Arizona Daily Star from Tucson, Arizona on May 31, 1945 · Page 1
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Arizona Daily Star from Tucson, Arizona · Page 1

Tucson, Arizona
Issue Date:
Thursday, May 31, 1945
Page 1
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U. S. WEATHER BUREAU Sfaflf An Independent NEWSpaper Printing the News Impartially OOBy JJ ' ... perature. Temperature Hieh 2 High S2 Low., 57 Low. ......61 year Ao: VOL. 104 NO. 151 Entered a tecofxl-elass matter. Pom Office. Tucson. Arizona TUCSON, ARIZONA, THURSDAY MORNING, MAY 31, 1945 FOURTEEN PAGES PRICE FIVE CENTS mm YOUTH TRAINING FOR YEAR URGED FOR SURE PEACE Editor In Dallas Cjjes Tragic Cost In Lives Of Pacifist Trend DALLAS, Tex., May 30. (America "offered encouragement to aggression" when it failed to maintain strong outposts such as Guam, the Philippines and Alaska, r'illiam R. Mathews, editor and publisher of the Arizona Daily Star, Tucson, Ariz., de clared here today. "We have only to look at this var to see the shocking cost In lves and money of our traditional military unprcpareriness," Mathews aaifl in an address before the Dallas Rotarv flub. Pacifism Invited Our pacifism has unfortunately been mistaken for weakness and loftness," he asserted. "It has n-vitprl attack and encouraged contempt for our peaceful intentions. "O u r apparent reasonableness, our persistence and patience in exhausting every means to settle a dispute by peaceful procedure, has misled others into thinking we. would not fight indeed, that we could not fight, even when we were attacked. "The weakness of . . . (our) outposts encouraged aggressors to scorn our words of caution. Consequently we have been compelled to fight a long-drawn-out war. It has taken us three years of Intensive preparation before we could engage the main armies of our enemies. Vonth Training "If we revert, to a state of un-preparedness after this war, a.s we did after the former one, we will make the same mistake. Our en-emlps will not be kept disarmed. We will lack the zcnl to cooperate In the maintenance of peace, we "will lack the force to discourage ,aggressors, because they will know our weakness." Mathews spoke as a member of the citizens committee for military training for youngmen In support mf a federal system of one year's universal military training for the young men of the nation. "The purpose of this program." h said, "Is mainly training for national defense. It is not advocated as a means of providing education, better health, or alleviating social or economic ills. . I'rgp Onp-Yenr Service "Only because the future security of our nation requires it should we urge thi.s program of training. If there Is any less expensive, less disruptive, more practical plan under which our future security would be assured, we should adopt that plan and definitely decline to ssiiime burdens of universal mlll-tarv training. "Our plan." Mathews explained, "rails for one year of training of all young men when they graduate from high school, or when they become IS years of age. That will allow voimij men who are not gotng to co'lfe to put in their one year of training and then go ahead In their life work, with their period of militarv training behind them. "It 111 allow young men who are fnin? to roMesje to get. their period of training over with and go . on wi'h their college work and post- rnllece life without rupi ion. fear of pro- longed in'ei XP SUICIDE JABS SLOW BURMA PUSH C.U.n "TTA. May 30.- (JV) Si'.l-riiiai Japanese charges slowed the advance of the Nineteenth Indian Hi vision today on the Toungoo-Mawchi road north of Rangoon as the niemv fought desperately to Wp open the escape route into Tahiland. Kmpitv forces have advanced 12 mil.'S east of Toungoo along the road after several weeks of bitter fight ititr. In the intermediate area northwest of Pegu trapped Japanese concentrations were consolidating. fVgn Is 4 ? miles northeast of Rangoon. The Japanese still hold a bridgehead across the lrrawaddv river north of Prome, and have made 'pveral futile attempts to break out and escape eastward but each assault has been beaten hack bv the semh Indian Division. Surprise SHAEF Order Ends 31 o s t Censorship In E nrope ' i, .1 P R n M K HEADQUARTERS I rLIED EXPEDITIONARY I 0RCE. Paris, Mav 30 (VP) Su- rreme headquarters "announced to- na-that censorship in the Euro- 1 h!an ,hoatpr of operations had I wen discontinued "except for ma- f Jor ,rwp movements and details t ronnected therewith and such other matters of hjph military impor- l jance as may require reference to t U1!. supreme commander." I The terse directive was handed -n. from advanced supreme head- f j tters and surprised the censors P wemsdves as much as the cor- respondents, for both had been told f n SHAEF censorship jbranch pfcte1 to maintain a measure of I ntrol over all news sent from i "heater for sometime. : E VI0US directives, which ap- t mhh inim,aiatelv- after V-E Day, I "a fr censoring all copy for r mgs as inaccuracv and "re- i Qf,lkply to injure the morale tn Allied forces or the relations VETERANS OF V 0& Sryv.-ni VIA Av: i Four-year old Betty Jo Pacheco iIaces a wreath at Evergreen Cemetery, during Memorial Day services, in memory of her father, Pvt. Robert M. Pacheco, who was killed In action in (Jerniany, February -1. Looking on .ire veterans of four major wars. Left to right, they are Wilson M. Koush, World War I; Set. Harry I. Bliss, World War II, veteran of the African and Italian campaigns; Joe Murray, Spanish-American War; and Francis Mengoz, 105-year old Civil War veteran. Others are Irene Pacheco, Betty Jo's 8-year old sister, and Mrs. Louise E. Young, with whom Mengoz makes his home. (Sam Levitz photo) U. N. MAY TAKE VOTE FROM ANY NON-PERFORMER Penalty For Failing To Assist Armed Force Being Considered By IOl'LAS B. CORNELL SAN FRANCISCO, May 30. (IV) The loss of " voting rights may be the price of refusal of any United Nation to support a new world -league with its military resources. This possibility developed at the United Nations conference today when a committee reported to its parent commission that this penalty Is under consideration and may be adopted. The bulk of the committee report, recommending some of the structure and procedure for a projected general assembly of all nations in the world organization, was approved almost automatically at the second public meeting of a conference commission. Russia, however, blocked acceptance of a formula for electing the top administrative officer of the world organization, explaining she h,ad taken the matter Hp with the conference steering committee and wanted action deferred pending a reply. As nine working committees ground ahead on the job of drafting various portions of a charter for the .world organization, it became known that: Would Quote Charter 1. The American delegation Is leaning toward the idea of including in this charter terms of the Atlantic Charter's promises of access by all nations,, "on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their, economic prosperity." 2. Denmark, apparently assured of a belated invitation to the conference falile, has three delegates scheduled to arrive here tomorrow. They are Hcnrick Kauffmann. minister to Washington, and Hartvig Srisch and K. Husfeldt. 3. French desires to maintain (1) a Franco-Soviet pact aimed at Germany and (2) her independence of action in Europe have given added weight to an old issue of regional security. Britain, Riiia Collide 4. Britain and Russia have collided head on over a Soviet desire to eliminate from a plan for international rule of dependent and strategic areas a declaration that trusteeships should not apply to (Continued on Page 5, Column 1) between the Allied Nations" despite the cessation of hostilities. Censorship officials here were not able immediately to explain the change in plans. Col. George Warden, head of SHAEF censorship, and Lt. Col. Richard H. Merrick, his first assistant. loth were in Germany. -Although the announcement was issued, SHAEF said, "to clarify the position of this headquarters." it failed to explain -what matters would be considered of such importance as to require reference to Eisenhower.' ' More than 300" censors had been aligned to the European theater about half of them at SHAEF but a number of them have been transferred to other posts. The status of the remainder probably w ill not be altered by today's announcement since all press cojpy will require will still scrutiny for matters censor- able. FOUR WARS HONOR Tucson Pays Tribute To War Dead Of U. S. Judge Evo De Concini Pleads For World Peace, With No More Rites Before 'Fresh Graves,' In Ceremony At Evergreen Cemetery By DOROTHY KAL1L "To those men and women who have gone to their great reward, and whose memories we shall never forget ... we owe the great duty of seeing that they shall not have died in vain.", . Thus, Judge Evo de Concini, speaking before several thousand Tucsonans .at , the Memorial ;Day services NATION PAUSES TO MOURN ITS MILITARY DEAD Americans In All Parts Of World Pay Tribute To U S. War Heroes By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Americans everywhere at home, in the now quiet European war areas and in the faraway Pacific battle theaters paused yesterday to mourn the military dead of this and past wars. Parades, religious services and simple holiday ceremonies marked the observance of the 77th Memorial day throughout the nation while overseas thousands of fighting men and women attended special services or visited where their fallen comrades lie. Manv war plants, their sights fixed on victory over Japan, j w-orked as usual as did most gov-j ernment offices. ; Onlv a handful of the 240 remain- ing Civil War veterans were able ! to join in celebrating the day! which was inaugurated in honor of their dead comrades. AVreaths Placed on Tombs Wreaths, were placed on tne tombs of the Unknown Soldier of World War I in London. Paris and in Arlington National Cemetery. At Hyde Park. N. Y., where two small children reverently laid a wreath of spring flowers on the grave of the late Franklin D. Roosevelt. Postmaster General Frank C. Walksr said of the former commander-io-chief: "Rarely in history have whole neoples so taken from one man's fire and flame of courage. From the depths of defeat this man led the nations of the world to victory." Massed about the grave were many floral tributes. Including one from President Truman. Buglers sounded the solemn notes of taps over the graves of the dead throughout the European battle zones as soldiers silently placed American flags and flowers in military cemeteries. In Washington. Congress remained in session and most government offices were open. 24 DEATHS OCCUR ON MEMORIAL DAY By THE ASSOCIATED TRESS The nation celebrated its safest Memorial Day in many years yes-terdav (Wednesday).. , Onlv 24 fatalities had, been recorded as last midnight approached, There were 327 death' last' year, when the observance lasted four davs. Because Memorial Day came in the middle of the week this year, however, activities were confined generally to one day. . The average peacetime loss of life for May 30 was 400. SOLDIER DEAD yesterday at Evergreen Cemetery, reminded them of the debt the nation owes its fighting men. Standing before the Spanish-American plot, where the opening services were held, Judge de Concini addressed a group that included veterans of four major wars, the Civil War, whose lone representative was 10.y ear-old Francis Mengoz; the Spanish-American War, and the two World Wars. Dwelling on the lessons that we should have taken from the past two wars and the one against Japan, which still rages, the speaker declared that the "peace complications as ramified as they are, can, must and will bo worked out to the salva"tion and betterment of mankind." Seeking Better Way . He called for faith in the future, citing the recent conferences of the Big Three, the Bret on-Woods conference, the Dumharton Oaks conference, and the San Francisco conference as evidence that the world is striving for a better way al living. Pointing out the difference between this and other Memorial Days. Judge de Concini stressed the fact that, this year, bereavement is new in the hearts of mam'. "Today is really a Memorial Da v. May we never stand again before fresh graves as a vesult of a war. (Continued on Tage 5, Column 2) POINTS RAISED ONFATTYPORKS Move Made To Forestall Diversion Of Meats For Lard Making WASHINGTON, May P.O. (JP) A further shrinkage in the civilian meat supply in June about seven per rent below May was forecast tonight by the OPA. which simultaneously announeed higher point values for fat pork. OPA said the hike of one to -three points ' in pork cuts such a. fat-backs and plate cuts, effective June 3, is being made to prevent the diversion of these meats info lard. Except for point reductions in certain types of cheese, other red point values will be unchanged. Lard, shortening and salad and cooking oil will remain at 10 points a pound, the value assigned to them in the- emergency action in mid-May, when values were increased two points. Fatbacks. clear and regular plates were increased three points a pound making the new value eight points, the same as for regular bacon, which remains unchanged: bacon (breakfast plate) was increased three points to eight points, and pork sides (aged and dry-cured) one point to a nine-point value. The only other change in red point values involved cheeses in group 3. These cheeses, motIv soft, perishable types, will require only; six points a pound, a decrease of two points. Group threp includes limburger. camembert and Leiderkxanz. DAMAGED NAVY SHIPS TIED UP BY LACK OF MEN Repair Yards Suffer From Slack-Offs; U. S. Offers Job Inducements WASHINGTON, May 30. (IP) With the Japanese stepping up their aerial attacks as the war approaches their shores, the United States Navy gravely announced today that the home front "battle of ship repairs" is not progressing satisfactorily. Naval leaders called an unusual news conference to make known that they are worried. They said workers are quitting their jobs in West Coast repair yards in the face of existing manpower shortages and growing work loads. Navy Losses Heavy Only the necessity for keeping valuable information from the enemy, it was emphasized, prevented recitation of facts and, figures to back up the urgent appeal of the department's heads for shipyard workers to stay on the job and for others to answer the call. In lieu of any precise disclosure of numbers of ships involved. Secretary Forrestal cited that 4,270 personnel of naval supporting forces were killed or missing in action in the battle- for Okinawa between March 15 and May 23, compared " with 5,332 for the ground forces in the same action. Admiral Frederick J. Home, vice chief of naval operations, commented that it could easily be seen "what that must mean in ship damage." Repairs Take Time Specifically, the department heads revealed that some S300.000,-000 in new ship construction, originally scheduled for the West Coast, had been transferred, to the East Coast to release facilities for ship repairs; That it would take nine months to get the damaged carrier Franklin back into action; That some cruisers would require six months and some destroyers three months. That destroyers, intended for overhaul after 40,000 miles, are now operating after 240,000 miles without overhaul; That,, the Mare Island, Califs rtavy yard was 9,00 workers short arid lost 600 Viet last month despite widespread recruiting drives and intense efforts to keep workers; Puget Sound, Wash., navy yard was 5,000 short and lost 600 net last month; Hunters Point, Calif., naval dry docks was 0,000 short and lost 700 net; and "the situation is comparable in private yards." Plead For Workers In an effort to solve the problem, the navy at the urgent request of Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz, Pacific fleet commander-in-chief, obtained blanket deferment of skilled workers in west coast yards, gave priority in repair work over new construction, and agreed to provide transportation and subsistence to workers recruited in the east and mid-west. CHINESE DRIVE NEARS LIUCHOW Former American Airbase Believed Set On Fire By Fleeing Japs CHUNGKING, May 30 (Chinese veterans, hot on the heels of Japanese forces reportedly pulling out of South China, ripped along a 50-mile front tonight toward the great former American air base city of Liuchow, now swept by fires. Battering seven miles through Japanese fortifications. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek's battle groups reached the outskirts of the fortified Japanese stronghold of Ishan, 43 miles vest of Liuchow, while the Japanese reportedly evacuated points only 3S miles northwest. Great Fires Raging Great fires were reported raging in the Kwangsi province rail hub as the Japanese garrison apparently put the torch to the city yesterday in preparation for an abandonment, believed planned as part of a general Japanese withdrawal from all South China. Chungking was flooded with reports that the Japanese were pulling out of South China and planning to evacuate strategic Liuchow following the Chinese capture of Yungning (Nanning). Yungning's fall, cut Japan's primary supply highway to Indo-China, running through the enemy's transcontinental corridor from Korea to southeast Asia. Liuchow Key City But Chinese minister.' of information. Dr. Wang Shih-Chieh. warned that although Japan's land bridge to Singapore definitely had been cut. there was no indication that enemv troops in South China j would puli out without a desptrate fight. ' i Liuchow is tne greatest Key in enemy, communications in South China. While its recapture would strengthen American air power in the area, Chinese seizure of the city also would shatter the last tepous links the Japanese still have bv land with Indo-China. Burma, Thailand, and Malaya. It is the junction of the important north-south Hunan-Kwangsi railroad and the east-west Kwangi-Kweiyang (Kewichow) railroad.. YANKS RAISE U. S. FLA G JN SHURI, ENCIRCLE JAPS; FRENCH ACTS IRK BRITISH Cabinet Meets Session On Eden Informs Commons That French-Arab Breach Has Caused Serious Loss Of Life'; Concern Felt By U. S. Government, Says Grew LONDON, May 30. (TP) Foreign Secretary Eden told Commons tonight that the British cabinet was in emergency session on the warlike situation in the battle-torn Syrian capital of Damascus where he said French-Arab fighting had caused "a serious loss of life and destruction of SEEK TO SPIKE WAR-BORN BOOM IN FAR1REALTY Values Up As Much As 52 Since 1939; Suggest Several Curbs WASHINGTON, May 30. (IP) The administration was reported tonight to be serious ly considering proposals de signed to prevent further war time advances in prices of farm and urban real estate. One of the proposals pending in the Office of Economic stabilization would require purchasers to make down pay ments of at least 35 per cent of the purchase price of farms and urban residential property., Officials close to the" OES said the matter may be passed along to War Mobihzer bred M. Vinson and subsequently to President Truman. Farm Values Up 52 Proposals for government action along this line have bobbed up in government circles several times in the last, two years. One. pi the first to.urge gftverjiment curb.Qn iarm saies xor speculative purposes was Secretary of Agriculture Claude R. Wickard. Latest agriculture departement reports show that farm land values have increased 52 per cent above 1935-3!) levels. Likewise.urban residential property has increased as much as 75 and 100 per cent in war production centers. Wickard's first plea for action was made in 1013 in a speech warning against a repetition of the land boom during World War I -which later helped bring on the flisas-trous farm depression of the late twenties and thirties. Suggest Licensing The secretary suggested several means of curbing land transfers. They included (1) A licensing plan requiring prospective owners to obtain, a purchase permit from a local committee; (2) A resale capital gains tax on the profit derived from the speculative purchase and resale of farm land: (3) Ceiling prices on land; and (4) Limita; tlons on the amount of mortgage credit which might be advanced against a farm. . The present unprecedented demand for farm products and the existence of surplus spending power are said by farm officials to be encouraging many persons to buy land at inflated prices. ' WAR CRIMINALS TRIALS NEARER Jackson Returns To U. S. For Conference, Eden Reports 'Progress LONDON. May 30. W Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden said to- day that "very great progress" had been made in arranging for trials of German war criminals as a result of conversations with Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson, special United States prosecutor. Jackson, after completing a preliminary two-day survey of the work of the war crimes commis-sion here and talking with Allied officials on the Continent, left for consultations in Washington. He said he hoped to return "in about two weeks with a sufficient staff to carry out his share of the work involved." . the trials. t V Eden, sparring with Commons members who demanded to know whether the Allies had agreed upon essentia! arrangements for , the trials of Hermann Goering and others, would say only that there had been "most useful consultations with Judge Jackson in the last few days that have resulted in very ' great progress being made." Although there was no official confirmation, it was "understood that Nazi war criminals had been classified in these three categories: 1. Those whose crimes cover more than one country such as Goering and Rudolf Hess. 2. Those who have been accused by only one country. 3. Tnoce regarded as renegades or traitors such as William (Lord Haw Haw) Joyce and Vidkun Quisling, who will be tried under the laws of their native lands. In Emergency Damascus Crisis property. With the situation in the Levant "greatly deteriorated," Eden said his government was "in actual communication with the United States government." In Washington Acting Secretary of State Joseph C. Grew said "developments in Syria and Lebanon In recent days are causing the United States government deep concern. We are employing every means to assist in finding a peaceful solution and preventing further bloodshed and disorder." French Attack City Eden disclosed that "there has been considerable shelling of Damascus" as Associated Press Correspondent Frank O'Brien reported from the Syrian capital that the French were pouring almost unceasing machine-gun. mortar and artillery fire into the cily. O'Brien said the French also were bombing the ancient capital. Rushing from an emergency session of the cabinet, Eden told commons sharply: "The British government deplores these events." Eden said that the British cabinet was considering "action that may be required as a consequence" of the outbreaks. After his statement in Commons, the foreign secretary rushed back to the cabinet meeting which lasted well into the night. French Criticized Eden's - disclosure of gunplay brought outbursts of protests from members of parliament, who jumped tip in rapid succession to criticize French policy in the Levant and v to- 'demand "stern JsttVp's" " By the British government. "It is time they were told quite straight where to get off," angrily declared R. R. Stokes, a Laborite. The Syrian and Lebanese legations in London said that the French had bombarded Damascus all last night. The intervention of (Continued on Page 5, Column 5) Kai - shek Quits Premier's Post CHUNGKING Thursday, May .31. (P) Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek resigned today as president of executive Yuan (premier) and was succeeded by Acting Premier T. V. Soong. Elevation of Soong to the full premiership raised the probability he might attend, any impending meeting of the Big Five leaders (China, France, Russia, United States and Great Britain). It also would give htm greater face if he makes an expected visit to Moscow on his way back to China from the San Francisco conference. ' Wong Weh Hao. minister of -economic affairs and head of China's war production board, was -appointed vice premier, succeeding H. II. Kung. The appointment probably was a reward for his' labors as head of the Chinese WPB. Chiang's relinquishment of the position of premier to Soong did not affect the former's position as president of China and the head of the state. , Iran Demands U. S., Britain And Russia Withdraw Troops ' TEHERAN, May 30. VPy With the European war ended. Iran has demanded that the United States, Britain and Rusia live up to their agreement to remove all troops from the country, it was announced today. The tripartite treaty by which Allied forces operated in Iran stipulated that they would leave within six months after hostilities ceased, and Iranian authorities viewed the period as dating from the German surrender. - Foreign Minister Sepahbodf told the Iranian parliament thai Identical notes had been sent to the Big Three Allied powers. . "We demand that in view of cessation of European hostilities and in order to restore a normal situation in this country, British, American and Russian troops evacuate Iran," he reported. Russian and British troops entered the rich bil country of Iran NEARLY ALL OF RUINED OKINAWA CAPITAL SEIZED On Opposite East Flank Infantry Takes Hill Above Yonawa By LKIF ERICKSOX GUAM, Thursday, May 31. - (IP) Leathernecks of the First Marine Division raised the American flag over Okinawa's Shuri Castle at 1:45 p. m. yesterday. Old Glory went up as marines on the west flank and doughboys on the east moved to encircle Japanese survivors in the moated medieval fortress. Adm. Chester W. Nimitz reported today that marines of MaJ. Gen. Pedro A. Del Valle's First Division strengthened and built up their positions in the castle ruins, first reached Tuesday in a swift dash by company A of the Fifth Regiment. On the west flank, MaJ. Gen. Iemuel C. Shepherd Jr.'s Sixth Marine Division veterans pushed southeastward from occupied Naha toward the Kokuba river, which empties into Naha harbor. Nearly all of Naha, blasted capital of Okinawa, is in Yank hands. On the east flank MaJ. Gen. Archibald V. Arnold's Seventh Infantry Division, driving westward, captured high ground near the town of Yonawa, near American-held Yonabaru harbor. Enemy Leaving Shtirl The objective on both flanks li to close a circle about a mile south of Shuri Castle to compress the enemy garrison ordered to hold the fortress. Many troops and civilians have been observed leaving Shuri for points south. The most westerly patrols of th Seventh Infantry Division wera near Chan, about a mile due south of Shu'-i. Forward flcminiis n the Seventh Infantry and the Sixth Marine Divisions were only about two miles from an encircling linkup. Capture of high ground neaf Yonawa- served to broaden lh seventh infantry holdings along tin east roast. Advance units wer more than two miles west of thu town. i Continue Resistance Northeast, of Shuri Castle, roek walled fortress which housed th 6th century kings of the Ryuykux, the Japanese continued fanatical resistance against the 77th and 96th Infantry Divisions. i Strong combat patrols of the First Marine Division were reported probing through the western sector of Shuri town, which, like Naha, was reduced to rubble in the weeks-long American pounding from land, sea and air. Mud and rain Ftlll hampered, ground operations and posed a severe supply problem for forward elements. Nimitz said the poor flyins weather reduced Japanese aircraft activity. Several isolated raids were made Tuesday, resulting in damage to two light units of the American fleet. Eight Japanese planes were shot down during the day. Carrier planes attacked targets in the Sakishima group of the southern Ryukyus and the AmamI islands in the northern part of the chain on Tuesday. Search planes of Fleet. Air Win One sank or damaged three small cargo ships in Korean waters .Tuesday night and Wednesday. A twin-engined transport plane was shot down near Honshu island by a naval search plane of Fleet Air Wing 18. Tenth Army troops exploiting the collapse of the Japanese line on areas today with the south coast of the island in sight. ' The Seventh Infantry Division's thrust southward from Ozato Mura heights, combined with the dramatic dash into Shuri Castle bv Fifth Regiment units of, the First Marine Division, heightened the pace . . , . ., t . t . i .i . clinging mud. September 19, '1041, : after joint notes had been sent to the Iranian government protesting against the activities of Nazi agents In the country. Reza Shah Pahlavi rejected the protests and refused to surrender or expel all Axis nationals. He abdicated September 16 in favor of his son, Shaphur Mohammed Reza, and three days later British and Russian armies drove in from the north and south.: ; . ' .. , "Americans ' joined 'in sending forces to Iran in 1942, when lend-; lease supplies began moving across Iran to Russia, and for the next two years a stream of tanks, trucks, and antiaircraft poured into the Soviet Union by the Persian Gulf route. The Big Three meeting at'Teher-ran in 1943 pledged post-war economic aid to Iran and agreed upon the "maintenance, sovereignty and territorial Integrity of Iran."

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