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THE FAIRMOUNT NEWS TTVUEffiS LOVE STCflC 11 A FARM NEWS ,v -III f DEPARTMENT P GAS ENGINES REQUIRE PROPER MANAGEMENT TO BE EFFICIENT Engines Saves Time on Repairs, TOE CHOOSING BREED OF CATTLE Market for Dairy Products, Climatic and Other Conditions Have Important Bearing. (Prepare by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) In selecting the breed of dairy cat tle suited for his particular locality. the farmer should give close consideration of two sources of Income from this kind of stock, say specialists of the bureau of animal industry. United States Department of Agriculture. One part of the income is represented by the sale of products, either milk or butterfat ; and the other comes from the sale of surplus stock. Often the latter may amount to a considerable sum, even though the herd is composed of grade animals. Another point that he should bear In mind Is that no single breed is altogether superior to all others; It may excel in certain features, but not in all. It Is best, therefore, to select the breed which conies the nearest to meeting the necessary conditions. Most of the milk sold in towns and cities Is subject to certain requirements as to quality, nmong which are standards for the butter fat and milk solids. For much milk, payment is based upon quantity by weight, without special reference to any butter-fat content above the legal standard. Local requirements differ greatly as to the content of butter fat and solids. Consumers, as a rule, much prefer milk of a deep, rich color, which usually Is considered to be an indication of a large cream content. A distinct and deep cream line In the milk bottle is another feature by which the quality of milk Is Judged. Although generaJly the consumer does not want to pay more for a better quality of product, occasionally It is possible to create a demand for rich milk at a ' higher price. Very often the benefits of co-operative effort are lost through the exercise of an Inborn spirit of independence. Consequently, it frequently happens that In the seleclion of a breed no consideration is given to the fact that another breed already may be established in th locality. The predominance of a certain breed in a community offers many advantages. Where There Is One Breed in Community It Is Easier to Dispose of the Surplus Stock. A market Is established which, because of the availability of large numbers of animals, attracts those who buy large consignments. Under such circumstances all surplus stock may be disposed of to better advantage, and co-operative advertising also may be used effectively. In addition, bulls may be bought co-operatively or exchanged with facility, thus very materially reducing the cost of service In the herd. Any necessary additions to the herd can be obtained, without expanse for travel, from neighbors' herds with whose history the buyer is thoroughly familiar. These advantages apply not only to the breeder of purebred cattle, but also to the owners of grades. In this country there Is a very wide range of conditions, as to both topography and climate. On rich. level pastures all breeds thrive, but on rough, hilly land, where pasturage is scant, they do not show equal adaptability. In the extreme cold of the North, with its long winters, different resisting qualities are needed as compared with the almost tropical heat in the southern parts of the country. In the United States four breeds of .dairy cattle have attained considerable prominence, namely the Ayrshire, Guernsey, IIolsteln-Frlesian and Jersey. These breeds have been developed carefully for a long time for the purpose of dairy production, and in consequence each transmits its characteristics with regularity to its offspring. Certain distinct features distinguish each breed from the others, but all possess ability as milk producers. There is, of course, considerable variation in the characteristics of Individuals within each breed. GRAIN MIXTURE FOR CALVES Equal Parts of Cornmeal, Ground Oats and Wheat Bran Is Good for Young Animals. A good grain mixture for the young calves is equal parts of cornmeal, ground oats and wheat bran. To start the calf on grain, sprinkle a small amount In the bucket after he has finished his milk. There is no danger of over-feeding him on grain, and he should be given all that he will eat. NOT WISE TO OVERLOAD CARS Death or Injury of Animals Means Heavy Loss to Shipper Temptation to Crowd Is Great. Prepaxed bv the United States Department of Agriculture.) It makes quite a difference in the profit of the farmer stock raiser whet! cr he obtains SVs cents per pound for Iks hops as meat or from 1 2 to 4 cent per pound lor them as dead hogs and s.ap -grease material. Which of these 1 rices he obtains depends upon how t!e animals are loaded in the cars. Many shippers, either through Ijrnorai.ee or in an effort to save a small r.mount of freight, overload or improperly load their live stock when sending it to market, and thereby run great risks of sustaining serious losses throuch rippled or dead animals, say specialists of the bureau of markets. United States Department of Agriculture. With freight rates at their present levels there is a strong temptation to economize on this item of expense by crowding a few more animals into an already well-filled car. Representatives, of the department, however, who s?e thousands of carloads of live stock unloaded at the great central markets, are of the opinion that if farmers and stockmen could see the condition in which much of the live stock reaches the stockyards they would be impressed not only with the folly of overloading, but also with the absolute necessity of taking every precaution ajrainst injury and death of the animals while in transit. Overloading is one of the commonest, and at the same time most serious, mistakes made by the inexperienced or careless shipper. It seems such an easy matter to crowd just a few more animals into a car, and the fact that once in a great while an overloaded car will go through without serious mishap seems to urge the shipper on to tempt fate just once more. The wise shipper, however, will have nothing to do with this false economy, say specialists of the department. He will lay down a hard and fast rule to load or.ly as many animals in the car :is car. rile comfortably, and from this rule he will not deviate. The chain es of loss through overloading are greater in warm weather than in eold. Temperatures may be such at the time of loadins that the animal are fairly comfortable, but he-fore they reach market the weather turns sudd"nlv hot. with the result Dead Stock ch Unloading Docks. Tint anvwnere ironi one to 1 annnais suffocate. This Is particularly true of hofts. The shipper should remember that stock cars frequently stand in freight yards completely hemmed in by trains of box cars. Under such circumstances, If the animals are crowded in the car and the weather Is hot, overheated and dead animals tre almost certain to result. Another mistake frequently made Is to load mixed stock without proper partitions. When two or more species of live stock are shipped in the same car they should generally be kept separate by building strong partitions. This is particularly important when large animals are shipped with smaller ones. It has been found that shipping live animals any considerable distance Is an undertaking always fraught with some risk. This risk, however, may be materially reduced. In the opinion of department specialists The exact number of animals that should be shipped In a car, haturaUy, varies with the slfce of the car, the size and kind of animals, the length ot haul, the season of the year, and weather conditions. There can be no variation, however, in the general rule that the animals should have sufficient room to be reasonably comfortable, and that the car should be so partitioned that large animals cannot trample the smaller ones, and that aggressive and quarrelsome animals can- hot Injure those with a wore quiet and timid disposition. feven at the present comparatively low price ot live stock a single dead of crippled animal Invariably represents a substantial loss, and in many Instances wipes out the profit on the entire shipment. . .... i i a GOOD FENCES ARE REQUIRED Fowls Running at Large Destroy Gardens and Flower Beds Confine Them in Yards. trrepared by the United States Department of Agriculture.) - Confine the back-yard flock; otherwise the hens will stray into neighbors' yards and gardens, where they may cause damage and are almost sure to cause ill feeling. The yard should be inclosed by a board or wire fence. Wire fencing is preferable, as it Is cheaper and the hens are less likely to lly over it, say poultry specialists of the United States Department of Agriculture. If cats prove troublesome where one is raising chickens, it may be necessary to cover the top of the yard with wire also. A board should not be used at the top of wire fence, as this gives the hens a visible place to alight and tends to teach them to fly over. A 5-foot fence is high enough for most conditions, but if the hens show a tendency to fly over such a fence the flight feathers of one wing should be clipped. Leghorns need a G-foot fence. The larger the yard which can be provided the better the hens will do, as it not only gives them greater opportunity to exercise, but also makes it possible to maintain a sod on the yard. In most cases not enough land w ill be available so that a soil can be maintained. If the yard is fairly large, it can be divided into two parts and green crops, such as oats, wheat, rye, or Dwarf Essex rape allowed to start in one yard while the hens are confined to the other. The green crops should be sown very thick, and the following quantities will be found satisfactory for a yard 2o by 30 feet: Wheat, 24 pounds; oats. 14 pounds; rye, 3 pounds, rape, 5 ounces. When the growing stuff reaches a height of 3 to 4 inches the hens can be turned upon it and the other yard be similarly sown. Where it Is inadvisable to divide the yard it Is possible to keep a supply of green stuff growing by using a wooden frame 2 or 3 inches high covered with 1-inch-mesh wire. A frame made of 1 by 2-inch lumber, G feet long and 3 feet wide, with an additional piece across the center to support the wire when the hens stand on it. will be found desirable for a small yard. A part of the yard as large as this frame is spaded up and sown, the frame placed over it, and the material allowed to grow. As soon as the green sprout reach the wire the hens Common Poultry Netting Makes a Very Satisfactory Fence. will begin to pick them off, but since they cannot eat them down to the roots the sprouts will continue to grow and supply green material. This frame can be moved from place to place In the yard, and In this way different parts cultivated. The yard should be stirred or spaded tip frequently, if hot In sod. In order to keep It In the best condition. This tvllt not only tend to keep down any odors which might arise, but also allow the droppings to be absorbed Into the soli more readily, and, therefore, keep the yard in better condition for the hens Although It is necessary to keep the hens cohfined to their yard most of the time, it Is sometimes possible to ieiinem out wnere they may range upon the lawn for an hour or so in the evening when tome one can be at band to watch them or t certain mi sons of the year to allow themvto run in the garden plot. This will en joyed greatly by the hens and wttl be very leno8e!al to them. ITALY WANTS BETTER ROADS Experimental Institute Promoted for Study of Materials for Improved Highways. The Italian Touring club has re cently promoted an experimental insti tute of roads for the study of inateri als emiflo.ved in the construction and maintenance of highways. The objects of the institute will be to carry on laboratory experiments on the physical and nSechanical character istics of road materials; to help the progress of experimental technics rela tive to highway surfacing by reproduc lng and studying samples of pavements worn by traffic or deteriorated other wise; to form a collection of material samples suitable for Italian road con struction; to collect all descriptive and statistical matter appertaining to Ital ian roads; to furnish public bodies with useful advice relating to construction and maintenance of roads, and to forward by every other means the development and betterment of road work In Italy. Hie institute publishes monthly reports of its proeeedings. The institute Is financed by annual contributions from the Touring Club of Italy, by an annual subsidy from the ministry of public works and by annuities, gifts and charges for material tests. The institute Is under the direction of Sig. Italo Vambone, formerly chief engineer of tho province of Mi lan. More detailed information re Raiding the formation of this institute is given 111 it recent bulletin of the Permanent International Association of Itoad Congresses. TRACTOR TO IMPROVE ROADS Contraption Invented by Colorado Man Is Intended for Smoothing and Compacting. The Scientific American In Illustrating and describing a tractor for improving highways, the invention of J. Mosca of House, Colo., says : "The tractor is for use in soft roads, as for instance In snow or mud, wherein the tractor is driven by an endless belt traveling about a fixed element and engaging the ground on the Tractor for Use on Soft Roads. under side of said element, and having means for preventing slipping of the belt, and wherein front wheels are provided for smoothing and compacting the roadway for the propelling means, and wherein cleaning means is provided for the belt aiid front wheels." HARD ROAD IN NEW ZEALAND Sum of $146,000 to Be Spent in Con struction of Strip of Concrete Six Miles Long. Approximately $140,000 is to be spent by the city of Wellington, New Zealand, in building a concrete road, 25 feet wide, to the suburb of Petone, which Is six miles distant. The new paving will occupy the center of a thoroughfare 100 feet wide which is now macadamized. Only vehicles, such as carts, motorcars and small motortrucks will be allowed on the concrete way. A special vehicle tax In addition to the present one, will be levied by Wellington, the proceeds of which will be devoted solely to the jipkeep of this road. This tax applies to all motor-driven cars, and among them are also included motorcycles. IMPROVEMENTS ARE TO COME Establishment of Motortruck Trains Bound to Cause Reconstruction of Surfaces. With the establishment of motortruck trains operating on a fixed schedule throughout the country Improvements are bound to come. Not only will surfaces of the highways be rebuilt, but in many instances routes will be shortened to save time and money. These Improvements should be regarded as vital to the success of every community and as a necessary factor in the prosperous era before us. They represent benefits in which not a few Individuals but the community at large will share. A Knowledge of Gasoline (Prepared by the United States Depart- Thousands of fanners in all parts of the country use gasoline engines as a source of at least part of their power. The number In every branch of farming Is Increasing rapidly. From the production of crops to their harvest and preparation for sale, and even their transportation to market, the gasoline engine facilitates the business of farming. Tractors, gas engines to run belt machinery and motortrucks are enabling farmers to increase their operations. It is, therefore, good business on the part of the farmer to use them whenever time, labor and costs can be reduced. Though the gns etigine, whether the stationary type, tractor, truck or au tomobile. Is a great labor saver when operated efficiently, It Is also at times the cause of a great labor waste. Often large crews hired to help with threshing, hay baling, cutting ensilage, etc., draw full wages for hours spent In idleness owing to Inefficient handling of the engine. A man will sometimes spend much more time and energy in starting a gas engine to pump water for stock, run a milking machine or for some other similar purpose, than would be required to do the work by hand. Such lost time is to a great extent preventable. Gas engines are not difficult to operate, and delays from engine trouble are usually dun to the operator's lack of knowledge of some of the details essential to proficient operation, say specialists of the United States Department of Agriculture. Keep Engines in Repair. The first essrntial In gasoline engine operation Is to keep It In good repair, say the specialists. All catalogues and directions furnished by the manufacturer should be studied carefully. Most manufacturers publish Instructions on the care and operation of the engines they manufacture, and in order to get the most satisfactory results from an engine the owner should study and put into practice these instructions. Every one who operates n gas engine should learn first to stop and reason as to the probable cause of any trouble which develops. In tracing trotible a definite system should be followed. When an engine refuses to start the trotible will, with a very few exceptions, be due to some Interrup tion of the supply or the proper mix ture of gas and air, or to the failure of the electrical system which fur nishes the spark to fire the compressed mixture. Every system to lo cate trouble should take these two points into consideration. Testing the Ignition System. With all engines using spark plugs It Is comparatively easy to ascertain whether electrical or Ignition system SPINACH FURNISHES DELECTABLE GREENS Crop May Be Planted in Fall as Well as Spring. Sowing Dates Vary From August 1 In Northern New England States to September 10 or 15 In Vicinity of Washington. Prepared by the United States Department of Agriculture.) Spinach Is one of the most Important crops for a home garden and in many sections will furnish delectable greens a (rood part of the year. In addition to the spring crop sown from the middle of February to the first of May, according to locality, it permits fall sow lng at dates varying from August 1 In northern New England states to September 10 or 15 In the vicinity of Washington, Three or four ounces of seed planted Is working properly. Remove the plug and by taking it apart see if the porcelain is not broken. See that the points are properly spaced and re-of about one thirty-second of an Inch the thickness of a worn dime is the proper distance "between the points. To test the spark connect the wire with the plug and place the latter so that the metal base touches the en gine casting, then crank the engine ami notf whether a spark jumps the space between the points. This rpnrk shoidd be a heavy blue, a bluish-white, or a "fat" yellow one looking like n small flame. But if It is thin and greenish, or showing red, the chances are it Is too weak to fire the charge-of gasoline. In such case, or if there is no spark, trouble may be in the wire connections, or the magneto, or If dry cells are used, they may be too weak. See that all the wire is properly insulated and not soaked with oil, and that all connections are tight and clean. If there Is no trouble In the wiring and dry cell are used, the latter may be tested by attaching the wires direct to the points of the cells. Though magnetos seldom give trouble, If there Is every reason to believe that It Is not functioning properly, It should be taken to an expert for repairs. See That Fuel Is Supplied. When an examination shows that a goivl spark is being obtained at the right time, the next step Is to see whether the engine is receiving the proper mixture of fuel and air. Examine the carburetor and make sure that the gasoline reaches It properly. Sometimes water gets Into the carburetor and gives considerable trouble. For this reason the carburetor and gasoline line the pipe connection from the gasoline tank should be drained to remove not only any water which may be present but particles of dirt. It sometimes happens that the needle valve in the carburetor is closed or stopped with dirt and the gasoline cannot pass. If the engine has u petcock lending into the combustion chamber, by opening this and cranking the engine a few times one can tell by smelling the escaping atr whether gasoline Is entering the chamber. If It Is not, open the needle valve, first being careful to note the original position so that It will be possible to adjust It. It Is sometimes necessary to remove this valve In order to clean It properly. When the engine Is running the valve may be opened or closed slightly in order to get the proper mixture of fuel ami air with which the engine runs best. If the granaries are not clean and ready for the new crop, making them so is a good rainy day job. in tne autumn, niter a summer crop lias been harvested from the land, will produce an abundance of greens for the average family during the late autumn and early spring. Sow the seeds of spinach In drills 1 foot apart at the rate of one ounce to 100 feet of row. To produce good spinach, a rich loam. which win give the plants a quick growth, is required. As ordinarily grown, spinach occupies the land dur ing the autumn and winter only and does not interfere with summer cultl vation. To carry tne plants over winter it Is advisable to cover the bed ,wlth a thin muicn or straw or leaves. In gathering spinach the entire plant Is usually removed and not the leaves The larger plants are selected first, and the smaller or later ones are thus given room to develop. No thinning is required if this plan of harvesting is practiced, ine Bloomsdale Savoy ts the variety most commonly grown, move the deposit of carbon. A space Insure Succulent Peed. Silage Insures a. succulent feed for any season of the ytar.