The Des Moines Register from Des Moines, Iowa on January 27, 1935 · Page 20
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The Des Moines Register from Des Moines, Iowa · Page 20

Des Moines, Iowa
Issue Date:
Sunday, January 27, 1935
Page 20
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THE DES MOINES REGISTER SUNDAY, JANUARY 27, T93S.' SIX IOWA NEWS "How Doe A Picture Story of How Wireptofos Are Sent and Received A Picture Story of How Wirephotos Are Sent and Received Work?" WrepJnioto Associated Press Wirephoto cameramen are at Oakland, Cal., airport when Amelia Earhart Tutnam lands her big red monoplane safely after a hazardous 2,400-mile flight across the Pacific. Lit- bflal As soon as the pictures are snapped they are rushed to a developing room and prints made. These are immediately rushed by plane four miles to the San Francisco Wirephoto sending station of The Associated Press. When Wirephoto wires are not actually carry, ing pictures they operate B3 a telephone system over which stations talk and receive instruction. "Hello, New York, San Francisco calling," says the Wirephoto operator on the Pacific Coast (the New York office schedules pictures in much the same way that a railroad dispatcher schedules trains), "Here's the first of the Earhart landing pictures." "Okay, send it now," calls back New York. The New York office tells all other Wirephoto offices to get ready to receive the Earhart picture. (D AiliillllJililllllllllilllvfl- 1 i if (B) Uuul mum A look Inside the Wirephoto sending machine at San Francisco would show that the picture (C) has been placed on a cylinder (A) which revolves exactly 100 times per minute. Light falls upon the picture from the lamp (B) and is reflected back to a photo-electric cell (D). At the moment shown in this drawing the light is falling upon sky in the picture which being white will reflect much more light back into the photo-electric cell, resulting in a strong current going out over wire (E). In less than a second the dark portion of the airplane will have moved into the point of light, less light will be reflected to the cell, and the current over the wire will be diminished. Both lamp and photo-electric cell are on a carriage which travels slowly alongside the rotating cylinder enabling the light beam to scan an 8xl0-inch picture in 8 minutes. (Now see picture 4 in right hand column) Thousands of Des Moines Tribune and Des Moines Register readers have asked this question within the past few weeks as scores of thrilling news pictures from all over the United States have appeared in their papers long before they could be obtained by any other means. Through the modern magic of Wirephoto readers of The Des Moines Tribune and The Des Moines Register now SEE the news as they read it. Pictures and words race along wires together "at the speed of light." On this page is a short graphic explanation of how Wirephoto works. v v-uV r" I Vi v l.'V'r5 , , vi , - j -v ;'. I: I INI I Jr r - i PA8K . , ,-" V yy W Jft II '114 1 r t gOQM tl muoih& cyunoer. vm Y-v nil i 'ynM r!:y . 111 iif) 3 ' ; V A f LINE TERMINAL BAY CIRCUIT) Here Is a view of The Des Moines Tribune and The Des Moines Register Wirephoto station Just as a picture is ready to be sent. The man in the foreground is receiving instructions to "go ahead" after having asked New York over the telephone if the wire is clear. (All pictures are scheduled by the New York office.) In the background another Wirephoto employe has just finished placing a picture on the sending machine. The lightproof cylinder on the receiving machine has just taken an inbound picture and will be taken to the darkroom where the film will be developed. Common Questions About Wirephoto And Their Answers Q. How ninny houri a day la Wirephoto at workT A. Twenty-four If needed, sixteen ordinarily. Q. How many men ar. employed at the Wirephoto Mutinn In The Ilea Mnliie Tribune and Des Molnea Register office? A. Five. Q. What la the rout of Wirephoto to The Dea Molnea Tribune and The Dee Molnea Register t A. $30,000 a year. Q. Do any other Iowa newspapers have Wirephoto T A. No. Q. How much faster la Wirephoto than present means of picture transmission T A. Take the case of a picture sent from Oakland, Calif., of the landing: of Amelia Earhart Putnam. By fast express train it would have come to Des Moines In about BO hours, by mail plane they would have made it In about 13 hours, but by Wirephoto a picture can be sent in 8 minutes. Q. Are photographs the only pictures can b sent by Wirephoto ? A. No; graphs, fingerprints, diagrams, drawings, maps almost any sort of pictorial subject may be sent by Wirephoto. Q. Who developed Wirephoto f A. Bell Telephone laboratory workers. Western Electrio are the manufacturer. Q. How many other newspapers In the I'nlted States have Wirephoto T A. Thirty-six. Q. Why must the sending cylinder and receiving cylinders all over the 10,000-mile circuit rotate at exactly the same speed? A. Any change In speed would resuit in a disfigured picture. Q. How well are these cylinders synchronised? A. To possible variation of less than 1 part In 300,000. Q. How Is this done? A. By means of a tuning fork vibrating at a constant speed controlling Independent power generators on the motors at each station. Wirephoto equipment located In these Zi key cities. Q. How Is the light valve at the receiving station made? A. It Is a duralumin ribbon shutter vibrating to the strength of the incoming electrical Impulse from the photo-electric cell at the sending station. - Q. How wide Is the beam of light that scans the photngraphio film at the receiving station? A. l-100th of an Inch. Thus with the cylinder revolving 100 times a minute the beam covers 1 Inch of the cylinder per minute or 11 square inches of area. Q. Are there any wire picture transmission systems similar to Wirephoto In operation In Europe? A. Yes; throughout Western Europe those in England are of the same excellence as Wirephoto In America. Q. Can these systems be linked to American Wirephoto? A. Not at present. By cable and radio there is too much Interference to permit clear transmission of Wirephoto pictures. It is possible that some meant of successful transmission by cable will be devised. Wirephoto at present saves much time in reception of European .pictures since the moment after landing they can be rushed to the New York Wirephoto sending station and flashed to all part of America. These varying electrical impulses race across thi continent at the speed of light, 186,000 miles per second. " ' tljlllllllllllll!llllllll rZrL ffllllillllllllllHIllllllll fefet7 T In the Wirephoto receiving station at The Des Moines Tribune and Des Moines Register office in Dei Moines, Iowa, 2,000 miles from California, another cylinder (A') is revolving also at 100 revolutions per minute synchronized to 1 part in 300,000 possible variation with the San Francisco sending cylinder. On this cylinder a photographic film (C) is placed, upon which light shines irregularly from lamp (B') as it is cut off and on by light valve (D') opened and closed by the electrical impulses coming over the wire from the photo-electric cell scanning the picture in San Francisco. When a strong current comes to the light valve, ai happens when light from a white part of the picture is reflected to the photo-electric cell in San Francisco, it opens wide and the film, exposed to the light, turns black. When less current comes the valve remains partially closed, little light reaches the film, and it remains undarkened. The result is a negative of the picture in San Francisco blacks and whites just reversed. Of course, all of this process takes place in a light proof container which is not opened until taken to the dark room for film development. iim5 I Newspaper engravings are made directly froin prints from these negatives. A few minutes after the reception of a Wirephoto, pictures can be in the paper. Wirephoto pictures may be sent to Des Moines from 25 American key cities on a 10,000-mile coast to coast circuit The Des Moines Tribune and The Des Moines Roister have the only Wirephoto equipment in Iowa. Day and night it is at the service of readers of these leading Iowa newspapers bringing them a vivid, thrilling, up-to-the-minute story of the news in pictures. THE DES MOINES TRIBUNE fHE DES MOINES REGISTER

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