The Salt Lake Tribune from Salt Lake City, Utah on September 2, 1945 · Page 1
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The Salt Lake Tribune from Salt Lake City, Utah · Page 1

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Sunday, September 2, 1945
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WORLD, NEWS Associated Press United Press N, Y. Tlmei Foreign Service tibnn WEATHER Partly Cloudy (Detail* on Page B-7) VOL. 151, NO. 141 SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH, SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 2, 1945 PRICE TWELVE CENTS Signs Surrender C7 Truman's Draft, Job Bills Face Congress Fight Wednesday Opening Seen As Hotbed of Oratory WASHINGTON, Sept. 1 (IP)—An official call went out Saturday for the reconvening Wednesday of a congress already storing up plenty of hot oratory and trouble for the administration. The big job : of course, will be to remodel old laws and enact new ones to help ease the country into a peacetime way of life. Eventually congress may get around to lowering taxes, perhaps on next year's incomes, which always is a popular procedure with both the legislators and the people. But in the more immediate picture—and here's where trouble for the administration comes in— are such items as more unemployment compensation for idle war workers, assuring opportunities for jobs, continuing the draft, giving veterans back their old jobs and determining who gets fired. Also coming up are disposal of leftover war supplies, consolidating or abolishing some government agencies in the interests of economy and efficiency, merging the army and navy under one command. Pres. Truman wants action on most of these and congress will hear from him again Wednesday or Thursday. Confers With Truman Senate Majority Leader Barkley of Kentucky, one of the leaders who wired absent members that "legislative expediency" requires that congress get back on the job next week, saw Mr. Truman Saturday. The presidential message, he said, will cover recon- version, termination of lend-lease and a good many other things. Both senate and house committees already are holding hearings on extra pay for the jobless—and showing signs of not liking the legislation much. But there is talk of compromises. And in diluted form an unemployment compensation bill might be the first big measure to reach the senate floor. Ready for consideration on the house side is a bill to set up a single surplus property administrator. The senate banking committee may approve within a few days a measure designed to help assure jobs for those who want them, but rougher going is indicated for the measure in the house. Draft Stay Seen Legislation to continue the draft Is in the hearing stage In the houae military committee. Some congressmen want to abolish selective service right now, despite Mr. Truman's urgings that it's still needed, but the outlook for retention is brighter than it was. However, any outright extension of the draft beyond the present expiration date of "next May 15 faces stout opposition. For a may have to content itself with debate instead of action on senate and house floors. And, with the war over and most members coming up for reelection next year, the open season for politics will be on again. Congress Is cutting short a vacation originally scheduled to end Oct 8. Drive to Slow Draft Now Loses Steam week or more congress WASHINGTON, Sept. 1 UP)— A poll of the house military committee showed Saturday that a campaign for immediate end of the draft has lost its steam. Fourteen committee members told a reporter they believed selective service will be allowed to continue, at least for a few months. Likewise, they said it probably will be necessary to continue- inducting I§ and 19 year olds. Most of the committeemen said they would like to see the draft abolished or modified, but expressed belief it must be kept for a while for two reasons: Replacement and Occupation 1. To guarantee the replacement of veteran fighting men. 2. To insure an adequate number of occupation troops. They added *hat a demand probably .still will bo raised on the house and senate floors for a change in policy. » Their plan, however, is to keep bottled up in committee any anti- draft legislation until it is seen whether volunteer enlistments increase beyond expectations or the need for occupation troops drops. In this connection, a special subcommittee headed by Chairman May (D), Kentucky, speeded work Saturday on proposed legislation designed to encourage volunteering. It would provide added financial inducements, with increased pay for overseas service one of the chief provisions. See Temporary Continuance Most of the legislators polled asserted that although the draft will be kept temporarily they will not go along with Pres. Truman's recommendation for immediate action to continue it with two-year terms of service for rnen 18 to 25. They said they still hope that before the draft act expires .May 15, the military situation will have improved enough to allow a halt to forced inductions. But if congress votes to continue the draft, many house members will insist thaat the army continue also its program of education for the asking for service men. 'WORLD MUST FIND PEACE' General of the Army Douglas MacArthur ... Sunday signed the Japanese surrender articles as supreme commander of occupation for the allied governments. In his speech at conclusion of the ceremony he stated;tha^tti^world has had its last chance and must now set up the machtaery;Jbr:lastlng peace or perish. Labor's Deeds Cited by Truman WASHINGTON, Sept. 1 UP)— Pres. Truman said Saturday nigh in a Labor day statement that th< nation recognizes the importance and dignity of labor and the righ of every American to a wage which will permit a decent living stand ard. The president's comment was echoed by other leaders in the country, as the United States prepared to celebrate the Labor day holiday. Concern was voiced by some leaders, however, lest the process of reconversion and attendant unemployment might not be promptly solved. k Meanwhile, the nation's war workers, who have been urged since the start of the war to regard Labor day as just another working day, we.re told to have fun on Monday. Praises Contributions "Each year since the battle of production began," W P B Chairman J. A. Krug said-in.a statement. "American labor has responded nobly to the repeated urgings to stay on the job until victory is won. Now, at last, thanks to labor's patriotic steadfastness, this year it is a pleasure to invite labor to celebrate its magnificent ON THE INSIDE • SECTION A Editorials 12 James Young 4 State News 8-10 Inter-mountain News.. 9 Local News 11-13 SECTION B Locals News.. 1-2-3-7-14 Radio Log 2 Sports .4-5-6 Mines, Markets 7 SECTION C Local Society . .2-4-5-6-8 State Society .2-10-11-12 Club Calendar 5 Hello, Daddy 7 Kathleen Norris 8 SECTION D Theater News 1-3 Books, Music 2 Dear Joe 4 Utah Honor Roll 5 Balanced Budget Depends On Job Bill, Says Bowles . WASHINGTON, Sept. 1 UP)— Price Administrator Chester Bowles asserted Saturday that the so-called full employment bill and the program necessary to make it effective "provide the only practical hope of a balanced federal budget," With an national production of 200 billion dollars worth of goods and services annually, a regularly balanced budget should be readily obtainable with relatively moderate taxes," Bowles said in a statement presented to the senate banking committee. "But who would assume," he asked, "what with a national production of, say, only 110 billion dollars and with 20 million men talking the streets in search of obs, We could raise the necessary ! unds to meet our federal commitments within the bounds of practical taxation ?" Asserting- the bill merely states a national policy and calls for a >rogram to achieve it, Bowles sug- ested such a program include: i , 1. A loong-range tax program to encourage the maximum of private investment and enterprise, as soon as inflationary dangers ends. 2. A which groups. social security will cover all program working 3. A farm program which will develop'into a national, policy of maintenance of high farm income. 4. Dropping the controls developed during the war. The committee closed its hearings, on the measure with Bowles 1 ' statement and testimony ' from John W. Snyder, director of war mobilization and reconversion; Sen. Sheridan Downey (D), California, and Maj. Gen. Philip B. Fleming, federal works administrator. Snyder declared the federal government "must adopt measures which will, 1 believe, be the determining factor in whether or not we can reach and hold full, employment." Among such measures he listed See Page 5, Column 4 accomplishments ,in winning the war," In his tribute to labor, Mr. Truman said: "Six years ago the workers of the United States and of the world, awoke t oa Labor day in a world at war. The democracies of western Europe had just accepted the callenge of totalitarianism. .We in the United States had two years of grace, but the issue was squarely joined at that hour, as we now know. There was to be no peace until tyranny had been outlawed. "Today we stand on the threshold of a new world. We must do our part in making this world what it should be—a world in which the bigotories of race and class and creed shall not be permitted to warp the souls of men. "We enter upon an era of great problems, but to live 1 is to face problems. Our men and women did not falter in the task of saving freedom. They will not falter now in the task of making freedom secure. And high in the ranks of those men and women, as a grateful world will always remember, are the workers of all free nations who produced the vast equipment with which the victory was won. Recognize Rights "We recognize the importance and dignity of labor, and we recognize the right of every American citizen to a wage which will permit him and his dependents to maintain a decent standard of liy- ing." Secy, of the Navy Forrestal said Labor day provided a fitting occasion "for the armed service's and for the citizens -of the nation to express their .gratitude to the American working man for his contributions toward victory. "The German and Japanese war ords have complained bitterly that all their imperial spirit was inadequate to. oppose America's material superiority — a -superiority lammered out by labor's strong arm." Holiday Increases Auto Death Toll By ASSOCIATED PRESS Jammed highways, crowded :rains and buses—and a death oil which already had reached 1—Saturday night marked the ipcning of the first postwar Labor lay holiday week end. Skin-thin tires were no deterrent as that once-vanishing American, le holiday driver, returned in force o the nation's highways. Traffic .ccidents by last night had claimed 4 lives, * including 10 in Illinois. Rites on USS Missouri Mark Return of Peace THANKS GOD MacArthur Reports 'Mission Finished' ABOARD USS MISSOURI, Tokyo Bay, Sept. 2 (UP)—From the deck of this battleship Gen. of Army Douglas MacArthur re ported to his countrymen Sunday that "the holy mission lias been completed." "In reporting this to you, the people," he said, "I speak for the thousands of silent lips, forever stilled among the jungles and the beaches and in the deep waters of the Pacific which marked the way." He spoke for the men who survived the victory and who- now are homeward-bound. He begged of America: "Take care of them." MacArthur spoke before and after the Japanese and representatives of the victorious nations had signed surrender documents on the forward starboard deck. In his first statement, addressed to' the assembled signatories' and witnesses, he expressed the hope that a better world would emerge from the war. JIopo of Mankind "It is my earnest hope and, indeed, -the hope of-all- marrkin'd that from this solemn occasion a better world shall emerge, out of the blood and carnage of the past,", he said, "a world founded upon faith and understanding, a world dedicated to the dignity of man and the fulfillment of his most cherished wish—for freedom, tolerance and justice." He said the human spirit must keep pace with science, because "the problem basically is theological and involves a spiritual recrudescence and Improvement of human character ... It must be of the spirit if we are to save the flesh." He recalled that Commodore Perry came to Tokyo 92 years ago to bring Japan an era of enlightenment and progress by lifting the veil of isolation. Misuse of Knowledge "But, alas, the knowledge thereby gained of western science was forged into an instrument of oppression and human enslavement," he said. ". . . Wo are committed by the Potsdam declaration of principles to see that the Japanese people are liberated from thiis condition of slavery. "It is my purpose to implement this commitment just as rapidly as the armed forces are demobilized and other essential steps taken to neutralize the war potential." He held up the Philippines as a model "for this new free world of Asia. "In the Philippines," he said, "America lias demonstrated that the peoples of the east 'and the peoples of the west may walk side by side in mutual respect and with mutual benefit," After the signing MacArthur reported to America that "a great tragedy has ended." "A great victory has'been won," See Jr'age 3, Column 8 Side Glances At Ritual Of Surrender • USS MISSOURI, Tokyo Bay, Sunday, Sept. 2 t/P)—In striking contrast with the brilliant uniforms of most of the allied representatives at today's Japanese surrender ceremonies, Gen. MacArthur wore cotton khaki slacks, his battered, gilt-brimmed cap, and a .cotton shirt, open at the neck. MacArthur, to emphasize that this was a fighting war, has scorned neckties and formal dress since he left Australia. Approximately 200 correspondents—including some Japanese— witnessed today's -surrender ceremonies. A Japanese reporter for Domei instinctively ducked as American corsairs flew over. Russians, Chinese, British, Australians and one Filipino were among the newspaper, magazine and radio representatives. The surrender document handed :he Japanese signatories was bound in black — traditional color for mourning. The copy retained by Gen. MacArthur for the allies was bound in green—traditional color of new life and new hope. The only hitch in Saturday's surrender ceremony came near the end when Col. L, Moore Cosgrave, Canadian representative, signed on the wrong line. The Japanese delegates, when presented their copy, started to protest. The matter was settled quickly in a conference between Lt. Gen. Richard K. Suterland, Gen. Douglas MacArthur's chief of staff, and a Japanese representative. USS MISSOURI, Tokyo Bay, Sunday, Sept. 2 UP)—Japan. surrendered formally and unconditionally to the allies Sunday in a 20-minute ceremony which ended just as the sun burst through low-hanging clouds as a shining symbol to a ravaged world now done with war. The sqlemn ceremony, marking the first defeat in Japan's 2600-year-old semilegendary history, took place aboard this mighty battleship with 12 signatures which required only a few minutes to affix to the articles of surrender. » Surrounded by the might of the United States navy and army, and under the eyes of the American and British commanders they so ruthlessly defeated in the Philippines and Malaya, the Japanese representatives quietly made the marks on paper which ended the bloody Pacific conflict. Ends in Complete Victory for the Allies That horrible war, which had entered its eighth ,year in China and had raged for nearly three years and nine months for the United States and Great Britain, was finally and officially' at an end with complete victory for the allies. On behalf of Emperor Hirohito, Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signed first for Japan. He doffed his top hat, tinkered with the pen and then firmly affixed his signature to the stir- render document, a paper about 12 by 18 inches. Shigemitiu carefully signed the American copy first; then affixed nis name to a duplicate copy to be retained by Japan. '. Following him, Gen. Yoshijiro Umezu, of the Japanese imperial genera! staff, sat down resolutely and scrawled his name on the documents as if in a tremendous .hurry. A Japanese colonel present was seen to wipe tears from his eyes as the general signed. All the Japanese looked tense and weary. Shige- mitsu looked on anxiously as Umezu signed. ' Mac Arthur Signs on Behalf of Allied Powers Gen. MacArthur was next to sign, as supreme allied commander, on behalf of all the victorious allied powers. MacArthur immediately called for Lt. Gen. Jonathan Wainwrigfct of Bataan By ASSOCIATED PRESS . , ., -;..«-i- . , Article by article, here is what Japan -agrees to do under the terms of surrender: 1. Accept all provisions of the Potsdam declaration. 2. Surrender unconditionally all armed forces. 3. Cease hostilities forthwith and preserve and save from damage all ships, aircraft and military and civil property. 4. Command imperial headquarters to issue orders to all field commanders everywhere to surrender their forces unconditionally. 5. See that all civil, military and naval officials obey and enforce all orders of the supreme allied commander. 6. Carry out in good faith under allied direction the Potsdam declaration under which free institutions may be established leading to the restoration of sovereignty. 7. Liberate all allied war prisoners and civilian internees and see that they arrive safely at debarkation points. 8. Acknowledge that the authority of the emperor and the Japanese government is subject to the will of the supreme commander. V-J BRINGS PEACE ERA, RETRIBUTION-TRUMAN By UNITED PRESS WASHINGTON, Sept. 1 — Pres. Truman Saturday night proclaimed the end. of mankind's bloodiest war and the beginning of an era of world peace and prosperity assured of fruition by the same free skill and energy which produced the atomic bomb. In a broadcast following Japan's unconditional surrender aboard the USS Missouri—"That small piece of American soil anchored in Tokyo harbor"—Mr. Truman said: "As president of the United States, I proclaim Sunday, Sept. 2, 1945, to be V-J day—the day of formal surrender by Japan. It is«not yet the day for the formal proclamation of the end of the war or of the cessation of hostilities. "But it is a day which we Americans shall always remember as a day of retribution—as we remember that other day, the day of infamy." ' Mr. Truman declared that "the evil done by the Japanese war lords can never be repaired or forgotten." But he added that "their'power to destroy and kill has been taken from them" by the "strongest and toughest and most enduring forces in all the world"—-the forces of liberty. The president said that the thoughts and hopes of all America go out, first of all, to "those of our loved ones who have been killed or maimed in this terrible war." And, he added, we think *of our departed gallant leader, Franklin D. Roosevelt, defender of democracy, architect of world peace and cooperation. But though the dead can never come back and "no See Page .H, Column 6 and Corrcgidor and Lt, Gen. Sir Arthur Percival of Singapore to step forward. * These two defeated allied commanders, now savoring their hour of triumph, stepped up, and Wainwright helped MacArthur take his seat. MacArthur signed the documents with five pens. The first he handed immediately, to Gen. Wainwright, the second to Gen. Percival. } The third was an ordinary shipboard navy issue pen. MacArthur then produced a fourth pen, presumably to be sent to Pres. Truman. Thten he completed his signatures with still a fifth, possibly a trophy to be retained by himself. Gens. Wainwright and Percival, both obviously happy, saluted snappily. They were followed by serene-faced Adm. Nimitz, who signed on behalf of the United States. Next came China's representative. Gen. Mac.Arthur acted as a brisk master of ceremonies. He made a brief introductory statement before' the Japanese signed, then called upon each nation's signer in turn to step forward.' Russia Followed United Kingdom Signature . The United Kingdom's signature was followed by that of soviet Russia. The Russian staff officer signed quickly, seooting his chair into a more comfortable position even as he was signing. MacArthur smiled approvingjy as the Russian arose and saluted. Quickly in turn, Australian, Canadian, French, Dutch and New Zealand representatives signed in that order. The Australian, Gen. Sir Thomas Blarney, happened to sign the Japanese copy first, with an expression that denoted it didn't make any difference. The scene in Tokyo bay was largely obscured by clouds which hung fairly low amid the surrounding hills. The flags of the United States, Britain, Russia and China fluttered from the veranda deck of the Missouri. More than 100 hight ranking military and naval officers of the allies were in the colorfully uniformed group watching the ceremony. MacArthur, in his opening remarks, declared: "Is it my earnest hope and indeed the hope of all mankind that from this solemn occasion a better world shall emerge out of the blood and carnage of the past. Finally, after New Zealand's signature, less than 20 minutes from the start of the ceremony, the sun .broke through the clouds, and MacArthur formally and in a firm voice declared the proceedings closed. The Japanese prepared to depart immediately, their bitter Sea Page 5, Column 1

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