The Palm Beach Post from West Palm Beach, Florida on November 21, 1968 · Page 76
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November 21, 1968

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The Palm Beach Post from West Palm Beach, Florida · Page 76

West Palm Beach, Florida
Issue Date:
Thursday, November 21, 1968
Page 76
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Page 76 article text (OCR)

Downtown Section, Thure, Nov. II, 196811 NewAluminumlikeElementSought "Charge it" and take up to 10 months to pay on pioneer charge account 210 Clematis St. Downtown Phone 833-8443 operators on duty 24 hrs. to take phone orders IIS led some physicists to believe the element, or one closely related to it, may exist in cosmic rays. The latter consist principally of high energy particles raining on the earth from all directions. Thirty years ago, when the 92 elements found on earth had been arranged in a complete periodic table, it became possible through various ways of bombarding atomic nuclei, to synthesize elements with larger (and therefore less long -lived) nuclei than the heaviest of natural elements NEW YORK Experiments and calculations at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory In Berkeley, Calif., have Indicated that it should be possible to manufacture a new, long-lived element closely related to platinum, but far heavier. Attempts to find traces of the element in nature have begun. A series of elaborate analyses of raw platinum ore, obtained from a North California placer mine, have thus far failed to confirm its existence. However, one observation from a high-flying balloon has Downtown Pre-Holiday Event Save on Thursday 9 AM till 9 PM Save on Friday 9 AM till 9 PM Save on Saturday 9 AM till 5:30 PM Specially Priced! Luxurious Martex White Perrnle Sheets IB m' irai wtST U1M BMCH A vl1 percales, so soft and silky. Bleached $C Double J Size 2 $6 Queen Size now 2 for $8 Pillow Cases, Standard 2 for 1.50 Fine Combed cotton quality. Twin O Size Z. DACRON PILLOWS Won't mat or lump . MATTRESS PADS - machine washable. SHEET BLANKETS reg $3 - famous DuPont Polyester, Red Label, Plumply filled. Polished cotton cover! Special 7 99 quilted cotton with fully bleached filling, Pre-shrunk Twin, reg. 2.99 now 2 for $5 Full, reg. 3.99 now 2 for $7 100 Cotton by Beacon. White only. 72x90 size, 2 for $5. The new Berkeley postulate concerns a transuranium element that could be so long-lived that traces of it may be found on earth or In near-by space. This element would be number 110 in the periodic table of elements meaning that its nucleus contains 110 protons and an even larger number of neutrons. It has also been referred to as eka-platlnum (meaning "beyond-plati-num"). Eka-platlnum is thought to be the best candidate among several hypothetical elements that lie in "islands of stability" far beyond the present range of known or recently synthesized elements. Most, if not all, other elements in this far-out region of the periodic table are expected to be so short-lived as to be unobserva-ble. During the last year Soviet researchers at Dubna, on the Volga river, and United States scientists at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory of the University of California, have been trying to synthesize element 114 (eka-lead) In the belief that it should be comparatively stable. Neither has reported success and the suspicion at Berkeley is that such substances may not be produced until more powerful ion acce-lerat become available. An ion is an atom or molecule stripped of some of its electrons. In the Soviet and American attempts, ions of argon or, in the Russian case, something heavier, have been boosted to high energy and slammed by an accelerator into a very heavy substance such as curium. The hope was that the two nuclei would fuse into a super-heavy nucleus. Efforts to synthesize transuranium elements were originally designed to elucidate laws governing the heavy atomic nuclei and their radioactive decay. However, some of these substances have proved extremely valuable. For example, it was announced last month that call-fornium-252 was being used experimentally In the treatment of cancer. To date, a dozen transuranium elements and 100 nuclear varieties, or Isotopes, of these elements have been synthesized. These developments, and the possibility of comparatively stable elements far beyond the present range of synthesis, have necessitated revision of the periodic table discovered by Dmitry I. Mendeleyev almost 100 years ago. Mendeleyev discovered that when the elements are listed in successive horizontal rows according to the electric charges of their nuclei, they fall into vertical columns consisting of elements whose properties are strikingly similar. The electric charge of the nucleus is determined by the number of its protons. Hydrogen has a single proton making It element number 1 in the table. Uranium (number 92) contains 92 protons. The nuclei are enclosed In concentric shells of electrons that, In number, match the protons. Save Imported Down Pillows Uxuriou-.' Super soft and buoyant. The height of sleeping comfort, Printed silky cotton cover. Special 8.99 In the periodic table the elements fall into families with similar properties because they are arranged so that those whose electron shells bear a certain resemblance to one another fall Into the same column. While these elements differ in weight, they share properties dependent on the shell configuration. It has been found that the nucleus also exhibits a form of shell structure. This has led to the concept of "magic numbers" that lies at the basis of present predictions regarding long-lived elements of extraordinary weight. In a nucleus with, a "magic" number of protons or neutrons, the particles are thought to form complete (closed) shells, making for great stability. Such numbers include 2, 8, 20, 28, 50 and 82. If both the protons and neutrons In a nucleus are represented by magic numbers, the nucleus is "doubly magic" and extremely stable. This is true, for example, of lead 208, a form of lead, or "isotope," with 208 nuclear particles: 82 protons and 126 neutrons (both magic numbers). The proposed "island of stability" in the sea of hypothetical short-lived particles centers on an element, number 114, that, it has been calculated, should have a doubly magic nucleus. The reason that none of the tranuranium elements have been found in nature is that they do not live long enough to have survived the billions of years since the formation of the elements that compose the earth. It Is believed that the natural elements, apart from the two lightest (hydrogen and helium), were synthesized Inside of stars, in stellar explosions and, perhaps, in the hpot!iHl-cal fireball, or "big bang," in which the universe was born. All of these processes would expose atomic nuclei to bombardment by neutrons. The synthesis of new elements has been achieved by reproducing these processes. In 1952 two of them (numbers 99 and 100 einsteinium and fprmlum) were made when a hydrogen bomb was exploded In the atmosphere. The first such elements were generated by using neutron bombardment in the laboratory to "fatten" uranium nuclei. Adding neutrons to the nucleus increases its weight. Since the particles carry no electric charge, the chemical properties of the atom remain unchanged. The resulting nuclei are simply heavier versions or isotopes, of the original substance. However, such a heavy nucleus may disintegrate in one of three ways: one of its neutrons may eject an electron or "beta particle," converting itself into a proton. In that case the nucleus gains an extra positive charge and jumps to the next higher slot in the table of elements. On an "alpha particle" (two protons arid two neutrons) may be ejected. Or, finally, the entire nucleus may split in . two. 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As efforts at synthesis have gone to higher element numbers (and consequently larger nuclei) the resulting materials have become so short-lived that their observation Is almost impossible. Element 104, tentatively called kurcha-tovlum, lives only a third of a second and the production rate is so small that Identification must depend on the analysis of individual atoms. It has been shown at Berkeley and Dubna that, as predicted, kurchatovium is the first in a new series of elements. Unlike the preceding 14 "transition" elements, It fills a new slot in the periodic table, joining the family whose nearest cousin Is hafnium. Two factors militate against long lives for the new elements. One is that the production method tends to produce nuclei deficient in neutrons. This makes for gross instability. The other is that, as the nuclei become extremely large, the positive electric charges on the protons, pushing against one another, tend to brust the nucleus. New ion accelerators, such as the omnltron planned for Berkeley, may be able to overcome these difficulties and ultimately it may be possible to slam the heaviest natural nuclei those of uranium into a uranium target. Watts Revamps Renewal Plan LOS ANGELES AP' -Watts, which etill bears bombing and fire scars from the 1965 riot, would be rebuilt and new homes and apartments sold back to Negro families under a plan before the City Council. Edgar L. Law Jr.. project manager, said before today's public hearing that wider streets and a major shopping complex as well as modern living quarters would be built. He said 1.800 residents would be given temporary housing, then sold new homes. Law said the five-year project will cost $5 to $7 in private funds for every federal dollar. The plan has been revamped several times. 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