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Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins were honored with the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology for determining the double-helix molecular structure of DNA. Also on this date: I n 1685, King Louis XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau, revoking the Edict of Nantes that had established legal toleration of France’s Protestant population, the Huguenots. In 1767, the Mason-Dixon line, the boundary between colonial Pennsylvania and Maryland, was set as astronomers Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon completed their survey. In 1867, the United States took formal possession of Alaska from Russia. In 1892, the first long-distance telephone line between New York and Chicago was officially opened (it could only handle one call at a time). In 1922, the British Broadcasting Co., Ltd. (later the British Broadcasting Corp.) was founded. In 1931, inventor Thomas Alva Edison died in West Orange, New Jersey, at age 84. In 1944, Soviet troops invaded Czechoslovakia during World War II. In 1954, Texas Instruments unveiled the Regency TR-1, the f irst commercially produced transistor radio. In 1969, the federal government banned artificial sweeteners known as cyclamates because of evidence they caused cancer in laboratory rats. In 1977, West German commandos stormed a hijacked Lufthansa jetliner on the ground in M ogadishu, Somalia, freeing all 8 6 hostages and killing three of the four hijackers. I n 1982, former first lady Bess Truman died at her home in Independence, Missouri, at age 9 7. In 1997, a monument honoring American servicewomen, past and present, was dedicated at Arlington National Cemetery. Oct. 19 Highlight in history: On Oct. 19, 1765, the Stamp Act Congress, meeting in New York, adopted a declaration of rights a nd liberties which the British Parliament ignored. Also on this date: In 1781, British troops under Gen. Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia, as t he American Revolution neared its end. In 1789, John Jay was sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States. In 1814, the first documented public performance of “The Star-Spangled Banner” took place at the Holliday Street Theater in Baltimore. In 1864, Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early’s soldiers attacked Union forces at Cedar Creek, Virginia; the Union troops were able to rally and defeat the Confederates. In 1914, the U.S. Post Office began delivering mail with government-owned cars, as o pposed to using contracted vehicles. In 1914, the First Battle of Ypres began during World War I. In 1935, the Council of the League of Nations imposed s anctions against Italy for invading Abyssinia. In 1944, the U.S. Navy began accepting black women into WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service). In 1944, the play I Remember Mama by John Van Druten opened at the Music Box Theater on Broadway. In 1951, President Harry S. T ruman signed an act formally ending the state of war with Germany. In 1960, the United States began a limited embargo against Cuba covering all commodities except medical supplies and certain food products. In 1977, the supersonic Concorde made its first landing in New York City. In 1987, the stock market crashed as the Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged 508 points, or 22.6 percent in value, to close at 1,738.74. In 1990, Kevin Costner’s Western epic Dances with Wolves had its world premiere in Washington, D.C. Oct. 20 Highlight in history: On Oct. 20, 1965, in one of the more c olorful moments of his presi- d ency, Lyndon B. Johnson, recovering from gall bladder surgery at Bethesda Naval Medical Center, pulled up his shirt and jacket to show off his abdominal scar to reporters and photographers. (Although critics were appalled by the display, Johnson later said he was trying to dispel rumors that he’d actually been operated on for c ancer.) Also on this date: I n 1714, the coronation of Britain’s King George I took place in Westminster Abbey. In 1803, the U.S. Senate ratified t he Louisiana Purchase. In 1914, “Stay Down Here Where You Belong,” an antiwar s ong by Irving Berlin, was published by Waterson, Berlin & S nyder Co. in New York. In 1936, Helen Keller’s teacher, Anne Sullivan Macy, died in Forest Hills, New York, at age 70. In 1944, during World War II, Gen. Douglas MacArthur stepped ashore at Leyte in the Philippines, 2 1 ⁄ 2 years after saying, “I shall return.” In 1944, a series of gas storage tank explosions and fires in Cleveland killed 130 people. In 1947, the House Un-American Activities Committee opened hearings into alleged Communist influence and infiltration in the U.S. motion picture industry. In 1964, the 31st president of t he United States, Herbert C. H oover, died in New York at age 90. I n 1968, former first lady Jacqueline Kennedy married Greek shipping magnate Aristotle O nassis. In 1973, in the so-called “Saturday Night Massacre,” special Watergate prosecutor Archibald Cox was dismissed and Attorney General Elliot L. Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William B. Ruckelshaus resigned. In 1981, a bungled armored truck robbery carried out by members of radical groups in Nanuet, New York, left a guard and two police officers dead. In 1990, three members of the rap group 2 Live Crew were acquitted by a jury in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, of violating obscenity laws with an adults- only concert in nearby Holly- w ood the previous June. In 2011, Moammar Gadhafi, 69, Libya’s dictator for 42 years, was killed as revolutionary fighters overwhelmed his hometown of Sirte and captured the last major b astion of resistance two months after his regime fell. Oct. 21 Highlight in history: On Oct. 21, 1892, schoolchildren across the U.S. observed Columbus Day (according to the Gregorian calendar) by reciting, for the first time, the original version of “The Pledge of Allegiance,” written by Francis Bellamy for The Youth’s Companion. The pledge, which has been revised several times, originally went, “I p ledge allegiance to my Flag and the republic for which it stands, one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.” Also on this date: In 1797, the U.S. Navy frigate Constitution, also known as “Old Ironsides,” was christened in Boston’s harbor. In 1805, a British fleet com- manded by Adm. Horatio Nelson defeated a French-Spanish fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar; Nelson, however, was killed. In 1879, Thomas Edison perfected a workable electric light at his laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. In 1917, members of the 1st Division of the U.S. Army training in Luneville, France, became the first Americans to see action on the front lines of World War I. In 1944, during World War II, U.S. troops captured the German city of Aachen. In 1945, women in France were a llowed to vote in parliamentary e lections for the first time. In 1959, the Solomon R. Gugg enheim Museum, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, opened to the public in New York. I n 1960, Democrat John F. Kennedy and Republican Richard M. Nixon clashed in their fourth and final presidential debate in New York. In 1967, the Israeli destroyer INS Eilat was sunk by Egyptian missile boats near Port Said; 47 Israeli crew members were lost. In 1971, President Richard Nixon nominated Lewis F. Powell and William H. Rehnquist to the U.S. Supreme Court. (Both nominees were confirmed.) In 1985, former San Francisco Supervisor Dan White — who’d served five years in prison for killing Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk, a g ay-rights advocate — was found dead in a garage, a suicide. In 1995, Maxene Andrews of the Andrews Sisters died in Hyannis, Massachusetts, at age 7 9. Oct. 22 Highlight in history: On Oct. 22, 1962, in a nationally broadcast address, President John F. Kennedy revealed the presence of Soviet-built missile bases under construction in Cuba and announced a quarantine of all offensive military equipment being shipped to the Communist island nation. Also on this date: In 1746, Princeton University w as first chartered as the College of New Jersey. In 1797, French balloonist Andre-Jacques Garnerin made the first parachute descent, landing safely from a height of about 3,000 feet over Paris. In 1836, Sam Houston was inaugurated as the first constitutionally elected president of the R epublic of Texas. In 1883, the original Metropolitan Opera House in New York held its grand opening with a performance of Gounod’s Faust . In 1915, Israeli statesman Yitzhak Shamir was born in Ruzinoy, Poland, in present-day Belarus. In 1928, Republican presidential nominee Herbert Hoover spoke of the “American system of r ugged individualism” in a speech at New York’s Madison Square Garden. In 1934, bank robber Charles “Pretty Boy” Floyd was shot to death by federal agents and local police at a farm near East Liverpool, Ohio. In 1953, the Franco-Lao Treaty of Amity and Association effectively made Laos an independent member of the French Union. In 1979, the U.S. government allowed the deposed Shah of Iran to travel to New York for medical treatment — a decision that precipitated the Iran hostage crisis. In 1979, French conductor and music teacher Nadia Boulanger died in Paris. In 1981, the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization was decertified by the federal government for its strike the previous August. In 1986, President Ronald Reagan signed into law sweeping tax-overhaul legislation. In 1991, the European Commu- n ity and the European Free Trade Association concluded a landmark accord to create a free trade zone of 19 nations by 1993. Oct. 23 Highlight in history: On Oct. 23, 1915, tens of thousands of women paraded up Fifth Aven ue in New York City, demand- i ng the right to vote. Also on this date: I n 1707, the first Parliament of Great Britain, created by the Acts of Union between England and Scotland, held its first meeting. In 1864, forces led by Union Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis repelled Confederate Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s army in the Civil War Battle of Westport in Missouri. In 1925, talk show host Johnny Carson was born in Corning, Iowa. I n 1935, mobster Dutch Schultz, 34, was shot and mortally wounded with three other men during a gangland hit at the Palace Chophouse in Newark, New Jersey. (Schultz died the f ollowing day.) In 1942, during World War II, B ritain launched a major offensive against Axis forces at El Alamein in Egypt, resulting in an Allied victory. In 1944, the World War II Battle of Leyte Gulf began, resulting in amajor Allied victory against Japanese forces. In 1956, a student-sparked revolt against Hungary’s Communist rule began; as the revolution spread, Soviet forces started e ntering the country, and the uprising was put down within weeks. In 1963, the Neil Simon comedy Barefoot in the Park , starring Elizabeth Ashley and Robert Redford, opened on Broadway. In 1972, the musical Pippin opened on Broadway. In 1983, 241U.S. service members, most of them Marines, were killed in a suicide truck- bombing at Beirut International Airport in Lebanon; a near- simultaneous attack on French forces killed 58 paratroopers. In 1983, NBC News reporter and anchorwoman Jessica Savitch, 36, and New York Post executive Martin Fischbein, 34, died in a car accident in New Hope, Pennsylvania. In 1989, 23 people were killed in an explosion at Phillips Petroleum Co.’s chemical complex in Pasadena, Texas. In 1989, in a case that inflamed racial tensions in Boston, Charles Stuart claimed that he and his pregnant wife, Carol, had been shot in their car by a black r obber. (Carol Stuart and her prematurely delivered baby died; Charles Stuart later died, an apparent suicide, after he himself was implicated.) In 1995, a jury in Houston convicted Yolanda Saldivar of murdering Tejano singing star Selena. (Saldivar was sentenced to life in prison with the possibility of parole.) Oct. 24 Highlight in history: On Oct. 24, 1945, the United Nations officially came into existence as its charter took effect. Also on this date: In 1537, Jane Seymour, the third wife of England’s King Henry VIII, died 12 days after giving birth to Prince Edward, later King Edward VI. In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War and effectively destroyed the Holy Roman Empire. I n 1861, the first transcontinental telegraph message was sent by Chief Justice Stephen J. Field of California from San Francisco to President Abraham Lincoln in Washington, D.C., o ver a line built by the Western Union Telegraph Co. In 1936, the short story The Devil and Daniel Webster by Stephen Vincent Benet was published in The Saturday Evening Post. In 1939, Benny Goodman and His Orchestra recorded their signature theme, “Let’s Dance,” for Columbia Records in New York. In 1939, DuPont began publicly selling its nylon stockings in Wilmington, Delaware. In 1940, the 40-hour work week went into effect under the Fair L abor Standards Act of 1938. In 1952, Republican presidential candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower declared in Detroit, “I shall go to Korea” as he promised to end the conflict. (He made the visit over a month later.) In 1962, a naval quarantine of Cuba ordered by President John F. Kennedy went into effect during the missile crisis. In 1972, Hall of Famer Jackie Robinson, who’d broken Major League Baseball’s color barrier in 1947, died in Stamford, Connecticut, at age 53. I n 1980, the merchant freighter SS Poet departed Philadelphia, b ound for Port Said, Egypt, with acrew of 34 and a cargo of grain; it disappeared en route and has not been heard from since. In 1992, the Toronto Blue Jays became the first non-U.S. team to win the World Series as they defeated the Atlanta Braves, 4-3, in Game 6. In 2002, authorities apprehended Army veteran John Allen Muhammad and teenager Lee Boyd Malvo near Myersville, Maryland, in the Washington- area sniper attacks. (Malvo was l ater sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole; Muhammad was sentenced to death and executed in 2009.) —The Associated Press THIS WEEK IN HISTORY AP FILE PHOTO Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis holds the arm of her new h usband, Aristotle Onassis, after their wedding in a tiny chapel on the Island of Scorpios in the Ionian Sea on Oct. 20, 1968. GANNETT FILE PHOTO On Oct. 21, 1879, inventor Thomas Edison, seen in this undated photo, perfected a w orkable electric light at his laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. AP FILE PHOTO The USS Constitution, known as “Old Ironsides,” is towed out of Boston Harbor on July 8, 1997, for a day of sea trials after a multi-year refurbishment project. On Oct. 21, 1797, the ship was christened in Boston’s harbor.