WEDNESDAY, APRIL 13, 1038 (ARK.) COU1UBU NEWS California's Dust Bowl Refugees Extreme Poverty peril Families Waiting For Work In California U) NEA Service SAN FRANCISCO, April 13.—111- notirtshcd. housed in hovels, chr.l in ragged remnants, an army of 200,000 men, women, and children i;preads across the floor of the lower San .Joaqnin Valley, matching llicir few remaining pennies against lime, They arc migratory workers facing a lull of three months before they can hope (o get work again in llic cotton fields. But they arc not tlie same migratory workers wlio used to "follow Ihc crops" in the days of llic great western grain ranges, many of whom were single, unattached men whose miarakry work was llicir TliCM: arc (he dispossessed of the ciiist bawl area. Ihc Oklahomans, Texaits, Kans-jns, the tanners from Arizona. /irk.msas and Missouri whc-ic farms literally bl?v.- out, froin under tliciu during (he past few years. Wilh their families, in rickety, cvrrloatlecl oir.s aiicl trailers, they have trekked westward, drawn by visions of a better land and a new hope in California. They are (lie kind of people wlio would like to settle down and "slay put." not professional migrants. But. except for a few who have been helped by desperate efforts of federal and Iceal governments, they have met nothing but. disapiioint- ineiit. And in so doing they have Heated a prcblcm for every locality in which they are temporarily stranded between crops. Gigantic Problem Ileiillli departments, public iiurs- ' ins services, eainp hispeclion department!! geared to a normal load, have been ablj to do no more than relieve Ihc starkest misery, ta deal with Ihc most imminent disease and health problems. School districts, suddenly faced with Ihrce or four times the normal number of pupils, do the best they can for a school population that moves in and moves out several times during each term. Five camps set up by the Kami Security Administration, with two mere under construction, demonstrate what can be dene to improve the living conditions of Ihesc (lis- i:ossc.sr«:l people. But they provide Icr only a 'comparative Jew. .'. Twenty'iic.il,!little houses in an F3A project at Arvin, :Kcrn iT.unty. are only a Singer pointing a way cut. Each house has an acre of land attached, on which the tenants can grow purl of their own food while waiting'for the Inter- miltent worl; in nearby cotton fields. 'Hie cabins rent for $8.20 a month. The hope is that tenants will b? able to find within 30 miles enough work for cash to supplement what for small plot of land. aivhiR ns.ent famiKes. Each home, conslructed chielly of adobe. ti sunonnded by the itincranls a clian,-- to :,clll ( - dnvvn an<l mow at least part ,ot their foqd X X. Io the camps. Tin's far lie (.•pid has developed. Need Land of Their Own But permanent solution of problem is not easy Io see. they are able to grow for themselves. Hctvvccu-Scuson Misery Bill neither federal nor local governments has tackled the problem oil such a scale as to give hope lor permanent sclulion. it arose loo suddenly,. became loo great lor that. When cotton is harvested in an area, for instance, it is many lon» weeks before the new crop is ready for "chopping", or thinning:. Then Ihc hands go home Io the ragged lent;; or crazy-quill huts patched together of tar paper hwt old packing hoses, and decide on the jiext move. There is a rumor of pickers needed in the imperial Valley, farther GCiith. shall they spcii:! their few dollars for gasoline and supplies !•_ make the trip on ;v chance? Or shall (hey crouch in their lent, ck.'nj oin. the few pennies (hey have earned, until work is again to be had in lldr, same neighborhood? Keaits ami Water Jn cither case a problem arhco. If Ihey stay, sanitary conditions Ml Worse in the camp, clothes and utensils wear out. the remnant ol their wages gets lower daily, f If Ilicy go, another ciiiiuiunily bar, the problem instead. t'cmc counties have as many as four or live thousand such migratory workers suddenly dumped in their lap. Think of that in relation to the nearest- rural county you know, and It will give you the picture. Malnutrition and even death arc already taking their tell among these castaways. Many live for weeks on beans and walrr. The . infant mortality rate rises, the ravages of diarrhea an:i enteritis, r.ionchitis and pneumonia me two ami three times as great as thu average for the country. Many children get no milk al all. County and state health author- Hies do their tail. 1.0 «vml off epidemic dtseasfc. always a menace under crowded conditions where i poverty and tsnoranco unite. Any [ report, of smallpox or diphtheria . sends doctors and nurses scurrying ; NEW STYLES-NEW FAPRiC$<NEW THE FAMOUS .Beautyrest Mattress .. In New 8 oz. Woven Covers LS people like tlicsc-familics whieli mi B ratcd to California from ol fiiKiiiig jobs— wlio have created, the west coast's seriocs the "dust transient problem. ' bowl" iUCil At left In ,tlie little ho|ie. i -• •" • ivjn iMuuiLiiL. m ICH a nine ''in scarcely In her teens, |, shown picking cotton io help .obtain enough- mwcy io carry'the family thrmH,' the off-season when no crops an being handled.. Mostly the minatory workers ,,rc „ plucky 'lot w witnc. w the group at right keeping up course with nmsic in front of a rucfc tent shelter In 'the Sin Joaquin Valley. the Not more than a fcnrth of these mi- granls will Iw heeded to follow the various harvests. Dr. Omer Mills, __ ccoiioinisl, has <lccliired. Yet it is" clear lhal most of (hem waul to settle down. Curtailment cf Mexican Immitjra- liou. mid Hie change from grain to cotton farming has created more jobs than were hilherlo available. But not enough for this tremendous 11 toiv, aim sonic chk-kens." said 1 Tlie South American d'irler bird a mmnlcr at cbowchilla. An;l it jdarls its head after nrev by mi-iiiis is ulon; llns line lluil the F3A and ,r .. „„,:„., ,:,.„ ..•'.. .' ., local adminlstralions are Iryiii" la V»>»H->>^ kink in the neck. migration. Most of those concerned with the problem agree that some way must be foiind Io settle these people on land of their own. "All they want is a few. acre.s. .Seme of the uig ranclicr. 1 ; h:u-c made notuMn eflorts Io provide snilablc (piarlcn; for laborers. The neat, airy, well-painted cabins cl the Allen Hoover ranch in Hie Han Joaqiiin Valley are cited as an -outstanding example. s But even such forward-looking slops are no final solution. Thus- far tlie problem cl the dust bawl's dispossessed has tccn too great far any complete answer. 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