The Fairmount News from Fairmount, Indiana on January 30, 1922 · Page 3
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January 30, 1922

The Fairmount News from Fairmount, Indiana · Page 3

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Fairmount, Indiana
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Monday, January 30, 1922
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TIIE FAIRMOUNT NEWS rfe self sufficient and did not depend upon, ! or care very much, what the great world was doing. The result lt that the agricultural group Is almost as much at a disadvantage in dealing with other economic groups as the jay farmer ef the funny papes In the hands of sleek urban confidence men, who sell him acreage In Central Park or the Chicago city hall. The leaders of the ' farmers thoroughly understand this. Some Aspects of the Farmers' Problems By BERNARD M. BARUCH Ing to take the unfavorable chance. If the favorable one also is theirs and they can retain for themselves a part of the service charges that are uniform. In good years and bad, with high prices and low. While, In the main, the farmer must sell, regardless- of market conditions at the time of the maturity of crops, he cannot suspend production in toto. He must go on producing if he is to go on living, and if the world Is to exist. The most he can do is to curtail production a little or alter its form, and that because he is In the dark as to the probable demand for his goods-may be only to Jump from the frying pan into the fire, taking the consumer with him. Kven the dairy farmers, whose output is n.t seasonal, complain that they find themselves at a disadvantage in the marketing of their productions especially raw milk, because of the high costs of distribution, which they must ultimately bear. Atlantic Monthly) oral good than In the case of other Industries. The spirit of American democracy Is unalterably opposed, alike to enacted special privilege and to the special privllepe of unequal opportunity that arises automatically from the failure to correct glaring economic Inequalities. 1 am opposed to the injection of government Into business, but 1 do believe that It Is an essential function of democratic gov-egnmcnt to equalize opportunity so far as It Is within Its power to do so, whether by the repeal of archaic statutes or the enactment of modern ones. If the anti-trust laws keep the farmers from endeavoring scientifically to integrate their Industry while other Industries find a way to meet modern conditions without violating such statutes, then It would seem reasonable to find a way for the farmers to meet them under the same conditions. The law should operate equally in fact. Repairing the economic structure on one side is no injustice to the other side, which Is In good repair. We have traveled a long way from the old conception of government ns merely a defensive and policing agency ; and regulative, corrective, r equalising legislation, which apparently is of a special nature. Is often of the most general beneficial consequences. Even the First Congress passed a tariff act that was avowedly for the protection ef manufacturers; hut a protective tariff always has been defended as a means of promoting the general good through a particular approach; and the statute books are fill eel with acts for the benefit of shipping, commerce, and labor. '. nd they are Intelligently striving to Integrate their Industry so that It will j be on an equal footing with other usl-I nesses. j As an example of Integration, take j the steel Industry, In which the model Is the United States Steel Corporation, w ith Its iron mines Rs coal mines, its ! lake and rail transportation. Its ocean vessels. Its by-product coke ovens. Its blast furnaces. Its open hearth and P.essemer furnaces. Its rolling mills, its tuhe mills and other manufacturing processes that are carried to the highest degree of finished production compatible with the large trade It has built up. All this Is generally conceded to be to the advantage of the consumer. Nor does the steel corporation Inconsiderately dump its products on the market. On the contrary. It so nets that it Is frequently a stabilizing Influence, as is often the case with other large organizations. It Is master of Its distribution as well as of Its production. If prices are not satisfactory the products are held buck or production Is reduced or suspended. It is not compelled to send a year's work to the market at one time and take whatever it can jret under stich circumstances. It has one selling policy and Its own export department. Neither are the grades and qualities of steel determined at the caprice of the buyer, nor does the latter hold the scales. In this single integration of the steel corporation Is represented about 40 per cent of the steel production of America. The rest Is mostly In the hands of a few large companies. In ordinary times the steel corporation, by example, stabilizes all steel prices. If this Is permissible , (It Is even desirable, because stable ! and fair prices are essential to solid and continued prosperity) why would It be wrong for the farmers to utilize ' central agencies that would have sitnl- , lar effects on agricultural products? Something like that Is what they are j ;i:m';ti at. (To be continued next issue) err vovas town "SMALL HON'.ES MAKE CITY Testimony of Expert Who is Warm Advocate of Building Zone Idea During Town's Youth. 'Make a city of the owners of small homos and you will have a well-run city." This was the verdict of Edward W. Ihisset, counsel of the zoning committee of the New York board of esti-innte and father of the zoning laws, after an exhaustive review of city development under the building zone system. "Before the days of zoning." said he, "the head of a family would bo forced two or three times to sell his private home because he was pushed out by advancing stores or apartment houses. Then he would usually move to New Jersey, Long Island or Westchester, and New York would lose a pood citizen. A home owner takvs a lively Interest In local improvement and neighborhood welfare. Until New-York ndoptod the zoning plan, there was no encouragement for small home owners inside of the city limits. Now the owner of a small home Is bettor protected In many parts than If he goes out into suburban villages. 'Small detached homes are springing up rapidly In all of the outlyhv; boroughs, especially In Brooklyn and Queens. The home owner sees that in residence1 location he Is protect el against Invasion of stores, small fac-i torlfs and parages. In the I and E , districts he is safe from large tene-! ments and apartments. He Is willing j to put his earnings In the equity of -a i small home and pay off his second ! mortgage by Installments because the I t .. , 1 ......... .x.l f Iw-, itnn irora eonlne plan has lessened the dangers that would wipe out his home equity. Ballroom Dancing. The earliest form of ballroom dancing was the quadrille, started about lSlo. This was followed by the lan- ' cors. invented in ISad. The polka was adopted in 1835. The walta, which came from Germany, In 1795. did not become popular as a ballroom dance till later. The two-step is an American Invention. - o ! i c FOR SALE OH, LISTEN! Dogrjroned pood coal. It's Blue Jacket. C. C. Brown. FAIRMOUNT FLOUR wholesale at the mill door. Fairmount FJour Mills. We cany a ful1 line of Clover Seed at reasonable prices. A. A. Ubirr & Co. FOR SALE For Rent, For Sale. V Hunting cards for sale at The News office. FOR S.ATLE Bell" City Incubator, cfTfr. Graham, 309 East Gth. LOST LOST Horse blanket, between Fair-mount and Little Ridjre school house. Leave at News office or call Red 3645. FOR RENT FOR RENT Rooms for li-ht houj-keepiner. Call News office. WANTED Unfurnished rooms for lisrht housekeeping. Inquire at Th News office. WANTED To buy property, close in. Mrs. Sallie Hollingsworth. WANTED TO HEAR All the latest news. Apply The News office or "phone 2fi"). 1 Kye. TVstfil, (I lasses Fitted ly State Registered OPTOMETIUSTS Dr. C. C. FARIS and I Dr. EPiIL FARIS clusively Optical Jt-fo wrw if t i irf ( iiiiiiiiiiil I20 tclIZ 12 ow U DEN - menthol 1 1 cougn arops 0 straight QDICK RELIEF ! my E. B. COUCH DENTIST Rooms over Hahne Drug Store OrT ner.r: '.I.P iv ru.; 1 tii DR. C. L. FENTON Dentist X-RAY Rooms over Postof fice Hours 8 to 11:30 a. m. 1 to 5 p. sb AUCTIONEER STOCK SALES A SPECIALTY. Call at my expense. Phone 2. on. 19 Fowlerton. C. W. DICKERSON Rubber Stamps.- tiri J? . . , " needing iiywiiiiK in iuc Rubber Stamp line see us. FAIRMOUNT NEWS. INDIANA j (Reprinted from The whole rural world Is In a ferment of c.r.tost. and there Is an un- paralleled volc-c.o and intensity of de-terrc.ned, if r.. t ar.try, protest, ami an orcein, r.s sv arming of occupational con-terer.ees in; crest sron-pln.;:, political raov encores arul propaptnd. Such a ; turmoil ear.n. t but arrest our at ten- tlon. In "oed, it vVr.iar.Js our careful studv ar.i! e rem '"rat I en. It Is not likely that six million aloof and rupeedly Independent rc.cn have together an,! banded themselves Into active cr.i v.-s. scclct :os, farm bureaus, and s forth, for no sr.tSciev.t cause. Investigation of the subject cone'.u-:ve'y proves that, while there is much ex erTa:crc.er.t of prievanoes and misconception ef ro:o V.o. the farmers are right in cor. l.drc.ng of wrongs: lor.s er. direct, and right In holding that , It is feav.lclo to relieve their i'.U with , benefit to ti e rest c-f the community. ; This heirs the case of an industry : that cer.tribr.te. in the raw material s form ah no. shout one-third of the r.:i- , tier, a I annual wealth production snl ' Is the means ef livelihood ef about 4i ; per cer.t of the po uhti, r.. it is oh ' vious that the subject is e-r.e ef grave concern. Not en'y do the farmers mak: r.r ore half ct the nati. ru but the well he r.g of the ether half depends ur-on ther.v So long as we have nations a wise policial ec-romy will aim at a large degree f national self-sumViency and , sei f o r.:. .:..-. . liome fell when the food sup-ply was t.n far removed from the belly. Like her, we shall destroy j cr.r own sgru-u'ture and extend our Foure-es of food distantly and precariously, if we do not see to it that our farmers are well and fairly paid f . r their services. The farm gives the r.atin men s well as foo.L Olios derive their vi-ality sr..! are forever renewed from the oor.tttry, hr.t an !:n-pov risked v.v ur.trj si.le expects intelligence and retains ur.ir.tc.li geuee. Only tie h-wec grades ef mentality and chars cur will remain on. or seek, ; the farm. v.v.les agriculture is capable of Veins p-.r-:ed with contentment and adeccua w-rc.rer.sr.tion. Hence, to era- bitter ar.l ir. -p,v e-ish tb.e farmer is to dry up ar.d cvr.tamiinate the vital ; sources of the nation. The w r show ed convincingly how dependent the nation is on the full productivity ef the farms TVsplte herculean efforts agricultural proelue-tlon kept enly a few weeks or months . ahead of consumption, snd that only by lr.-reair.g the acreage ef certain staple crops at the cost of re hiving tlmt of ethers. We ought not to forget that lesson hen w e ponder on the fencer's problems. They are truly common prolleras and there should he no attempt to deal with them as If they were purely selrlsh demands ef a tlear-cnt group, antagonistic to the rest of the community. Rather should we consider agriculture in the light of bread national policy. Just as we consider oil, coal, steel, dye-stuffs r.r.d o forth, as sinews of national strength. Our growing p--puhv tlon an! a hiher standard of living demand Increasing fod sure bos, and more wool, cotton, hides and the rest. With the disappearance of free er cheap fertile land, additional acreage and increased yields can come only from costly effort. This we need not expect from an Impoverished or un-happy rural population. It will not do to take a narrow view ef the r;;ral discontent, or to appraise it from the standpoint cf yesterday. This is peculiarly an age of flux and change and new deals. Because a thing always has been Sd no longer means that It is righteous or always shall be so. More, perhaps than ever before, there Is a widespread feeling that all human relations can be Improved by taking thought, and that It !s ne-t becoming for the reasoning animal to leave his destiny largely to chance and natural incidence. rrudoni and orderly adjustment cf production and distribution In accordance with consumption Is rec paired as wise management In every business but that of farming. Yet, I venture to say, there Is no ether Industry In which St Is so Important to the public to the city-dweller that production should be sure, steady, and increasing, and that distribution should be In proportion to the need. The unorganized farmers naturaUy act blindly and impulsively and. In consequence, surfeit and dearth, accompanied by disconcerting price-variations harass the consumer. One year potatoes rot In the fields because of excess production, and there Is a scarcity of the things that have been displaced to make way for the expansion cf the potato acreage; next year the punished farmers mass their fields on some other crop, and potatoes enter the class of luxuries; and so on. Agriculture Is the greatest and fundamentally the most Important of cur American industries The cities are hut the branches cf the tree ef national life, the root of which go deeply Into the land We all flourish or decline with the farmtT. Sc when we of the cities read of the present universal d! st res of the farmers, of a dump of six Mlb.o.n dollars in the farm -jralae of their crop a a slnrle year. ef their inability to meet mortgages or to pay current bills, and bow, seeking relief from their ills, they are planning to form pools. Inaugurate farmers' strikes, and demand legislation abolishing grain exchanges, private cattle markets, and the like, we ought not hastily to brand them as economic heretics and highwaymen, and hurl at them the charge of being seekers of special privilege, Halhor, we should ask if their trouble is not ours, and see what can be done to Improve the situation. Purely from self-interest. If for no higher motive, we should help them. All of us want to get back permanently to "normalcy ; but is H roa. r.c.We to hope for that condition unless our greatest and most basic Industry can bo put on a sound and solid permanent foundation? The farmer are r.ct entitled to special privileges: hut an they mt right in demanding that they be placed on an equal footing with the buyers of their products and with other industries? 11 Let us then, consider some of the farmer's grievances and see bow far , they are real. In doing so, we should , remember that, while there have been, 5 and still are. Instances of purposeful abuse, the subject should not be approached with any general Imputation to ex'stlng distributive agencies of de-liberrttely intentional oppression, but rather with the conception that the markcir.g of farm products has not bet n modernized. An r.v.oient evil, snd a persiteni one. Is the ttndergrading of farm products with the result that what the farmers soil as of one quality Is re-o'd as of a higher. That this sort of hioar.o-; should persist on any Important scale in these days of business integrity would seem almost Incredible, but there is much evidence that it does so persist, liven as I wtite, the newspapers announce the suspension of several f.rtns front the New- York Produce Kxchance for exporting to tJertnany ns No. 2 wheat a whole shipload of grossly inferior whoa? mixed with oats, chaff and the like. Another evil is that of Inaccurate weighing of fr.rm products which, it is charged. Is sometimes a matter ot dishonest Intention and sometimes of protective policy on the part of the local buyer, who femrs that he may "weigh out more than he "weighs in. A greater grievance Is that at pros ent the field farmer has little or no cm r.trol over the time and conditions of marketing his products with the resu't that he is ofttm underpaid Tor his products snd usually overeharcod for marketing service. The differ er.ee between what the farmer receives r.nd what the cnum.er pays often exceeds all possibility of Jutl South n. To cite a sing'e Illustration. Last year, according to figured aitest- ; ed by the railways and the growers. Georgia watermelon-raisers received on the average T.o ctnts for a melon, the railroads got 12.7 cents for carrying it to Baltimore and the consumer pai l one dollar, leaving Td 8 cents for the service of marketing and Its risks as against cents for growing and transporting. The hard annals of firm-life are replete with such com- t ruentarles on the crudentess of pres- ent practices Nature prescribes that the farmer's ! -goods'' must be finished within two cr three months of the year, while financial and storage limitations gen- : eraiiy compel him to sell them at the , same time. As a rule, other industries ' are in a continuous process of tinish-! Ing goevds for the markets; they dls-3 tribute as they produce, and they can ; curtail production without too great : Injury to themselves or the commu-j nity; but If the farmer restricts his . output. It Is with disastrous consequences both to himself and to the community. The average farmer Is busy with prodtiction for the major part of the year, and has nothing to sell. The j built ef Ms output comes on the market at once. Because of lack cf storage facilities and of financial support, he farmer cannot carry bds goods through the year and dispose of them as they are currently needed. In the great majority of cases farmers have to entrust storage In warehouses and elevators .and the financial carrying ; cf their products to others. Farm products are renerally marketed at a time when there Is a congestion ot both transportation and finance when cars and money are scarce. The outcome. In many instances Is that the farmers not only-sell under pressure, and therefore at a disadvantage, hut are compe'led to take further reductions In net returns, !n order to meet the charges for the service of storing, transporting, financing, and ultimate marketing which charges they claim, are often excessive, bear heavily on both consumer and producer, and are under the control of those performing the services, ft Is tnie that they are relieved of the risk of a ehnnjiag market bj I selling ai once ; hut I hey are quite srlll til ; Vow that the farmers are stirring. ' thinking, and uniting as never before to eradicate these inequalities they are subjected to stern economic loo- tures, and are met with the accusation that they are demanding, and are the recipients ef, special privileges. Let us see what priv jjogvs the government has conferred on the farmers. Much has been made of Section 6 of the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, which purported t.v permit them to combine with Immunity, under certain conditions Admittina that, nominally, this exemption was in the nature of a special , privilege, though I think it was so In appearance rather than In fact. we find that the courts have nullified it by Judicial interpretation. Why should not the farmers be permitted to accomplish by co-operative methods what other businesses are already d lng by co-operation n the form of Incorporation? If It be proper for men to form, by fusion of existing corporations or otherwise, a corporation that controls the entire production of a commodity, or a large part of It. why Is It n-t proper for a group of farmers to unite for the marketing of their common products, either in one or In several selling agencies? Why should It be right for a hundred thousand corporate shareholders to direct 125 or oO or 40 per cent of an Industry, and wrong for a hundred thousand co-operative farmers to cor. i rot a no larger proportion of the whe.it crop, or cotton, or any other product? The iVpartment ef Agriculture Is often spoken of a a special concession to U e farmers but In Its commercial resu't . It is of as much benefit to the buyers ind consumers of agricultural prolui-ts as to tb producers, or even more. I d-- not suppose that anyone opposes the bevcf.Ts that the farmers derive fron the educational and research work of the department, er the help that It gives them In working out improved cultural methods and practices In developing better yielding varieties through breeding and selection, in introducing new varieties from remote parts of the world and adapting them to our climate and economic condition, and In devising practical measures for the elimination cr control of dangerous and destructive animal and : plant diseases, inoct pests, and tb.e like. AM these things manifestly tend to stimulate and enlarge production, ar.d their general be.ieticial effects are obv I, us. It Is complained that, whereas the law restriots Federal Reserve hanks to three m -r.lhs' time for commercial i pjipor, the farmer is all wed six v.v'-v- or H n -?os This is rot a special priv ibe. but merely such a re--ogr.iti n ' ' ' -" cs o-dltiou.c ns makes it ,v -IVe for ecu-. try banks to dJ busiuos, e cmtry people. The crop farmer ha only one turnover a year, w i'o ;he merchant and nmtiufactnr-cr have many. Incidentally. I note that the Federal Reserve ; Trtoard has Jnt authorised the Federal Reserve banks to discount export paer for a pericd f six m n.ths, to conform to the nature of the business. The Farm Ioan banks are pointed " to as an Instance of special government favor for farmers. Are they tv t rathor the outcome of laudable efforts to equalize rural and urban conditions? Ar.d about all the government . does there Is to help set up an administrative erganlr.atKvn and lend a I little credit at the start. Eventually i the farmers will provide all the capl-; tal and carry all the liabilities thetn- selves. It Is true that Farm Loan 1 bonds are tax exempt; but so! are j bonds cf municipal light and traction ptants, and new honsinc Is to be ex-; em.pt from taxation. In New York, tor j ten years. j On the ether hand, the farmer reads ! of plans for municipal housing proj-I ects that run into the billions, of hun-- dreds of millions annually spent on ' the merchant marine; he reads that 1 the railways are being favored with Increased rates and virtual guaranties ; of earnings by the government, with ; the result to him of an 'ncreased toll ' on all that he sells and all that he ! buys. lie hears of many raanlfesta i tlons of governmental concern for par-; tiemlar industries and Interests. Res-I euing the railways from Insolvency Is I undoubtedly for the benefit of the j country as a wtule. but what can be ', of more general benefit than encour-i itgement of ample production of the I principal necessaries of life and their even flow from contented producers to I satisfied consumers? I While It may' be conceded that special governmental aid may be necessary In the general interest, we must all agree that it Is difficult to see why agriculture and the producticvn and distribution of farm products are net accorded the same opportunities that are provided for ether businesses; espe- illv a the enjoyment by the" farmer . of ssioh opportunities wcld appear to l ro-n inr contributory to the e- IV Now, what Is the farmer asking? Without trying to catalogue th- re-med'a! measures that have been suggested in his behalf, the principal proposals that bear directly on the improvement ef his distributing and marketing relations may be summarized as M!(ws: First : storage waretu-uses for cotton, wool, and tobacco, and elevators for grain, of sufficient capacity to meet the maximum demand on them at the poak of the marketing period. The farmer thinks that either private capital must furnish these facilities, or the state must erect and own the eleva tors and warehouses. j Second: weighing Rnd grading of agricultural products, and certification thereof, to he done by Impartial and disinterested pu'dlc Inspectors (this Is already accomplished to smite extent by the federal licensing of weighers snd graders), to eliminate underpay-in?, overcharging, anil unfair grading, and to facilitate the utlllratlon of the stored products ns the basis of credit. Third : a certainty of credit suflVlent to enable the marketing of products In s: orderly manner. Fourth: the department of Agriculture should collect, tabulate, summarize, and regularly and frequently publish ami distribute to the fanners, full Information from all the markets of the world, so that they shall be as well , informed of their selling position as ! buvers now are of their buying posh , t!on. ! Fifth: freedom to Integrate the business of agriculture by means of consolidated selline agencies, eo-ordinat- Ing and co-operating in such way as to put the farmer on an equal footing with the large buyers of his products, ar.d with commercial relations in other industries. i When a business requires specialized talent. It has to buy it. So will the ' farmers; ami perhaps the best way for them to get it would be to utilize some of the present machinery ef the larg-est established agencies dealing in : farm products. Of cottrse, if he wishes tb.e farmer may go further and engace In flour-milling and other manufactures ef foM products. In my opinion. however, he would be wise to stop ; short of tht. Public interest may be opposed t all great integrations; but, : In Justice, should they be forbidden to 1 the farmer and permitted to others? : The corporate form cf sssoclatlon can- ; not rot be wholly adapted to his oh-i jects and conditions. The looser co-( operative form seems more generally : suitable. Therefore, he wishes to be ' free, if he finds It desirable ami feas- , Ible. to resort to co-operation with his fellows and neighbors, without run- : iiins afoul of the law. To urge that ' the farmers should have the same lib-! erty to consolidate and co-ordinate ! their peculiar economic fnnct'ons, 1 which ether industries In their fields enjoy. Is not, however, to concede that any business integration should have legislative sanction to exercise motion- .. .. . . . olistic power. The American people are as firmly opposed to Industrial as to political autocracy, whether attempted by rural or by urban Industry. For lack of united effort the farmers , as a whole are still marketing their j crops by antiquated methods, or by no j methods at all, but they are surrounded ' by a business world that has been ! modernised to the last minute and Is j tirelessly striving for efficiency. This ' efficiency Is due In large measure to ; big business, to united business, to Integrated business. The farmers now seek the benefits of such largeness, un ion and Integration. The American farmer is a modern of the moderns in the use of labor saving machinery, and he has made . vast strides In recent years In scientific tillage and efficient farm management, but as a business In contact with other businesses aglrculture is a "one horse shayH In competition with high power automobiles. The American farmer Is the greatest and mo Intractable of Individualists. While Industrial production and all phases of the huge commercial mechanism and Its myriad accessories have articulated and co-ordinated themselves all th way from nat ural raw materials to retail sales, the business of agriculture hat gone on It-much the one man fashion of the back ' n- d of the flrat fart of the tilne 'ir.n tentnry, tvu the farme- j RALPH C. COTTRELL SPECIALIST ON THE FITTING OF GLASSES 400 Marion National Dank Building MARION, Pftona 243 Sundays by Apponslment M

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