The Fairmount News from Fairmount, Indiana on September 15, 1921 · Page 7
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The Fairmount News from Fairmount, Indiana · Page 7

Fairmount, Indiana
Issue Date:
Thursday, September 15, 1921
Page 7
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THE FAIRMOUNT NEWS " rrr LIVE STOCBC FARM NEWS DEPARTMENT 0 CULL OUT BOARDER HENS AND SURPLUS COCKERELS IN FLOCK GOOIH) t.: v r r Hen on Left With Well-Developed, Abdomen Indicates She Was Laying, While Fowl on Right Showing Hard, Contracted or Drawn-Up Abdomen, Shows She Was Nonlayer. bones; full, firm, or hard abdomen; and those that have molted or started to molt in August or September. In breeds having yellow legs and skin the discarded hens should also show yellow or medium-yellow legs, yellow beaks, and yellow skin around the vent. The hens to be kept should be healthy, vigorous, active, good eat SUCCESSFUL BUTTER MAKING Work Is Not Difficult, but Scrupulous Cleanliness Must Be Observed at Every Stage. (Prepared hv the United States Department of Agriculture.) The best foods in the world are available to the farm home which cares to raise and prepare them. CJood butter freshly churned several times a week is one of the luxuries incident to life on the farm, and more than repays the home butter maker for the trouble involved. The work is not difficult, but scrupulous cleanliness must be observed at every stage. All utensils should be washed and scalded before and after churning. The first consideration is the cream, which should contain about "0 per cent hntlerfat. A gallon of cream of this standard will yield about three pounds of butter. It is better to churn the cream, not the whole milk. The cream should be cooled immediately after It comes from the separator and kept as cold as possible until the time for ripening, which should be done at a temperature between G5 degrees Fahrenheit and 75 degrees Fahrenheit. When the cream Is mildly sour, It should be cooled to churning temperature or below and held so for at least two hours before churning begins. Successful butter-making depends largely on the temperature at which churning is done, but there Is no one temperature proper for every season of the year. Churning is a mechanical process, and If it is done under the same conditions on one day as on another the results should be identical. The temperature is the factor which must be varied to get uniform results. There is nothing in the old superstitions regarding butter-making, such as turning the churn backwards or putting a horseshoe nail into it to make the butter come. If the temperature is too low, the churning period is unnecessarily prolonged, or it may be impossible to obtuin butter. Too high a churning temperature is also to be avoided because buterfat will be lost, the butter will be soft and will not keep well. Butter will come in ten minutes at too high a churning temperature, or even in seven, with some patent Good Home Butter May Be Produced With Simple Equipment. churns, but it will not be such good butter. In summer, when the cattle are pastured and fed on grass, the best temperature is between 7,2 degrees Fahrenheit and 60 degrees Fnh-renheit. In winter it will range from 58 degrees Fahrenheit to 60 degree Fahrenheit. The dry feed, housing in barns and approaching end of the lactation period contribute to this difference. If the churn is not loaded over one-third full, and not turned too-fast, then butter should come, under these respective temperatures, in a firm, granular condition In about thirty to forty minutes. If electricity is available the churn can be attached to a motor, but the speed must be regulated to correspond to the best rate of hand churning, about sixty revolutions a minute. Butter color is added. If necessary, when the cream Is strained into the churn. When butter granules are formed the size of wheat grains if is time to strain on the buttermilk and wash the butter in the churn in two waters of the same temperature as the buttermilk. The thermometer is essential for this, as for all the other accurate estimates of temperature in the various steps of butter-making. Three-fourths of an ounce of salt is worked in per pound of butter. The working of the butter is very important part of the process and should receive careful attention. Overworked butter Is sticky, greasy In appearance, and has a gummy grain. Underworked butter is very apt to be mottled le-cause of the uneven distribution of the salt. ' Complete directions for home butter-making are given in Farmers' But let i 870, Making Butter on the Farm, which also contains suggestions for packing, the butter properly. Tlie bulletin is free upon application to the United States Department of Agriculture. Washington, D. C. -TIT Uui&jrm SHOOT SHEEP-KILLING DOGS No Consideration Should Be Given Such Animal and Shc?d Be Destroyed at Once, FTtr-ared tV United States Deraxt- mrnt of Agriculture. The sheep-k!llmg dog institutes one of the greatest menaces to the sheep Industry. Such dogs not only kill sheep, but keep out of the sheep business men who are otherwise inclined to go into It, say specialists of the United States IHpartnient of Agriculture. Sheep-killing dogs work both singly and in groups but usually in twos or threes. They do not limit their attacks to the flocks of the immediate vicinity in which they are kept, but travel for miles in all directions, spreading destruction In the flocks with which they come in contact. Because their work is so often done under the cover of darkness it is almost Impossible to catch them in the act of worrying sheep. After a dog has once formed the habit of killing sheep it seemingly becomes a mania with him and he Is seldom If ever broken of It. He not only A Highland Collie, One Year Old. destroys sheep himself but leads other dogs to the work. No consideration should be given such dogs ; and If additional losses from this source are to be avoided, they should be killed as soon as their habits are known. FEEDING CATTLE FOR PROFIT Market Requirements for Beef Are Much Higher Than in Former Years Skill Needed. The feeding of beef cattle for the market has become a special line of work, which requires a high grade of skill through understanding of the feeding values of different materials used in the production of beef, as well as an appreciation of the requirements of animal nutrition and shrewd business ffbility. Without these prerequisites the feeder is doomed to receive very small returns for his labor. The market requirements for beef at present are much higher than In former years. It is necessary, therefore, in order to obtain prices which will pay the feeder for his time and outlay, to produce a herd of cattle as nearly uniform as possible in appearance and quality, with a high market finish and symmetrical development, particularly in those parts which yield high-priced cuts in which the profits lie for the butcher. ARRANGE WALLOWS FOR HOGS Water Must Be Supplied Not Only for Drinking but for Animals to Cool Bodies. Hogs in pasture where there Is no wcr. are likely to suffer, not only for drinking water, but for water in which to cool their bodies. Slops are not sufficient. The hogs should have water In their troughs and in the wallow to cool themselves when the burning rays of the sun makes their lives a torture. Hogs have a way of ridding them-seUes of troublesome parasites when they have a muddy wallow. Nature, it seems, helps them to survive as the fittest when there Is a struggle for existence with parasites. ' Hogs that must, be penned should have shade and plenty of water. It Is bad enough to be kept in pen without a struggle with heat and thirst. Give them shade and water. PLAN TO PREVENT INFECTION Newly Purchased Animals Should Be Quarantined in Separate Pens for Two Weeks. Do not place newly purchased stock, stock procured or borrowed for breeding purposes, or stock exhibited at fairs Immediately with your herd. Keep such stock quarantined in separate -pens for at least two weeks, and use care In feeding and attend ing stock to prevent carrying miee-tion from these to other pens. BOAR HAS GREAT INFLUENCE Breeding Animal Should Be Placed In Good-Sized Yard and Away From Rest of Herd. How about the herd boar? Get him out in a good-sized yard, away from the rest of the herd. Remember he Is half of the breeding power of the herd, and that his Influence on the profits for the year amounts to more than that of any One sow; 4 V- t-v-a- KOADS BUILDING FEDERAL HIGHWAYS Mileage Nearly Sufficient to Encircle the Globe When Construction Is Finished. (Prepared by the United States Department of Agriculture.) Of the 22,030 miles of federal-aid roads which have been builfc or are now under construction, more than two-thirds are earth roads, sand-clay, or gravel, says the chief of bureau of public roads. United States Department of Agriculture. These have cost less than one-third of the total amount expended as compared with nearly 50 per cent of the estimated cost applied to 4.S00 miles of hard-surfaced roads. A study of local conditions by an engineer of the bureau is necessary before a road project may receive federal aid. The type of road to be used and the most suitable surface with respect to the traffic of the locality must be determined. Service must be satisfactory, while costs must be kept low, both for building and maintenance. There must be a careful analysis both of the engineering and economic conditions for each particular project. There are individual considerations in every case which affect the determi nation as to the best type of road materials for that locality. The mileage of federal-aid roads which have been built or are now under construction is nearly sufficient to encircle the globe. This is the record of work accomplished since July, 1016. when the Federal government first stepped in to aid in the enormous task of building highways that are now called upon to carry more than 9,000,-000 motor vehicles plus a very substantial horse-drawn traffic in the forty-eight states. The federal-aid law Is well named. The Department of Agriculture has given the broadest possible construction to the law for the purpose of providing the greatest mileage of highways suited to the traffic to be carried over them at the minimum expense. An analysis by the bureau "of public roads of the projects under contract shows that all types of roads, from the graded earth road up to the finest paved surfaces, have been built. On March 1 of this year, 22,030 miles of highway, extending into every state, had been completed or were in process of construction, says the bureau, at a total estimated cost of $301,-946.SGS. The percentage of this total Federal Road Being Constructed Near Westfield, Mass. estimated cost which will be Incurred for each type, and the mileage of each type, based upon the records . of plans approved, are as folows: Per Cent and Mileage of Each Type of Road. Per cent of total estimated cost Mllea Type 1, Including earth, sand-clay and gravel.. Type 2, Including water-bound and bituminous macadam Type 3, including brick, bituminous concrete, Portland cement concrete Miscellaneous ,......, Bridges .,. 1S.300 . 1,530 . 4.0 t.O 100.00 4,S0 S10 44944 12.039 The states Initiate the road projects, but before federal aid Is granted an engineer of the bureau makes an Inspection of the roads to be Improved, studies the local conditions, consults with the state highway department, and no projects are approved which are not considered suited to the conditions to be met. Many popular fallacies exist as to road Improvement, and there have been many misconceptions as to the types of roads on which federal-aid funds may be used. Properly built earth roads, say specialists of the department, are the fundamental requirement In all highway GEESE QUITE EASILY RAISED Kept Generally in Small Flocks on Farms and Purchased by Experienced Fatteners. (Prepared by the L'niteJ States Department of Agriculture.) There is a demand usually for young goose from June to January, although most of them are sold around Thanksgiving and Christmas. Ten-weeks-old goslings of the largest breeds of purebred geese weigh up to ten pounds when forced for rapid growth, and sometimes are profitably marketed at that age as green geese. Large cities containing a foreign population offer the best markets for geese. Geese usually are killed and picked the same as other kinds of poultry, but are much more difficult to pick than chickens. Generally the veins in the back of the mouth are severed with a loug-bladed knife, followed with a Mow on the back of the head with a short club. The wings are picked to the first joint, and the feathers are removed from the neck half way to the head, pulling with the feathers and not back toward the head. The soft pin feathers and fine down may be removed partly by rubbing the body with moistened hands or by shaving the skin. The dry picking of geese Is rather difficult. The most common practice is to scald or steam the goose feathers before picking. This can be done over a wash boiler three-fourths full of boiling water, laying the dead goose on a burlap sack stretched tightly over the boiler, and steaming first the breast, then the back, and then each side. The whole process of steaming will not take more than two or three minutes, and the goose tust be kept moving to prevent scalding the flesh. The goose is steamed until the feathers can be pulled out easily, and tlie head usually is laid under the breast to keep the breast from scalding. After picking, the bird Is singed over an alcohol flame, the alcohol usually being burned in shallow tin plates. Another method for removing the down is to sprinkle powdered rosin over the body of the goose and dip it into hot water, which melts the rosin so that it and the down can be rubbed oft easily, leaving the body clean. Geese may also be steamed by scalding slightly and wrapping the body tightly for five minutes or longer in burlap or cloth to allow the steam to work thoroughly through the feathers. Some markets prefer dry-picked geese, while in other markets no difference is made in scalded or dry picked. Geese are raised successfully in all parts of the United States, but are most abundant in the South and the Middle West. Slightly more than one-tenth of the farms in the United States reported geese in the census of 1010. Mature Geese and Partly Grown Gos lings Will Get Their Living From a Good Pasture So Long as the Grass Remains Green. Practically all there are In this coun try are in small nocks, and few, if any, farms are devoted entirely to their raising. Fattening, however, is conducted as a special business on a large scale in the producing sections. In which case the geese are collected from the general farms, usually over a large area, and fattened for a few weeks before they are killed. On farms where there Is plenty of grass or pasture land geese can be raised successfully In small flocks. A natural supply of water is, of course, essential. The birds are very hardy, both young and old, and rarely are affected by any disease or insect pest. Grass forms the bulk of the feed, and it Is doubtful whether It pajs to raise them unless It is available. They are the closest known grazers. Both mature geese and partly grown goslings vrill get their entire living from a good pasture so long as the grass remains green. A bodv of wtir irhin ifm can swim Is considered essential dur ing the breeding season, and Is a good feature the rest Of the year.i f fit ' If M J rl v T I 1 .. & . ' , I .-.- 1l ft : (Prepared by the United States Depart- ! mcnt of Agriculture.) Laws against vagrancy have been long on the statutes of this country. The man who won't work, who doesn't return society something for the privilege of enjoying the allaged delights of modern civilization, has to go to jail, and work on the roads or In a stone quarry for his food and bed. Man may have gained his idea for this law from the Industrious honey bees. They have little use for drones. Loudest Cackler May Be Nonlayer. But a hen may go cackling around for months or years, and never lay an egg, and the owner be none the wiser unless he keeps up to modern ideas of poultry management and culls his flock occasionally. While culling should be continuous throughout the year in any well-conducted plant, the best time to emphasize the operation, perhaps, is during August and September, according rb the teachings of experts of the United States Department of Agriculture. That is to say, if you Intend to make just one culling in the year then August or September should j be your dale. j It is easier then to make a close estimate of the relative value of a hen as an egg producer and to weed out the poor producers. Hens which show indications of laying or are laying and have not molted usually are the ones that have been the better layers during the entire season, and the hen that lays best during her first year usually will lay well during the second and third years. She is the hen to keep. It is not advisable, though, to keep hens of the heavier breeds, such as riymouth Rocks, Rhode Island Reds, and Rrahmas, beyond their second year, or of the smaller breeds, such as Leghorns and Anconas, beyond their third year, as they seldom prove profitable. In addition to culling the entire flock in August and September, you should always watch for hens that are sick or very thin in flesh, or that show signs of weakness or low vitality. When discovered cull them out at once. It will pay. Keep Only Healthy Hens. Culling properly means using several tests, all fairly accurate if Intelligently and carefully applied. For this reason it is wise to send for Department Circular 31, which may be had upon application to the Division of Publications, Department of Agriculture, or enlist the help and advice of experienced persons near by. Brief-ly, the hens to cull are those that ore sick, weak, inactive, lacking In vigor, poor eaters, with shrunken, hard, dull, or whitish-colored combs; with thick, stiff pelvic bones that are close together; small spread or distance between rear end of keel and pelvic HEAVY PASTURING IS FAVORED BY EXPERTS Best Results Are Obtained by Continuous Grazing. Experiments Conducted at Different Stations Show That Pastures Are Being Utilized to One-Half . Their Capacity. (Prepa-ed by the Uilited States Department of Agriculture.) For every 100 acres of other crops on farms in the United States, say experts of the United States Department of Agriculture, there are 91.5 acres of pasture, of which about one-third Is listed as "improved pasture. Corn Is the only crop that exceeds In acreage Improved pasture. Some years ago an ample series Of experiments on typical blue-grass pasture was conducted by the department co-Opera tivelr with the Virginia experiment station. These experiments ers, with plump, bright-red combs; large, moist vents; thin, pliable pelvic bones spread well apart; a wide spread between pelvic bones and rear end of keel ; large, soft, pliable abdomen; and neither molted nor molting in August or September. In breeds with yellow legs and skin the hens you keep should also show pale or white legs and pale or white beaks and vents. As soon as the culling is finished all the hens you have discarded should be marketed at once. It doesn't pay to keep one. Cock birds not wanted as breeders should be canned, eaten, or marketed immediately. Cockerels saved for breeding should be vigorous. strong, active, and alert, and should be those that have grown most rapidly and developed the best. No bird lacking these qualities will be a good breeder. Pullets that are weak, undersized, and poorly developed also should be eaten, canned, or marketed, as they will not be profitable producers ; but no thrifty, well-developed pullets should ever be disposed of in this way, because it is these pullets when kept for layers and breeders that will net the greatest profits. Late Molters Best for Breeders. The molt probably Is the best and most easily applied test of production. Hens cease laying completely or almost entirely during this period. The better pi-oducers lay late in the fall, and therefore molt late. Late molters also molt rapidly as a rule, while early molters molt slowly. Therefore the advice is to save hens which have not molted by August or are only just beginning late in September or in October, and discard those that have finished molting or are well into the molt. Hens that molt latest, provided they are otheriwse desirable, are the best to save for breeders. Take Care of Implements. As soon as the cultivators and the small plows have been used the last time for the season, take them to the shed, polish blades and leave till needed again. Pigs on Good Pasture. Where pigs are on alfalfa or clover pasture and have access to skim milk daily, there is little need for tankage or meat meal in the mixture of self feeder. showed clearly that heavy pasturing resulted in twice the returns that light pasturing as generally practiced gives. Furthermore, after heavy pasturing the pastures were in much better condition. Alternate grazing showed no advantage over continuous grazing. The results show clearly that pastures in general are being utilized only to one-hnlf their productivity, and that this light pasturing is to their detriment. Comparable results were later obtained in North Dakota and in Utah. The prejudice against heavy pasturing is due partly to the desire of the farmer to avoid the possibility of a shortage of pasture and partly to the idea that heavy pasturing Is injurious to the grass. Sacrificing half the value of the pastures is a much more costly Insurance than a reserve of hay or Silage, and besides the old grass In humid regions Is eaten by animals only to prevent Starvation. Overgrazing of a creeping grass that will injure the stand Is not possible as long as there Is sufficient to fill the animals' stomachs; on bunch grasses It Is quite otherwise, as these can b destroyed fay over-grazing. -

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