The Fairmount News from Fairmount, Indiana on August 18, 1921 · Page 7
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August 18, 1921

The Fairmount News from Fairmount, Indiana · Page 7

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Fairmount, Indiana
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Thursday, August 18, 1921
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Page 7
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THE PAIRMOUNT NEWS FAR NEWS M JIeK 0 0 MILK DELIVERED TO CITIES DEPARTMENT KEEP PRODUCERS INFORMED CAREFULLY PREPARING POULTRY INSURES HIGHER MARKET PRICE , . KtX ; &i idiKa 11 It f' msm Preparing Poultry Under Modern Conditions for Markev. Figures Announced by Department of Agriculture cn Total Cost to Ultimate Consumer. ( Prv pared by Hie United States Depart ment or Agriculture.) The total cost of milk delivered to the consumer's door In Columbus, O. during the first six months of 19:20, ranged from 11.3 cents up to 15.3 cents Ior qur.rt, If the costs of one company which does business In "certified" milk are omitted, according to the figures recently announced by the United States Department of Agriculture. The ct of the raw milk delivered at the dairy ranged from 8.7 cents to 10 cents lr qnnrt. The total cost of op erating the dairy plant, including the pasteurizing and bottling of the milk. ranged from 1 cent to 1.4 cents ier ouart. r.nd the cost of delivering the milk from the dairy to the consumer runs d from 1.61 cents to 3.9 cents per uuart. The item of administrative expense arses widely, being as low as two-tenths of a cent per quart for one small company and as high as 1 cent per quart for a large concern. Two ef the seven companies covered ene small -concerns which produced their own milk supply. The cost of producing the milk for these com panies In 1920 was S.9 cents ier quart. which is very similar to the price paid for milk by the larger concerns. One of the items of cost which has .itracted most attention among stu dents of the milk business is the so- called "bottle loss." The depart ment's study Indicates that for the companies covered in Columbus this item ranges from one-tenth to two- tenths of a cent per quart. Jreat difficulty was experienced in ceiting any satisfactory- information concerning the shrinkage which takes place In the handling and delivery of milk, but according to the best data available this item amounts to le- tween 2.3 per cent and .".." per cent of the total volume of milk. Columbus is a city of 2:7.l3l population. iRhlch Is reported to consume about 27,(XV,Cfc quarts of milk per annum. This milk is supplied by over tZ.000 producers, from lo different counties, and is transported to Columbus from a territory having a radius of miles. Conditions appear to be . - 'I " v,it Sv Keeping Account of Feed Given to Cows Is Necessary to Determine Ccst of Producing Milk. fairly represent at Ive of many Middle Western cities. The investigation covered seven -ompanios. which sold alout KvVWO quarts of milk and cream in 192', or approximately Co per cent of the total quantity consumed. The companies ranged in size from a very small one- igon concern up to the largest, which operated 40 milk routes. From the point of view of the farmer and the consumer, the important question Is, What does It cost to handle the milk from the farm to the consumer? The cost of raw milk was between 63 per cent and 73 per cent of the total cost of the milk as it reaches the consumer. During the period under study the retail price of Grade A nillt in Co lumbus, as quoted by the dealers in vestigateo, ranged from 15 cents to 14.5 cents per quart, though duriug 1920 the two small dealers sold their milk, which comes from tuberculin- tested cows, for lo cents per quart At the same time the wholesale price f mil ranged from 12 cents to 12 H cents. The average number of customers ler route In 1920 ranged from Its to 297, and the number of quarts per wagon ranged from ITS to S7S, the average bemg 262. It Is noteworthy that the most profitable company was the one having Ihe largest average waconload. TEACH YOUNG BULL TO LEAD Calf Can Be Halter Broken With Littla Effort If Taken in Hand at Right Time. A bull that is to be kept for service should be taught to lead while he is a small calf. He can be halter broken at this time with a few minutes" effort He should not only be taught to lead without a tight rope, but also should ve taught to stand. If given this les son while young. In after life, when he l led out for visitors to look over or to be photographed, he makes a mudi l-etrcr arpearance. Farmers Advised to Study Market Reports In and Out of Season to Keep Posted. 1 i (Prepared by the U. 8. Department of Agriculture.) How can the farmer and stock raiser turn the live stock reports of the bureau of markets, United States Department of Agriculture, into dollars is frequently asked. The answer is for the farmer to get so much information out of the reports that he can conduct his breeding, feeding and marketing operations a little more intelligently in me iu-ture, and therefore morew profitably than in the past. Market reports are history, and the chief value of history Is the basis which it provides on which to forecast the future. In other words, what has happened in the past will probably occur again under the same or similar circumstances. Small benefit is generally derived from reading a single market report, or one covering a short period of time. Markets move in cycles, aud the man who would keep Informed must follow them diligently in season and out. This is a matter of particular Importance to the stockman, because his business is, to an unusual degree, a long-time speculation. He must prepare now and lay his plans today in light of what he thinks the market will be anywhere from six months to two years hence. But how will the department's reports assist him fn doing this? First of all, he should take into ac- count potential supplies of the particular class of live stock in which he is interested. Assume that cattle is his line. The monthly report. Stock at Stockyards, gives the number of cattle and calves marketed from, month to month through 68 central markets. If such movements are un usually heavy for any considerable time, it may indicate a cattle shortage during the next year or two, and a shortage of any commodity usually means higher prices. This same report also shows the number of cattle and calves that went back to the country as stockers and feeders. If such moenicnts were exceptionally light, it would help to confirm the belief that a comparative shortage in cattle was impending. On the . other hand, heavy stocker ami feeder shipments would go a long way toward neutralizing the importance of Market Reports Are Read With Much Interest by Progressive Farmers. the heavy receipts, for the stockmen would know that most of these cattle going back to the country must be returned to market during the next few weeks or months and enter consumption channels. Having established in this fashion a broad basis for his operations, let us assume the stockman is feeding a lot of steers for the market. He must now give market reports more careful and persistent attention than before. It Is quite important that he know what kind of cattle are in best demand on the principal markets. If there is a steady inquiry for heavy finished cattle, and that kind are sell ing at n premium over lighter weights. It will probably pay him to "feed his cattle out," unless the cost of feed Is exceptionally high. If, however, consumptive . demand seems to be drifting steadily toward lighter retail cuts of meat, or, because of general business depression or some other cause, is centering chiefly on the lower and cheaper grades, he may find It more profitable to market his cattle at an earlier age and before they have attained great weight. Abundant Information along this line will be found both in the live stock market reports and the reports dealing with meat-trade conditions In the large consuming centers. In this connection the stockman will also be interested in keeping advised as to whether the slaughter of meat is increasing or decreasing and whether the movement applies equally to all classes of meat, or whether slaughter of beef Is decreasing while that of some other class is Increasing. This information Is obtainable from the statistical report covering the live stock and meat situation, which is based on the federal meat-inspection reports of the bureau of animal industry and Is also published monthly by the bureau of markets. msim GUINEAS FAVOR FREE RANGE Fowls Can Be Depended Upon to Pick Up Considerable Portion of Their Food. Prepared by the United States Department of Agriculture.) Most guinea raisers allow their breeding stock free range of the entire farm at all times, and this helps to keep the birds strong and vigorous. During the winter the breeders should have been fed a grain mixture of corn, wheat and oats twice a day, and where no green feed was available, vegetables, such as potatoes, turnips, beets and cabbage. Animal feed Is essential to best results and can be supplied by feeding meat scrap or ""skimmed milk. Given free range, where the supply of natural feed during the winter and early spring are ample, as it usually is in the southern portion of the United States, the guineas can be left to pick up a considerable part of their feed,- say poultry specialists of the United States Department of Agriculture. Free access to grit, charcoal. and oyster shell is necessary throughout the breeding season. Avoid having the breeders too fat, but keep them In good, firm flesh. Like quail and most other wild birds, guinea fowls in their wild state mate in pairs, and this tendency prevails among d.westicated guineas, also, provided the males and females are equal ia number. As the breeding season approaches, one pair after another sep arates from the remainder of the flock and ranees off In the fields In search of a suitable nesting place. Once mated this way, the male usually re mains with his mate throughout the laying season, standing guard somewhere near- the nest while the hen Is laying, and ready to warn her of any approaching danger. However, it is not necessary to mate them In pairs under domestic conditions to secure fertile eggs, and most breeders keep but one male for every three or four females. When mated In this way the hens are more apt to lay near home, and several usually lay In the same nest, thus making It much easier to rind the nests and gather the eggs. While guineas can Ive kept In the bt-st breeding condition upon free Guineas Can Be Confined if Necessary, But They Do Best When Civn Free Range. range, still tney can be conllnrd:, r necessary-, and satisfactory res'tUs ob tained. One extensive guinea raiser has confined as many as 45 hens and 15 males in an acre pen throughout the breeding and laying season and been successful. This pen is Inclosed with a wire fence five feet high, and the birds are prevented from flying over by clipping the flight feathers of one wing. Within the pen is a grass pasture with bushes here and there where the hens make their nests by scratching outta bowl-shaped hollow In the ground. The winters being severe, a roosting shed Is provided, havinjr a deated board reaching from the floor to the roosts for the wing-clipped birds to walk xip. GEESE GOOD GRAZING STOCK Fowls Play Important Part in Util izing Waste Grain About Stable and Feeding Pens. Geese have an Important part in the endless war on waste. "They are In a class with chickens In utilizing waste grain about stables and feeding pens. In a larger measure than chickens or any other kind of poultry they are a grazing stock,' getting their living In large part from the ordinary grasses of the pastures, say poultry special tsts of the United States Department of Agriculture. When It Is considered that the demand for geese is steady. and extended over almost the whole year, not confined to holidays, as In the case of turkeys, that geese excel all other poultry as producers of fat the Importance of geese In the poultry scheme is realized. IlL GOOD ROADS SAVE MUCH GAS Trucks Use Twice as Much Fuel on Dirt Highfays as on One Built of Concrete. That god roads cut the cost of gasoline more than 0 per cent is stated by "Freight Transforation Di gest." A loaded two-ton truck was used in a test and in running W miles on an earth road consumed 17.3 ullons of gasoline, making an aver age of ."i.78 miles a gallon. The cost figured at 25 cents a gallon was $4.33. The same truck was used on a concrete road ami traveled the same dis tance on 8.49 gallons of gasoline, mak ing 11.7S miles ner gallon. The cost in this case, figured on the same basis, was $2.12. The net savings, in cost of gasoline on the Improved high way was then-lore $2.21. or more than U0 per cent. Statisticians could step in here and conjure a colossal sum to represent the savings in gasoline cost if all the highways of the United States were paved, remarks the Columbus ((.) Dispatch. They could, for instance. assume that all of the one-half million motortrucks in the country were two- ton trucks, and on this basis figure out a saving in gasoline costs equal to a couple of Liberty loan Issues. Thisaenormous reduction in gasoline costs, coupled with the ability to handle loads with less fractional ef fort, has become one of the strongest arguments for good roads. The two tests cited in this instance show con clusively that poor roads are expen sive to the farmer'and merchant alike. The farmer who hauls with a motor truck Is getting only one-eighth of the profit he could get and the merchant and Inter-city freight truck operator are paying out twice what they should for gasoline and are getting only oue- eighth of the profit they could get. GOOD GUIDE FOR TRAVELERS Arrows on Signs Mark Detours on Iowa's Highways and Point Out Proper Direction. All detours around roads closed to traffic in Iowa are carefully marked for the guidance and protection .of travelers. Signs are erected at inter vals so that the proper direction can he taken with the slightest deviation from the regular route. The signs, as furnished by the state to the counties at cost, have a yellow arrow printed against a black ground, with the word 'detour" above and below the arrow. The blank sign furnished to the coun ties is shown in the upper corner, and as used, in the lower. The larger Illustration shows how the Igns are disposed to guide traffio around a closed road. When the sign has been -placed with the arrow pointing in the proper di rection, the "detour" below Is deleted with black paint. The name of the place the arrow Is pointing to, and other Information, ia stenciled Inside the arrow. Popular Mechanics Maga zine. MATHEMATICS OF BAD ROADS Farmer Solves Problem of Hours Lost in Making Trip Over Road That Is Deep in Mud. If it takes a farmer, making a trip through the mud one hour and a half longer than when the roads are firm, how mauy hours are lost in a year if 1,000 farmers make an average of 12 trips a month? What would be the monetary loss if each 1V4 hours lost be estimated at 75 cents per hour for each man and his team? This "two- In-one" proposition gave our old cat considerable trouble, but he finally worked It out thus:' One farmer mul tiplied by 1M hours multiplied by 12 trips, multiplied by 1,000 farmers, multiplied by 12 months equals 216,- 000 hours lost; going a step further, and multiplying 216,000 by 75 cents, you have $162,000 per annum lost to the farmers. Our old cat la now pon dering how many road bonds this annual loss would, float at 5 per cent Interest. Union Times. !!r! 13 I 24 hours, and the packer must be sure that the body cavity, as well as the skin and flesh, are free from heat be fore the birds leave the chill room Failure to observe this requirement Is responsible for much of the ill-conditioned poultry found in the public markets. The range of temperature permitted, too, is small. Below 30 de grees Fahrenheit the flesh Is frosted ; above 35 degrees Fahrenheit decay proceeds too rapidly to permit of long hauls to distant markets. Of course, the birds can be frozen after they are chilled, and so shipped, and this Is a very excellent plan, especially If the haul Is across a hot country, say the specialists in the Department of Agri culture. Packing for Market. It Is customary to pack broilers with the breasts up, and the feet hidden The prevailing method at present. where refrigeration is available, Is to pack the chickens in tfmall boxes hold ing a dozen each, but small boxes suit able for one or two chickens have re cently been placed on the market. If the business is to be permanent the containers should carry the farm name,' or the name of the shipper If the farm has no name. An attractive advertisement on the box has a great deal to do with marketing, a fact proved long ago to the satisfaction of shrewd business men. Small packages are becoming more and more popular. Two layers of chickens In a box are being discarded for a single layer. It being realized that refrigeration Is more perfect if the carcasses do not touch, and if pressure on such tender tissue as chicken muscle is eliminated as far as possible. On this account heads are wrapped in waxed paper and turned back where they do not rest against the soft flesh of the breast or thighs. Xo longer does the packer thrust old cocks, broiling chickens and fowls Indiscriminately Into a big sugar barrel, pressing them down in his effort to pack tightly, and so bruising the flesh and tearing the skin. CONCRETE FLOORS ARE BEST Promote and Protect Health of All Farm Animals and Increase Profits for Farmer. A concrete barnyard makes a fine exercise lot In all kinds of weather and always" affords a dry spot for the animals' bed. Every shower washes the surface clean and flushes the Crete varus 1 1. n wi vi . ui me housewife, as there Is no mud to be tracked on the walks and kitchen floor. The use of rubber boots is un necessary. On concrete floors not a particle of grain need be wasted. The way to the water trough Is always dry, smooth and passable. Concrete floors promote and protect the health of farm animals and increase the profits of farming, stock raising and dairying. shelter for Hve stock, and protect crops and buildings from the hot winds of summer and the cold winds of winter. Moreover, they often can be grown successfully on soils too poor or on slopes too steep for the success ful production of the ordinary agricul tural crops. INCREASED NITROGEN SUPPLY Element May Be Added by Proper Soil Treatment, Rotation of Cropa and Phosphate. The supply of nitrogen, the most costly elementvof food for plants, can be Increased throu-h proper noil treatment, rotation of crops, -the ad dition of phosphate and limestone and the growing and plowing under of legumes. AH' stable manure is to be utilized, and on the older, worn soils of the East and South some commer cial nitrogen may be profitably used. Following a crop that is a heavy nitrogen consumer with one that Is a light user Is smod farm practice. tPrepircd by the United States Depart- I ment of Agriculture.) Not a day passes that inspectors employed by city, state or federal government, do not condemn food of one kind or another necause It Is unfit for human consumption. Sometimes this Is due to deliberate adulteration, an intention to defraud the purchasers, but more often It is the result of Improper packing, neglect to consider temperatures to be encountered In transporting from point of origin to destination, or failure to consider the time which must necessarily elapse before the product is likely to reach the consumers' tables. All this entails not only great loss in money, likely to be reflected In prices demanded of the public, but also it endangers the public health, because occasionally some unworthy article slips through Inspection and is served as food. Enough food products spoil every week to form a very Im portant part of the amount needed by the people; and practically ad of It might ,be saved through Intelligence and care on the part of the producers and shippers. After your chickens are fattened and ready to kill, it will pay you to study the methods of killing, bleeding, pick ing, chilling and packing described fully In bureau of chemistry circu lars: 3'TIow to Pick Chickens;" 52, "How to Wrap Heads"; 61, "How to Kill and Bleed Market Poultry." Is sued by the Department of Agricul ture, these circulars may be had by application to the division of publica tions. Theman who hopes to sue' ceed should know everything possible about his proposed market, and Its de mands. Broilers in Demand. Ordinarily the demand Is for broil ers or tnree sizes squao Drouers, small broilers and large broilers. Squab broilers weigh, dressed, - from three-quarters to one pound; small broilers, the size most in demand the greater part of the year, weigh from one to one and a quarter pounds each. and large broilers from one and one- half to two pounds. Broilers may De sold a live or dressed, in the discretion of the shipper; but if dressed, this should be done according to the demands of the market, and these demands one can learn only by inquiry and study. Get ting the product ready for the buyer In the public market has much to do with the price received. The appear in ance of the article, the manner which It Is packed, and Its condition these are the points that make a rep utation for the shipper. Temperature to Maintain. The temperature of chickens when they are alive is 103 degrees Fahrenheit. This must be reduced after killing to 32 degrees Fahrenheit or less before they can be packed for long hauls in refrigerator cars. The time required to chill fowls usually Is about KEEPING DOWN STABLE FLIES Give Stable Refuse Proper Care and Stack Straw So That It Will Not Be Breeding Hole. The numbers of stable flies can be kept down by caring properly for stable refuse and by properly stacking or otherwise disposing of straw In a way that will not make It attractive as a breeding place for the flies. Flies cause much distress among animals and at times heavy losses. Control measures are described In Farmers Bulletin 1097. It can be had free of charge by writing Division of Publications, Washington, D. C BIG VALUE OF FOREST TREES Material Supplied for Use on Farm, Such as Poles and Wood Protect Live Stock. Forest trees grown on the farm add to Its value and beauty. They supply material for farm use, such as poles, posts and cordwood ; and they afford I

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