber unit at Bien Hoa, 14 miles northeast of Saigon, had "almost completely gone" by today. The latest withdrawals brought to more than 4,000 the number of Americans who have left- south Vietnam since the declaration of a cease-fire at 7p.m. EST Saturday. Spokesmen, indicated that -withdrawals would continue at the rate of roughly 1,000 a day until all but a "handful of administrative troops have left Vietnam. Until today, the pullout rate had been about 400 per day. It is expected that nearly all U.S. forces will have left Vietnam by March 14, two weeks before the final deadline for American .withdrawal, as de- mancted by the Vietnam treaty tn^ndthe war. -, The, United States began its final phase of withdrawal Sunday with 22,600 men still in Vietnam, the command said. Despite the continued absence of peace supervisors, the level of fighting in South Vietnam continued to drop today for the fourth consecutive day, but officials still reported 143 clashes between government and Communist troops. Saigon officials said latest' casualties in the war raised the post-truce total past 3,300, including 134 Communist troops killed in fights extending in area from the far north to the Mekong Delta near the Cambodian border. There were 406 reported clashes during the first 24 hours of the cease-fire, but the figures have declined daily and officials said peace apparently was taking the place of war. None of the remaining American servicemen is involved in the fighting, U.S. officials said, although some advisers are continuing to ac- Inside Action, Please! 15 Dr. Alvarez 7 Bridge 46 Asa Bushnell 28 Classified 31-40 Comics 51 Crossword Puzzle 50 Deaths 31 Editorial Pages 28, 29 Financial News 48, 49 Focus 15-26 Jumble 11 Ann Landers 29 Regis McAuley 41 Movie Schedule 26 Public Records 47 Richard Salvatierra 29 Don Schellie 15 Sports 41-44 TV-Radio Dials 25 Weather 11 Your Stars 26 company South Vietnamese forces. One of the advisers was wounded Tuesday when- ground fire struck the helicopter in which he was riding. North Vietnamese foress have wiped out an under- strength battalion of South Vietnamese marines trapped with their equipment at the old U.S. Navy base at Cua Viet, just below the Demilitar: ized Zone, field reports said today. UPI correspondent Donald A. Davis said he was told three U.S. Navy gunships were offshore near the old Cua Viet base but did not intervene to help the trapped South Vietnamese because of the cease- fire. Davis said military sources told him the 4th Marine Battalion of about 100 men was lost with "reports of no survivors." More ibickering and confusion among military and civilian officials empowered to arrange supervision of..- the peace by an international team again delayed the start of workin that field. The problem centers on procedural wrangles in the four-party joint military commission, composed of military representatives from the United States, the Viet Cong and North and South Vietnam. Under the terms of the Paris peace agreement, the commission is responsible for arranging transportation and . logistics for the peace supervision teams -- a 1,160-man force sent by Canada, Poland, Hungary and Indonesia. Until details are worked out, the peace supervisors cannot start work in the field. Warmer but windy tomorrow Tomorrow's going To be a charmer: Azure skies and Plenty warmer. --Gen. Lee Fare Tomorrow will be a picture postcard day in Tucson. Only occasional gusts of wind will mar the weather scene. But they will top out at Rain Scoreboard Airport UA Yesterday 01 trace Year to date 08 .01 Normal to date 82 .83 Last year to date 00 trace 15 miles an hour, compared with the 30-40 m.p.h. blasts we've had the past three days. The temperature should reach at least. 65 degres, compared with yesterday's high of 58. Clear nights will keep the overnight low in the vicinity of this morning's 33 degrees. The probability of rain is zero. The National Weather Service at Tucson International Airport recorded .01 of an inch yesterday. Fon WMffw repvrt twin II 'We'll chase them to SAN FRANCISCO r (AP) -- Federal collectors .are tracking down 9,OOQ.jornisr "students who owe millions; of dollars in payments on government-insured loans. About 2,500 young men and women already have been traced by a special three-man team working in the four-state region of California, Arizona, Nevada and Hawaii. "We will chase the rest to their graves to collect if necessary," said Henry Goltz,- a team member at the Health, Education and Welfare Department regional headquarters.- The loan program, started in 1907,.has allowed each student to borrow up to $1,500 a year to help pay college costs. The loan limit will rise to $2,500 a year starting in March. Through 1972, California students had taken ' out 473,000 loans totaling $463 million, Goltz said. He estimated a total of $15 million is in default and another $2-million is uncollectible because of disability, death, or bankruptcy. Most of tite loans are not yet due and pay: able; Students are not required to "start repayment until nine months after graduation. Frank Speriing,.Bank of America vice pres- graves ident, reported the bank has loaned $142 million to more than 100,000 students as the program's largest participant in California. He estimated the default rate on the federally-insured loans at about 8 per cent, compared with one-fourth, of 1 per cent on commercial banMoans. Sperling questioned whether, Congress was . wise in boosting the annual loan,limit from $1,500 to $2,500. "If two students get married with maximum loans, that means they could begin their lives together with $20,000 in outstanding debts that are payable in 10 years," he said. '"A student has honest intentions. But what happens if he gets out of school and doesn't get a job right away? "It's a problem." Goltz said 80 per cent of the 1 students his collectors find "acknowledge the debt the minute we contact them."-He said 80 per cent begin making repayments. , "The way the economy has been, many of them have been having trouble finding jobs," he said. ' . Extension of deadline on clean air ruled out WASHINGTON (AP) - The federal appeals court here has ordered the Environmental Protection Agency to rescind the two-year extensions granted to 18 states -- including Arizona -- for complying with air pollution limits. The order means that all states must meet federal clean air standards by May 31, 1975, instead of 1977 as the extensions would have allowed. The court order left open, however,, the possibility that the extensions might be renewed if they are found to be justified after careful planning and close scrutiny. The heaviest impact of the decision falls upon urban areas where pollution from automobile exhaust is a problem. The difficulty of improving mass transit systems and curbing auto emissions by 1975 was the chief factor in EPA's decision last May to grant the extensions. The two-year extensions, now ordered rescinded, had been granted for parts of Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah and Washington. One week after they were granted, the extensions were challenged in a lawsuit filed by the Natural Resources Defense Council, a citizen environment group. In its decision, the court said EPA administrator William D. Ruckelshaus "acted in the best of faith," but nevertheless "he did not conform to the strict requirements of the Clean Air Act of 1970..." The court ordered Ruck"- elshaus to: --Rescind the Feb. 15, 1973, extension for submission of transportation control plans. --Rescind the extensions to May 31,1977, for implementation of clean-air plans. --Inform the states they must submit complete cleanup plans by April 15, 1973, de- KSSSSSSSSS signed to achieve the federal clean air standard for protecting human health "in no case later than May 31,1975." --Approve or disapprove these plans within two months after the April 15 submission deadline. --Write his own regulations to substitute for any missing or disapproved portions of state plans, within four months after the April 15 deadline. Arizona task 'impossible' Arizona's health commissioner said today the order to rescind extensions of clean-air deadlines "has given the EPA and the states an impossible task." "We have justified our need for a two-year extension and the EPA has approved it," said Louis C. Kossuth. "On the time schedules that have been established, it just won't be possible to meet the federal standards." To achieve standards by the new deadline, Kossuth said, it would be necessary to make changes in Arizona's clean air implementation plan. Those changes can be made only after public hearings and thorough consideration of hearing testimony -- proceedings which could take several months, he added. He said the state can take no immediate action on the court ruling because all the ramifications of the ruling still are not clear. "It takes two or three days to shake the clinkers out of these things and see what was said," he explained. "In the meantime, we are taking a good hard look at things." Arthur Aymar, director of the state's air pollution control division, said the ruling "kind of pulls the rug out from under us." There will be a problem especially in the area of automobile exhaust emission control. "As far as hydrocarbons are concerned, we won't have any problem, but we do have a problem with oxides of hydrogen and carbon monoxide," Aymar said. State Health Board Chairman Ben T. Dibble was out of town and could not be reached for comment.
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