New-York Tribune from New York, New York on June 29, 1919 · Page 16
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New-York Tribune from New York, New York · Page 16

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The World's Five-Year Struggle With the Hun ?Q1A? M0* ?hrtStarte?W arf ireb limo OR 1Q1Q? hace Treaty Signed at Versailles; p 1*7 it m Archduke Francis Killed by Serbian uU/lC _?iO?j JLU1U ? Germany's "Tag" Comes to Pass Five Months Spent at Paris Drafting Treaty The peace treaty of Versailles is the fruit of about five months of confer? ences in which delegations from thirty two Allied countries and Germany par ticirated. The five leading nations, the United States, Great Britain, France, Italy and Japan, were represented in the peace conferences at Paris by five delegates each, v/hile the delegations of other nations and British dominions were composed of from one to three men. The representatives of the United States were President Wilson, Secre? tary of State Robert Lansing, Henry White, formerly American Ambassador at Reme and Paris; Colonel Edward M. House and General Tasker IL Bliss. Georges Clemenceau, Premier of France, was chairman of the peace con? ference. At first a Supreme Council, or coun? cil of ten, was organized so as to in? clude two representatives each from tiroat Britain, France, the United States, Italy and Japan. Subsequently this council was divided into tv/o parts - -a council of four, composed of Presi? dent Wilson and Premiers Lloyd George, Clemenceau and Orlando, and a council of Foreign Ministers. Convened Officially January 18 The conference of the Allied dele- ; g?tions convened officially on January : IS to draw up the terms to be sub- ! mitted when completed to the German ' delegation. President Wilson had ar? rived in France on December 13 after visiting England, Italy and parts of France. One of the first acts of the confer? ence was to send a proposal to all I Russian factions to meet on the Prince's Islands to endeavor to com- I pose the Russian internal situation, but this plan was rejected by the Rus? sians. Various factions which were disputing over territory in different sections of Europe were directed by the peace conference to discontinue their conflicts. The first step toward the actual drafting of the treaty occurred on j January 24, when the conference agreed In the plan for organization of a ? league of nations and a committee was ? appointed to draw up a covenant. By j January 30 the conference had adopted the plqn of governing colonies and backward nations through mandatories issued to various nations, subject to the direction and approval of the league of nations. League Covenant Completed The covenant of the league of na? tions was completed on February 14. On the following day President Wilson left France for the United States. He returned to Fiance, arriving there March 13. in his absence the council i>f ten had continued its work, despite an attempt to assassinate Premier Clemenceau. A report of the International Labor Legislation Committee was adopted ?April 11. Reparation demands to be made on Germany were approved April i4 and the Germans were invited on 'April 16 to send their delegation to Versailles to receive the treaty. The peace conference next consid ered the treaty with Austria. The Italian delegation insisted upon ob? taining control of the formerly Aus? trian city of Fimno, but on April 23 President Wilson gave out a state? ment that Fiume could not be given to Italy. On the next day Premier Or? lando returned to Rome and for more than a week thereafter the Italian del? egates were absent, but returned on May 7 in time to participate in the conference with the German delegates. A revised covenant of the league of nations intended to conform in respect to the Monroe Doctrine to objection raised in America was adopted by the peace connferece on April 2S. Geneva was selected as the seat of the league. Shantung Disposed Of. Shantung was disposed of on April 30 when the council of three voted to | turn it over to the Japanese on assur? ances that it would be given later to the Chinese. The German peace plenipotentiaries, headed by Count Brockdorff-Rantzau, arrived in Versailles and presented their credentials to the Allied dele? gates on May L . The peace treaty was presented to the Germans at Versailles on May 7. the anniversary of the sinking of the Lusitania, and an official summary of the treaty was made public that day. It was also announced that the United States and Great Britain had pledged aid to France against possible future German aggression? The manner in which th;; Germans received the treaty waj described vas insolent. Numerous German leader:? declared they would not sign it, and a week of mourning was decreed by the German government, but the decree went virtually unheeded. Thereafter the German delegates sui mitted various notes to the council of four asking for concessions or crit? icising the terms proposed in the treaty a-, submitted to them. On May 16 it was announced that the German treaty would become effective when ratified by Germany and three of the Allied or Associated Powers. The German reply to the first form of the peace treaty was presented to the Allied loge?tes on May 28, and this was followed by several German cou v. ter- proposals. Meanwhile the Austrian delegates had arrived at St. Germain, and on June 2 the terms of the peace treaty with Au -tria as drawn by the Allies were i ubvnitted to them. enoiA?i feto. gar. lar. Apr. Apr. Apr. gay ?'?y liay ???HO ? "? ?Uly Jf-ly July Aug. Aug. Aug. Sapt, Sapt, 8?pt, Oet. OOt. 0?t. Sow, 31 20 21 90 10 20 30 10 20 30 10 20 30 10 20 30 10 20 SO 10 20 30 10 20 80 11 L r?chen KliTOH >6MtRlOrf -.?~D lM'0?0?0%0000S?g0. 'SM^S/S/S/A?..V* ys/xsyAucs/y/////^ Per e?n< of front Un* held by ?a*h army ?tarin* 1018. The Kalian troop? ar? lacla??? wlttiMhe Kreach and the Port ti?*?-?* with ifc? Brlllah. The Cost in Lives r/G(//t?S W r/fOOtSANOS # ? $ if \* *vy * ? ><* ?ni *: * SATT?? ??AT/fS ar/l/?M/?$ ?A/6A6?? /# Arsj&vr WAR ZS8Z,000 _ Thonsands off men killed la action and died off wound?. The Cost in Ships Oreat Britain Horway Franca Italy United State? Greece Monat Holland Sweden Gernany B?sala Spain Japan Portugal Bolgiua Brasil Austria Others 7,757 390 1 205 1201 1167 lies 1168 B 120 | 93 U i? I? !" Thousands off srasi ton? off merchant shipping lost through acts ot war. 50 Important Dates of the War 1914 June 28?Archduke Francis Ferdinand ?f Austria and his wife murdered in Sera je vo. July 28?Austria declared war on Serbia. August 1?Germany declared war on Russia and invaded Luxemburg. August 3?Germany declared war on France. August 4?Germany invaded Belgium. Great Britain declared war on Ger? many. PresWent Wilson proclaimed neutrality of the United States. August 21?Battle of Mons-Charleroi. Retreat to the Marne begins. August 28?British fleet defeated Germans off Helgoland. September 6?Battle of the Marne began, lasting five days. Germans started retreat to the Aisne. December 24?German airplanes made first raid on England. 1915 February 4?Germany proclaimed submarine blockade of British Isles. February 19?Allied navies began attack on the Dardanelles and Gallipoli ^ campaign, abandoned after ten months. April 17?British line held in Second Battle of 'Ypres, despite use of poison gas for^first time in history of warfare. May 2?Russians beaten in the Battle of the Dunajec, the greatest" of the war on the Eastern Front. May 7?Cunard liner Lusitania sunk by a German submarine, with 1,154 lives lost. May 23?Italy renounced Triple Alliance and declared war on Austria-Hungary. 1916 February 21--Crown Prince began assault on Verdun, lasting five months. His losses heavy and gains smalL May 31?British navy met Germans in battle of Jutland. July 1?Allies attacked in First Battle of the Somme, but failed to break German lines. 1917 January 31?Germany announced beginning of unrestricted submarine warfare. February 3?United States severed diplomatic relations with Germany. March 11?Revolution in Russia began. March 17?German retreat to Hindenburg line began. April 6?United States declared war on Germany. May 15?Italian drive began on Isonzo front. June 26?First United States troops landed in France. October 24?Italians '.eaten in the Battle of Caporetto, being forced to re? treat to the Piave. November 7?Bolsheviki overthrew Kercnsky government. November 22?General Byng, using tanks for first time, routed Germans in Battle of Cambrai, but failed to hold advantage. First American troops engaged. December 7?United States declared war on? Austria-Hungary. 1918 March 3?Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed. March 21?Germans began drive in Picardy on fifty-mile front. British front broken temporarily near Cambrai. March 29?General Foch named commander in chief of the Allied armies. April 22?-Zeebrugge blocked by British. May 27?German offensive forced Allies back to within forty miles of Par?3. Germans reached the Marne. July 18--Americans and French defeated Germans in the Second Battle of the Marne. September 3?Germans began flight from France, Allies advancing on 100-mile front. September 13?Americans and French under Pershing eliminated St. Mihiel salient. September 19?Allies smashed Hindenburg line. September 26?United States troops launched Argonne d.'ive. September 30-?Bulgaria surrendered. October 6? Germans sued for peace. October 28?Allies routed Austrians on the Piave. November 4?Austria-Hungary surrendered. , November 7?Americans tcok Sedan. German revolution began. ; November 9?Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated. ; November 11?Allied-German armistice ended the war at 11 a. m. ; November 12 -Emperor Charles abdicati^d. | December 3 -Armies of occupa'tiqn reached the Rhine. 1919 February 14?Formal opening of the0 peace conference. ? June 28?-Peace treaty signed at Paris. 16 The Cost in Dollars B/LUOAfiS QTOOOA?S SP?MT </?/ /? S * mm ?XP?M/wm 4/ae,oo<iooo,ooo Billions off dollars spent by essh nation for direct war expenses to the spring off 1018. The Burden of Debt t-0 Sixioo-t i_?_th, m-ttB asar, akd po_t-_i_ vxsa i ___i e___z_____3 la Billions off Collars 70 85 Vt 11 Italy United Kiag&cn united States Praaos G?x_a_y Estimated prewar national wealth, prewar national debts, and postwar national debts off five nations In billions of dollars. (All the diagrams on this page arc from the statistical summary issued by the War Department.) WASHINGTON, June 28.?-The ef? forts marie and the results achieved by the United States in the war are presented in graphic form in a book? let just issued bv the War Department under the title, "The War With Ger? many? A Statistical Summary." The booklet, which is illustrated with nu? merous maps and diagrams, was pre? pared by Colonel Leonard P. Ayres, of the General Staff, under instructions frpm Secretary Baker. The total cost of the war to the United States, it is shown, was $21, 850,000,000 up to April 30, 1919, or more than $1,000,000 an hour. Of this amount $13,930,000,000 is charged to the army. At the time of her greatest military strength America had 4,800,000 men un? der arms in the army, navy and marine corps. The armv alone attained a maximum strength of 4,000,000. The men who went overseas numbered 2,086.000, and those who saw actual lighting in France were 1,390,000. The total registration for the draft was 24,234,021 and the total draff induc? tions were 2,810,296. The greatest num? ber inducted in one month was 400,000, The shipment of 300,000 men to Eu? rope in a single month repr?sent?e the highest achievement of the ocean transport service. This record ha? been surpassed in bringing the troops home, 333,000 having been returned ir a month. The American troops fought in thir? teen battles, by far the most importanl of which was the Argonne-Mcust struggle, which lasted forty-seven days and in which 1,200,000 were engaged Our casualties were 120.000, or 10 pei cent of those who took part in th< fight. In the war with Germany the Unitec States raised twice as many men as did the Northern States in the Civil War, but only half as many in propor? tion to the population. In this war the recruiting cost was one-twentieth of that in the Civil War. The British sent more men to France in their first year of war than America did in her first year, but it took Eng? land three years to reach a strength of 2,000.000 men in France, while the United States accomplished it in one half of that time. Of every 100 men who served in the American army ten were National Guardsmen,' thirteen were regulars land seventy-seven were in the National I Army, or would have been if the serv j ices had not been consolidated. In the . physical examinations the I States of the Middle West made the 1 best showing. Country boys did better I than city boys, whites better than I negroes and native born better than ? foreign born. In this connection Colo ' ncl Ayres says: Country Boys Lead "These differences are so consider j able that 100,000 country boys would ?furnish for the military service 4,790 ' more soldier? than would an equal i number of r.ity boys. Similarly, 100, ; 000 whites would furnish 1,240 more | soldiers than would an equal numbei of colored. Finally, 1000,000 native horn would yield 3,500 more soldier? than would a like number of foreigr born. The importance of these differ? ences may be appreciated by noting that 3,500 men is equivalent to an in? fantry regiment at full war strength 4 Regarding officers, he says: "About 200,000 commissioned* officer! ; were required for the army. Of thi: ; number, less than 9,000 were in th( , Federal service at the beginning o ' the war. Of these, 5,791 were regu ; lars and 3,199 were officers of the Na j tional Guard in the Federal service Diagram 6 shows with approximate ac curacy the sources of the commis sioned strength of the army. "The figures show that of every si: officers one had had previous militar; training in the Regular Army, the Na tional Guard, or the ranks. Three re ceived the training for their commis sions in the officers' training camps The other two went from civilian lif< iato the army with little or no militar; training. In this last group the major ity were physicians, a few of then were ministers, and most of the res were men of special business or tech nical equipment, who were taken int the supply services or staff corps*" The average American soldier wh fought in France had six months o training in the United States, tw months overseas before entering th line and one month in a quiet secto of tt(c front before going into battle. Most of the soldiers received thei training in inforftry divisions, whic are the typical American combat unit and consist of about 1,000 officers an 27,000 men. Forty-two divisions in a! were sent to France. Two-thirds o the line officers got their training i the officers' training camps in th I United States. One chapter is devoted to the tram poration of the troops overseas. Half a million of the force of more than I 2,000,000 men which the United States sent to Europe went over in the first thirteen months of American's partici? pation in the war and 1,500,000 in the last six months. Most of the troops embarked at the port of New Yor.dk. About half of them landed in England and the other1 half in France. Out of every 100 Americans who went over 49 went in I British ships. 45 in American ships, 3 in Italian ship.-, 2 in French ships and 1 in Russian shipping under British control. The troopships averaged one com? plete trip every thirty-live days and the cargo ships one complete trip every seventy days. The cargo ileet was almost exclusively American. It . reached a maximum size of 2,800,000 deadweight tons and carried to Europe ' about 7,000,000 tons of cargo. The greatest troop carrier among all ; the ships has been the Leviathan, i which landed 12,000 men, or the equiva ; lent of a German division, in France ; every month. The fastest transports have been the Great Northern and the : Northern Pacific, which have made complete turnarounds, taken on new troops and started back again in ! nineteen days. Interesting Chapter There is an interesting chapter on ! food, clothing and equipment. The problems of feeding and.clothing the ? army were difficult, it is pointed out, because of the immense quantities in? volved rather than because of the diffi? culty of manufacturing the articles needed. The requirements for some ! kinds of clothing for the army were ! more than twice as great as the total i pre-war American production of the I satire articles. The government had, | therefore, to commandeer all the wool I and some other staple articles in the ! United States and control production in all its stages. The distribution of supplies in the expeditionary forces required the crea? tion of the Service of Supply, to which one-fourth of all the troops who went overseas were assigned. The army in Franco always had enough food and clothing. American engineers built in France 'eighty-three new ship berths, l,0^f miles of standard giuige railroad tracl ! and 588 miles of narrow gauge track j The Signal Corps strung IiIO.ojO milc-f. of telephone and telegraph wire. Con? struction projects in the United State) I costt twice as much as the Panamt ! Canal and construction overseas was on nearly as large a scale. The total production of Springfielt ? and Enfield rifles up to the signing ol I the armistice was over 2,500,000. Th< production of rifle ammunition amount < ed to over 3,500,000,000 rounds, o! which 1,500,000,000 were shipped over seas. Machine Guns Increased The number of American machin? guns produced to the end of 1918 wat 227,000. in 1912 the allowance in th? American army was four machine guns per regiment. The present army plans ; provide for an equipment of 336 ma- ? chine guns per regiment, or eighty four times as many. During the war the Browning automatic rifle and the Browning machine gun were developed, put jnto quantity production and used in large numbers in the final battles in France. The Browning machine guns are believed to be more effective than the corresponding weapons used in any other army. When war was declared the Unitod i States had sufficient light artillery to ! equip an army of 500,000 men, and ? shortly found itself confronted with the r. roblem of preparing to equip | 5.000,000 men. To meet the situation, I it was decided in June, 1917, to allot i our guns to training purposes and to ; equip our forces in France with arti' ? lery conforming to the French and i British standard calibres. It was ar? ranged that we should purchase from I the French and British the artillery I needed for our first divisions and ship them in return equivalent amounts of steel, copper ad other raw materials so that they could either manufacture guns for us in their own factories or give us guns out of their stocks and re? place them by new ones made from our materials. Up to the end of April, 1919, the ; number of complete artillery units i produced in American plants was mon. , than 3,000, or equal to all those pur? chased from the French and Britisv during the war. The number of round1 of complete artillery ammunition pro duced in American niants was in ex cess of 20,000,000, aa compared witl 9,000.000 rounds secured from th French and British. In the first twen , ty mjnths after the declaration of wa by each country, the British did bet tor than we did in the production o light artillery, and we excelled them ii producing heavy artillery and botl light and heavy ammunition. Fought With U. S. Powder So far as the Allies were concerne: ! the European war was, in large mea? J ure, fought with American powder an : high explosives. At the end of the wa ! American production of smokeless pow ; der was 45 per cent greater than th I French and British production con i bined. At the end of the war the Amei ; ican production of high explosives w: 40 per cent greater than Great Bri' ain's and nearly double that of Franc During the war America produced 10 000 tons of gas, much of which ws j sold to the French and British. Out of every hundred days that oi : combat divisions were in line in Fran? i they were supported by their own a tillerv for seventy-five days, by Brith ! ertillery for five days and by Frene for one and a half days. Of the r< I maining eighteen and a half days thi ! they were in line without artiUor i eighteen days were in quiet sector ! and only one-half of one day in eac j hundred was in active sectors. ! round numbers, vo had in Fram 3,500 piece* of artillery, of which nea ly 500 were made in America, and v used on the firing line 2,250 pieces, i which over 100 were made in Americ The chapter on airplanes, motors at balloons shows that the United States,' starting with an equipment of fifty-five training 'planes, all but four of which were classed as obsolete, developed an air fighting force of forty-five squad? rons, with an equipment of 740 planes. The total personnel of the air service increased from 1.200 at the outbreak of the war to 200,000 at its close. The De Havilands? observation ?nd day bombing 'plane was the only 'plane the United States put into quantity production. Before "the signing of the armistice, 3.227 of thesehad been com? pleted and 1,835 shipped overseas. The production of the 12-cylinder Liberty engine was America's chief contribu? tion to aviation, however. Before the armistice, 13574 of these engines had been completed, 4.435 shipped to the expeditionary forces and 1,025 deliv? ered to the Allies. American air squadrons played in portant r?les in the battles of Ch?teau Thierry, St. Mihiel and the Meuse-Ar gonne. They brought down in comba1 755 enemy 'planes, while their own losses of 'planes numbered only 357. In the chapter on "Two Hundred Days of Battle" it is stated that two out of every three American soldier.? who reached France took part in battle. From the middle of Aucust,- 1918, until the end of the war, the American di visions held during the greater n trt of the time a front longer than that held by the British. In October thev held 1?1 miles of line, or 23 per cent of the entire Western front. On April 1 the Germans had a su? periority of 324,000 in rifle strength In June, however, on account of th? American arrivals, the Allied strength exceeded that of the Germans, and in November was more than 600.C0C above it. In the battle of St. Mihiel 550,000 Americans' were engaged, as compared with about 100,000 on the Northern ?de in the Battle of Gettysburg. The artillery fired more than 1,000,000 shells in four hours, which is the most intense concentration of artillery fir? recorded in history. The closing chapters are devoted to health and casualties and the financ:al cost of the war. Two Lost in Each 100 Of every 100 American soldiers and 1 -ailors who served in the war, two wcv | killed or died of disease. The total | deaths of all nations were greater than i all the deaths in all the wars in *h* I previous 100 years. The number of American lives lost was 122.500, o' which about 10,000 were in the navy In the American army the casualty rate in the infantry was higher than that 'n any other service, and that for officers was higher than that for en listed men. For every man killed in bat? tle, seven were wounded. Pneumon;a killed more soldiers than were killed in battle. Meningitis was the next most serious disease. The money expended by the Unite! State ? in the war was sufficient to hava carried on the Revolutionary War con? tinually for more than 1,000 years at the rate of expenditure which that war actually involved. Although the amis' expenditures were less than two-thirds of our total war costs, they were near! equal to the value of all the gold pro? duced in the world, from the discover/ of America up to the outbreak of the European war. The total war costs of all nations were about ?186,000,000.000, of which the Allies and the United States spent two-thirds and the enemy one-third The United States spent about one eighth of the entire cost of the war and something less than one-fifth of the expenditures of the Allied side. The Rise and Fall of the German Empire With the treaty of Versailles the meteoric career of the German Empire comes to an inglorious end. The rise of Germany from modest beginnings to supreme power on the European con? tinent, and her catastrophic fall to de? feat and quasi-disolution present a curve steeper than can he observed in the history of any other state in mod? ern times, except the Napoleonic Em? pire. In a broader sense this tremendous careerNnay be traced from the year 1806, when Germany ?ay, broken and humiliated, at the feet of Bonaparte's France, hitting the bottom of her na? tional history. In a more strict inter? pretation, Germany's upward flight dates from December 10, 1870, the day when William I, King of Prussia, was acclaimed German Kaiser in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles by the as? sembly of German kings and princes. In the summer of 1914 Germany was recognized as the first military power of the world, with her navy f?cond only to 'that of Britain. lier zenith is marked by the peace of Brest-Litovsk, in February, 1918. when Russia's breakdown left German power estab? lished from Antwerp to the Caspian Sea. Beginning of End On March 21, 1918, began Luden dorff's final offensive to crush France and England; the last phase of the drive was entered on July 15. Three days later, on July 18, Foch's counter offensive started, and in the three months that followed the entire work of half a century crumbled to dust. On November 9, 1918, the German Empire of the Hohenzollerns ceased to D.xist; two days later the signing of the armistice scaled the collapse, and an May 8 of this year the anti-climax ivas reached with the presentation of the peace treaty in the same hall at Versailles whence imperial Germany started out on her career. If the line sf ascent had been steep, the way down hill was almost vertical. Strange to say, the man who more than any other individual was respon? sible for welding the centrifugal Ger nanic tribes and the scores of rival :taies and principalities into a na? tional unit was a Frenchman. IL' bore the name Napoleon Bonaparte. The ;errible defeat inflicted on Austria and Prussia in the years 180".-:! gave birth to the three facts winch became the premises of the modern German Em? pire, f First of these was the dissolution of :he Holy Roman Empire, within the oonc framework of winch, under the no re or less nominal ovcrlordship of :he Hapsburgs, th;; German people? lot yet a nation?had vegetated for lenturies, broken up into more than ?00 principalities. Secondly, the catas rophe of 1806 called to life dormant German nationalism, the faith that German future could be made secure /nly in a strong arid centralized state. "he third factor was the enactment of iniversal and compulsory military ser? vice in Prussia, subsequent to the tbolition of the old Prussian standing irmy by Napoleon. This reform was .he beginning of Prussian military )ower, the centre around which the Jerman Empire was to crystallize. The Congress of Vienna, in !vL", instituted a Germanic Confederacy with Austria as leading power, linder the r?gime of Metternich, Austria was the mainstay Vof absolutism in all Europe; and Austrian absolutism, based on the doctrine of the divine right of kings, frowned upsn national? ism in general and German nati nal ism in particular as the final challenge to that doctrine. German nationalism, imbued with the liberal creed of the French revolution, conceived, therefore, Austria as the arch enemy and turned to her secular riw.1, Prussia, as the redeemer of her hopes. But it was reserved for Bismarck to exploit in full this national move? ment, originally democratic, and to turn its fruits to the benefit of Prus? sian autocracy. The victorious war against Denmark, in 180-!. prepared the way to the triumph in 1866, the expul? sion of Austria from Germany. I'm - sia was now the leader of the .Vor:h German confederacy; and four year.; later, when Bismarck, with astounding cleverness and lack of scruples, con? trived to play up the a'tac': on France as: a war of national defence, German unity was born. The title of German Kaiser, conferred on King William I, was made hereditary in the House ol Hohenzollern and Prussian influence reigned supreme and uncontested with? in the new German state. A period of tremendous internal progress was initiated. Prussian in? dustrial prosperity, with the ore de? posits of annexed Lorraine for a basis, advanced in leaps and boun-is; in * it?rai sense blood and iron were the foundation of German might. With the development of industry and com? merce, supported by governmental meas ures on a scale hitherto unparalleled emigration, for a century a constant drain on the population, ceased; at the same time the "birthrate rose steadily By the end of the century Germany became the most populous Europea! country, next to Russia, leaving be? hind Austria-Hungary, with her larger area. In 1883 the Triple Alliance concluded with Austria-Hungary and Italy con? firmed Germany's position as leading Continental power. In 1884 Germans entered the ranks of colonial powers much against the better conviction ol Bismarck, who always emphasized Ger many's character as a Continenta power. But the founder of Germai unity was, in 1890. eliminated by thi youthful Emperor Wilhelm II, who de cided to use his own judgment. Il 1894 the programme of a powerful nav was initiated. However. Germany' ambitions to become a Lading nava as well as military power succeeded ti bringing together the ancient rivals England ancf France, and the two pow ers presented a solid front in th< colonial crises of 1900 and 1911. Latei a rapprochement was effected betweei England and Russia, too. Seeing herself excluded from Africa! expansion, Germany's efforts began i concentrate in the Near East. Berlin Bagdad became the slogan of this pol icy, and peaceful penetration was to re diice Turkey to the level of a Ger man colonial possession. In the mean time, German overseas trade was in creasing in leaps and bounds. Immediately before the outbreak o the world war an agreement was nego tiated with England, according t which the latter would recognize Ger many's claims in Asiatic Turkey. Thu Germany was on the threshold o achieving peacefully a position o power second to no other state in th world. Even this did not satisfy th ambitions of her rulers, and when s the famous Potsdam conference early t the sur.iiuer of 1914 war against th Entente was decided upon, Germany' fate wus sealed. The rest is recon histoiy.

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