The Fairmount News from Fairmount, Indiana on August 4, 1921 · Page 7
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August 4, 1921

The Fairmount News from Fairmount, Indiana · Page 7

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Fairmount, Indiana
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Thursday, August 4, 1921
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THE FAIRMOUNT NEWS DAEP L 0 V or FARM NEWS 0 eg? d 7y FAILURE OF SWINE TO MATE DEPARTMENT SUCCULENT FEED FOR DAIRY GOOD ROADS FIND ASPHALT BY ACCIDENT co extract made of tobacco refuse from factories. This Is a poison and. to be effective in killing the "lice" without injuring the plants, must be used exactly according to the directions given on the container. United States Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin So, on the control of garden diseases and insects, has the following to say regarding the use of nicotine sulphate: "For small garden plats one tea-spoonful of nicotine sulphate should bo used to one gallon of water, to which a one-inch cube of hard soap should be added and thoroughly mixed. If a larger quantity is desired, use one t-uid ounce to eight gallons of water, with the addition of one-half pound of soap. Full directions are given on the covers of packages, and instructions accompany them. "In the use of nicotine sulphate the effective application of the spray is of the utmost importance, since it is primarily upon this that the success or failure of the treatment depends. If the liquid has stood for any length of time it should be agitated thoroughly before use. The insects themselves must receive a thorough coat of the spray or they will not be killed, and immediate inspection after spraying should show the foliage occupied by the insects to be completely wet. "Spraying should be done as early as possible, always on the first appearance of the insect, not only because it Is good practice to keep the plants free from lx'sts but because more thorough work can be done on small plants." The main point is to start the fight in time and kill the advance scouts and head off the main army of insect pests. Modern Machinery for Planting and Cultivating Ftccts Makes Work Less Laborious. Prvpartd by the Cnited States Depart ment of Agriculture.) With the development of the silo j iaiiy da fry cow owners have overlooked the value of roots a? a succulent fod for rattle. Mangel-wurzel, 1 eots. carrots, and turnips are the prin- :pal rots grow n for this purpose. They arp particularly adapted to the .-oier and more moist portions of the our try. The prinoiia! draw hark to t-!.ir ve is t!;e la! or of growine, bar-er!risr and storing them. On the other haiid. say specialists of the Uni-led St;:te Popart mi -nt of Agriculture, o? -rops have a distinct advantage V.r sirs'! f'r.iries, as it is generally ac- ep'ed thrt a silo will not prove eo-tiei,,:r l -i here less than six animals rre r-... fed. Roots niay he stored i; ;i j roper c-dlar, or huriod iti the irr:;i:d. and van he tak-n ovit in any sin-'! quantity without injury to th.e re?n;i:t.'ier. A surprising amount of roots ran he produced on a small at re;iee. A y;ei' .f tons per acre of mangel-vurz ! is nothing: unusual, while in Kngland. where rxts are used almosi entirely to supply succulent fivd. the yield per acre is increased still further hy intensive farming. Oth r kinds of heets. and also turnips ;r d carrots, may he used. Tur-n'ps. hoATver, should he fed after milking rather thau before, as they give a had favor to the pnvduct. Yellow carrots impart a desirahle color To the milk. For feeding purposes the mangels Trill prohatly he found the most practical beet. Among carrots, the Ivonp Orange is ie-ommendod le-cnuse of its large size and heavy yield. It forms a lor.g. thick root, and is very easily grown. The White Vosges or Belgian, is grown exclusively for stock, and N nn even heavier yielder. The ratal -aga is recommended as a good tvimir. The same soils ami methods of cul'ivatir.g are adapted to all three kinds of roots. The so:! should he well enriched, and l.uM 1 e orp that warms v.p quickly in th.- sprirg. Most growers regard sandy lora r.s .-st adapted to the culture of rcot rop. this being particularly XTrsf of ti e arly pr:nsr crop. 1 &r $ .4 i v, V K. 4. V- I 5 .vi '- ,.. An Acre cr Two of Roots Will Feed a Small Dai-y Herd. For letter creps heavy soils can be employed. jnd iriii k soils are widely us-d for the midsummer and fall crops, l-and that is in good physical condition as the result of early and proper handling, well supplied with available plant food ar.d rich in organic matter, js essential to best results. Appli cations ef stable manure at the rate of to 30 tons per acre are advisable, and this may profitably be su-plemented ty the use of commercial fertili7er containing at l-at 2 per cent nitrogen, s per '-eni phosphoric acid, and 4 per cent potash. The seed is sown in rows at least inch1 apart If horse cultivation is practiced, but under hand cultivation they rc-od not be more than 15 to IS inches. Ordinarily about t pound of l-ee? seed per acre i required. Seed is ordinarily covered to a depth of H to 1 tnefc. As loet seed is rather !ow in germination, the practice of sowing some quick-sprouting seed along with it is sometimes followed. These plants serve as markers for he row? before the lets are up. so that cultivation may be begun Ivefore the beets shew above the ground. Radishes are frqwr.t!y used for this purpose. Be-t seftds come In clusters, and it is inevitable that thinning by hand will be required. Floor intended for winter storage are allowed to stand in the field until jnt before heavy autumn frosts oe- in r5s or cellars, requiring much the same treatment as potatoes ami sun- liar root crop's, "FtTm 151 to 35 pounds of sliced or m pulped roots, with a proper grain ration and dry foliage. Is a day's ration for an ordinary dairy cow. Thus it will he seen that 2H t(s carry a cow throxtgh the usual five-months" winter feeding period. An acre or two ,yf l,ee!, carrots and turnips should le enonch to supply any herd which Is not large enough to make a silo profitable. With the development of the sugardvret industry many implements and raerhods of culture have leen devised vhich reduce th labor required to grrrv root crops. 1 i It May Be Caused by Improper Functioning of System Brought About by Improper Feed. (Prepared by the United States Department of Aj?riculture.) Failure in the ability or desire of swine to reproduce may be caused by any of several conditions, say specialists of the United States Department of Agriculture. It may result from a disease or Injury that seriously affects or destroys the secretory reproductive organs. It may be caused by improper functioning of the system, which in turn is often brought about by unsuitable feed or faulty elimination of waste products, or it may be due to a general lowering of body vitality. There are also cases of sterility or impotence for which definite causes are dillicult to find. Failure to breed quite frequently occurs in boars and sows which have been fitted and kept in high condition for show purposes. Iu some instances the sow fails to come in heat, or perhaps indicates that she is in heat and is successfully served by the boar without resulting conception. In other cases the boar shows no desire to mate, or acts ineffectively. The first step in overcoming tin-trouble is to find u positive cause, when possible, by making a thorough examination. This should include a search for physical defects, the presence of disease, the results of iujuries, or lowered vitality from any cause. When, from such examination, it uppears that proper treatment will prove successful, remedies should be administered promptly. But if the cause is obscure, or if there is little likelihood of correcting the defect successfully, it is best to remove the animal from the breeding herd. Boars may be castrated and fitted for slaughter as murket hogs. Similarly, sows should be discarded when they become uncertain breeders. When there is no apparent cause for failure of swine to mate, experts of the United States Department of Agriculture frequently have observed a lazy or sluggish temperament. These hogs generally are of the type known as "hot-bloods." They are fat and show an unwillingness to exercise. The tendency is more common in mature hogs and increases with age, but is frequently found iu young stock. Careless and unwise inbreeding practices tend to produce hogs of this type, but inbreeding does not necessarily bring about the condition. When the lack of sexual vigor is seen in only an occasional animal it Pigs on Oat and Pea Forage. maj' he possible to recognize the fault in blood lines or type. But when failure to mate occurs frequently and when the type Is right, the indications are that the system of management is fundamentally wrong. Upon the appearance of this condition an effort should be made to correct It by a restriction or.modification of the diet and an abundance of exercise. The ration must have the fat-producing feeds largely reduced &nd protein feeds plentifully supplied. Pastures should be provided where possible, but when these are not available then the ration should consist of alfalfa meal, alfalfa, soybean or clover hay to supply protein and vltamines. high-grade tankage, fish meal, linseed meal, or a good grade of white middlings and whole oats with but small amounts of corn or ground barley, together with a good mineral mixture. In addition an abundance of dally exercise must be given. This will probably have to be forced by driving the hoar or sow about the paddocks or pastures daily until the animal is tired. By maintaining the digestive functions in a proper manner, by cnuslng abundant exercise and by supplying proper nourishment, there will b brought about a proper elimination of the body wastes and a rebuilding of the tissues. This should cause the reproductive organs to function properly and bring about a toning up of the system in such manner that breeding operations will be successfully conducted.. Swine breeders must be alert to the necessity for ruggedness in herd boars In addition to other qualifications. Breeders must refrain also from too great a degree of fineness and smoothness In the selection of their breeding animals, or loss of breeding power will ultimately develop In their, herds. & h W t(f A MM NO BEST BREED OF POULTRY There Are Three Classes Specially Adapted to Production of Eggs and Meat. (Prepared by the United States rerrt-tnent of Agriculture.) There is no best breed of poultry. That, at least, is the opinion of men in the United States Department of Agriculture who have been studying the business for years, and have had experience with all varieties of all breeds in America. To go among your friends and ask for advice about the kind of chickens to start with v.ould be about as productive of conflicting views as if you asked for help in buying a motor car or a typewriter. Every man has his likings, and some have good reasons for them, but in the end the beginner will have to be the Judge ; wherefore the opinion of the department specialists will be about the best guide: Keep only one variety of breed, and select the breed that suits your purpose best. Be sure of one thing have a standardbred male at the head of the flock. These are the reasons: Standard-bred fowls produce uniform products which bring higher prices. Standardbred stock and eggs sold for breeding purposes, bring higher prices than market quotations. Standardbred fowls can be exhibited, and thus compete for prizes. Eggs and stock from mongrel fowls are not sold for breeding purposes. Mongrel fowls are not exhibited in poultry shows or expositions. General-purpose breeds are best suited to most farms when1 the production of both eggs and meat is desired. Th.e four most popular representatives of this class are the Plymouth Hock. Wyandotte. Orpington, end Ilhode Island Red. All these breeds, with the exception of the Orpington, are of American origin. They are characterized by having yellow skin and legs, and lay brown-shelled eggs. The Orpington is cf Encrlish origin, has a white skin, and aS - !:ys brown-shelled eegs. You A Flock of White Plymouth Rocks A Good General-Purpose Breed. can get a detailed descri; :5ou of all fowls i American origin in Farmei-s' Bulletin SOG on "Standard Varieties of Chickens. I. Tlie Atueiican Class," which may be had upon application to the Division of Publications, United States Department of Agriculture. The Mediterranean or egg breeds are best suited Tor the pri' iction of w hite-s!eiled egg?5. Representatives of this class are bred largely for eggs rather th?r for meat. Among the popular breeds are Leghorn, Minorca, Ancona rnd Andalusian. An outstanding characteristic of the egg breeds is the fact that they are classed as nonsitters; that is, as a rale they do not become broody and hatch their eggs. When fowls of this class are kept, artificial incubation and brooding usually are employed. Farmers' Bulletin SOS. "Standard Varieties of Chickens. II. The Mediterranean Class." tells about this class. Langshans, Brahmas, Cochins and Cornish fowls belong in the meat breeds, rather than for eggs, and although classed for meat are sometimes kept as general -purpose fowls. They are all heavier and larger than the egg breeds or those of the general-purpose class and lay brown-shelled eggs Farmers' Bulletin 1052, "Standard Varieties of Chickens. III. Asiatic, English, and French Classes-describes the breeds In this class. Fowls for breeding purposes should be strong healthy, vigorous birds. The comb, face, and wattles should be a bright red, eyes bright and fairly prominent, head comparatively broad, s-hort. and not long or crow-shaped ; legs set well apart and straight, plumage dean and smooth. The beginner In poultry will be careful to have home ready for his flock before he gets It. Farmers Bulletin SSO contains suggestions plans and directions every poultry keeper should have. The Division of Publications will sen.?, it upon request. PREPARE WAR ON INSECT ENEMIES If Left Undisturbed Bugs of Various Kinds Will Destroy Best Part of Garden. PESTS HAVE BIG APPETITES Tobacco Extract Is Recommended for Plant Lice and Other Sucking Parasites Main Point Is to Start Fight Early. rrepared by the United States Department of Agriculture.) Gardeners are warned by specialists of the United States Department of Agriculture to prepare to combat the '"little enemies of the garden." Insects of various kinds are making their appearance in vast numbers in gardens iu all parts of the country, and if left undisturbed will defeat the gardener's best efforts and lay waste the vegetable crops. This is the open season for insects and there are no laws which limit the number which may be killed. The department specialists urge the use of the spray pump and dusting bag for the frequent application of poisons in order to destroy the pests before they destroy the garden. Early efforts in fighting insects are most effective. Little Bugs With Big Appetites. i In most localities the Colorado or I hard-shell" potato beetles are indus- Insects Do Net Thrive in This Garden, but the Crops Do. " triously depositing clusters of small yellowish eggs on the underside of the potato leaves. In a few days these hatch into little red, soft-shelled slugs or "soft-shells," as they are often called, that have most wonderful ap-petities. and unless poisons are applied they will soon strip the potato plants of their leaves. Perhaps there is no class of garden insects the method of attack of which is so Insidious as that f the plant lice or aphlds. At first a very few lice may be found hidden on the under side of the leaves of melons peas, cabbage, and other vegetables. A little later the leaves begin to curl up and to lose their color, and an examination will show that I he "lice" which the ants carried out have became grandmothers, and the under side of the leaves will be literally alive with them, feasting on the Juices of the plants. At this stage something must be done quickly, for within a few days there will be another generation or brood at work. Arsenate of lead and parls green rave no effect upon this army of plant b!ood suckers and It Is necessary to use contact poisons A preparation must be used that will not Injure the plants but which will kill the "lice." The mo?i common of these contact poisons is nicotine sulphate a tobao POSSIBILITIES OF GOOD COWS Dairyman Should Test Animals in Herd and "Weed Out All "Boarders Use Purebred Sire. Records show the possibilities of good cows. Farmers should test their herds and weed out the "boarder" cows by using the-Babcock tester or joining a cow-testing association. The best way to improve the herd is to use a purebred sire either by owning one or joining a co-operative bull association. Keep Turkeys Dry. Keep the turkeys out of the wet and do not let them run until the grass is dry. Also look out for lice. The same with chickens Hen Is Arbitrary. Perhaps the hen Is a little arbitrary in her demands because she refuses to make eggs unless the necessary materials are supplied. Metal Grain Bin. A metal grain bin Is rat, rabbit, thief and fire proof. 5 K-WfB Discovered in Switzerland and Used for Purpose of Extracting Valuable Bitumen. Asphalt, though covering thousands of miles of roads in all countries, was discovered quite by accident. In the middle of the last century it was found iu Switzerland in its natural state, and used for the purpose of extracting the valuable store of bitumen It contained. In time it was noticed that pieces of rock which fell from the wagons, and were crushed by the wheels, formed a very line road surface when hajf melted hy the heat of the sun. An experiment was made and a road of asphalt laid in Paris. It was so successful that the new road material became adopted through all the big towns of Europe. AH sorts of materials have been tried since, from rubber to seaweed. It is very likely, in fact, that in the future the streets of our big cities will be paved with some form of rubber mixture which will be practically noiseless. Very extensive experiments have already been carried out with such a mixture. In New York several streets are paved with steel, and a steel road has been in use in Valencia, in Spain, for the last 20 years. Perhaps the most curious material for a road is seaweed. This compressed into solid blocks, is used to pave the streets of Baltimore. These seaweed blocks are bound with wire and dipped into boiling tar before being put to use. DESTROY ROADSIDE WEEDS Because- 1. .They act as centers of weed infestation for adjoining fields. 2. They may be carried for many miles by passing vehicles and animals. 3. They harbor harmful insects and plant disease.?. 4. They create insanitary conditions. 5. They are unsightly. Methods for destroying roadside woods, approved by specialists of the W - 1 SS-"V , r r r Weeds Along Roadside Harbor Injurious Insects and Various Plant Diseases. United States Department of Agriculture, are: By 1. Mowing twice a year while they are fn full bloom, usually In June and August. 2. Utilizing the roadsides for growing hay. 3. Grazing with tethered animals. 4. Converting weedy roadsides Into lawns GRADE ALL ROADSIDES SO THE WEEDS CAN BE CONTROLLED. WIRE MESH GOOD FOR ROADS British Army in Egypt Used Chicken. Wire in Building Temporary Routes in Sand. The British arniy in Egypt has used chicken-wire in the construction of roads. Loose sand was smoothed and leveled and then covered with chicken-wire, which was firmly pegged down. The passage of troops or motor transports seemed to affect the road very little, while the passage of animal-drawn vehicles damaged the improvised road badly. However, it was possible to make repairs quickly and the road was easily kept in good condition. Of course this wire-mesh road wad purely a temporary expedient for the military. The old Romans still hold the palm as the champion road-makers of the world. Many a foundation of the roads they made ts still In use In Europe, the surface alcme v being modern. t 5 GROW PURPLE VETCH FOR VALUABLE SEED i (Prepared by Hip United States Depart- mont of AgrieuHure.) Due largely to the intermediary ef- ! forts of the United States Department j of Agriculture, 'J.-500 acres of purple j vetch is reported as being grown this year for seed in northwestern California for use in the orchards of the southern part of the state, where It ; has proven a superior green-manure crop. The superiority of purple vetch in California for green manure lies In the fact that it makes more growth during the winter months and can be turned under earlier than other legume : crops. Purple vetch was first brought to this country from Italy in 1S00 and its j advantages have leen appreciated for a number of years, but it was not pos sible to introduce it extensively because of scarcity of seed. In the region where it was most valuable it has not been feasible to raise purple vetch in large quantities because of climatic conditions. In the North, on the other hand, the seed can be grown successfully, but there the purple vetch is not in as great favor for forage as common vetch, which is hardier and has become established in popularity. To jnake a bridge between the two geographically distant localities has been the work of a number of years on the part of the department experts. It was first necessary to demonstrate the value of purple vetch in the South, and afterwards to induce northern farmers to substitute it to some extent for their customary crops. This latter was difficult, because purple vetch was not quoted in the market, and also because, w here a sale was effected, farmers were tempted to sell their entire stock, reserving no seed to maintain or extend the acreage. The assistance of a large California fruit growers' association was enlisted, and last year 500 acres were grown under guarantee, a large portion of the yield being kept for seed. This year northwestern California and Oregon farmers will receive 14 cents a pound for purple vetch seed, which should give them from $150 to $200 per acre in addition to the straw. From now on it is expected sufficient seed will be available for all needs. PUREBRED BULLS UNCERTAIN Behooves Farmer to Be Careful of What He Is Buying If Possible Look at Dam and Sire. Some purebred bulls are worse than scrubs. Be careful of what you are buying. Study the pedigree carefully and if possible get a look at the dam and sire of the animal In question. Never buy on records or pedigree alone; get this coupled with individuality. Poor individuals go begging at sales and in your barn. Silo Is Labor Saving. The silo is a labor-saving equipment and It saves In storage space. Eight times more feed can be stored in the silo than In the movr. Keep Garden Busy. Even gardens shouldn't loaf. Lettuce and radishes may be grown between root crop rows Advantage of Silage. Silage Is a succulent, grnsslike feed, eastly digested, and seems to stimulate digestion. ,

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