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i OAKLAND TMBUNE, TWURSMTc OCTOBER 3, M55 PAGE LEAGUE REGARDS WAR AS FACT: MAY JUDGE GUILT SATURDAY WHERE WAR CLOUDS LOWER FORGE COUNCIL in AS Hit SIMPLE TRIBES IN FRENZY OF Italy Note To League States Case DESPITE OFFICIAL PROTEST FLASHES BATTLE I Oil RAIDS DAI il Text Throws War Blame on Ethiopian Mobilization, Past Acts of Aggression Dure Ready to Occupy All Bible Psalms, Sorcery Aid In Mobilization; Nation Is One -in Common Peril Of Ethiopia in 'Protective' Move for Africa Colonies By STEW ART BROWN, GENEVA, Oct. text of the Italian note to the League of Nations today as given out by the. Italian delegation and signed by Fulvio Suvich, undersecretary for foreign affairs, follows: I have the honor to communicate the following: The warlike aggressive spirit which has developed In Ethiopia among leaders of soldiers, who United Press Staff Correspondent. ROME. Oct.
3. (U.R) Italian troops will continue to force their Ethiopia, Italy Blame Each Other for Present Hostilities; League Faction Seeks Quick Decision on Responsibility for Conflict By WADE WERNER 'Copyright. 11)35, by the Associated Press) GENEVA, Oct. 3. Emperor Haile Selassie today flashed to the League of Nations the protest that attacking Italian airplanes had smashed 78 bombs into Aduwa, Ethiopia, damaged the Red Cross Hospital with civilian casualties, and brought war into Africa.
The air raid, declared the King of Kings, was accomplished by four planes. way into the interior of Ethiopia without waiting for an official declaration of war, high authori ADDIS ABABA, Oct. 3 (IP) People of the most remote villages of the kingdom, ranging from Paran Negroes of Wallega Province, who eat alligators, to the wild tribes of Wallamo Province who devour hippopotami, were shaken out of their lethargic existence into a frenzy of patriotism. Mortal enemies, embittered by ties said today. If any explanation Is demanded, Rome Intends to reply that Ethiopia's continued "aggressive attitude" makes war necessary to safeguard Italy's colonies bordering Ethiopia.
League authorities said war 'he Conservative Party to unani- mous adoption of a resolution call In quarters close to Premier Benito Mussolini, the United Press learned II Duce feels much relieved now that the decisive step has been taken. His friends explained he has been laboring under an almost inhuman strain for many weeks as ing upon the Government to speed the expansion of it's defense forces. Support of the Government in its defense of the League of Nation's covenant also was unqualifiedly given in a unanimous resolution. "Europe." said Churchill, first lord of the admiralty at the beginning of the World War, "probably would not be in its present position had we not disarmed to the point of danger. It is the duty of his majesty's government forthwith to repair the serious deficiencies in the defense forcesA have been demanding for some time past with insistence and who have succeeded in Imposing war against Italy, has found its latest fullest expression In an order for general mobilization announced by Ethiopia in its telegram of September 28.
This order constitutes an immediate direct menace for Italian troops, with the aggravated circumstance of creation of a neutral zone which was announced from Addis Ababa with special motives which in reality is only a strategical movement destined to facilitate the gathering and aggressive preparation of Ethiopian- troops. The Italian government had the honor to communicate in Its aide memoire of September 4 documents providing acts of aggression continuously bloody, to which Italy has been subjected for the last 10 years. In consequence of the order of general mobilization this aggression has taken on a volur of impor between Italy and Ethiopia now was a fact. League officials said a project for sending neutral' aerial observers to watch the Ethiopian border no loWger appeared feasible because it seemed that war. actual, although unofficial, already had started.
League officials seemed inclined to believe the Council would reach a clear decision as to the aggressor in the Italo-Ethiopian dispute, matter what difficulty it encounters later. As one official expressed it: "This is the clearest case in the whole history of the Leaeuc. is a real lest of League sincerity, for if the League can -not decide clearly nw, it can never hope to know its own mind in any later erisis." he fought to carry through his African program without setting a torch to European peace. It was reported on good authority that Mussolini has spent many sleepless nights, constantly drinking camomile tea. Last night his emotion reached a climax.
Those close to him during his mobilization speech said he scarcely could complete some of his sentences. At one point in his speech, his immediate entourage thought he could not finish. It was explained on his behalf that he has been fighting worldwide opposition to his program almost single-handedly, and like long "unsettled family, and personal feuds, buried the hatchet in their common desire to save the fatherland. Native bards playing biblical harps and, chanting the psalms of David, aroused patriots to the highest pitch of martial ardor with their plaintive music. As women heard the cry they broke into militant song, pounded drums and fired their men with the spirit of sacrifice and bravery.
It was a solemn day for all. Gray bearded, bent heroes of Adowa, now too old to go back to the wars, gave their magic amulets to sons and grandsons. They believe these talismen make them invulnerable to Italian gunfire. Aged witches with more faith In. sorcery than nature gave their kinsmen secret herbal medicines to heal wounds.
Thousands' sheep were being slaughtered and their blood blessed by priests as sacrifice for victory. Pagan tribes flocked to sacred trees for inspirational communion with the spirits. Women of all degrees placed their babies in the care of elders and prepared food and goat's tallow for the march. Their menfolk packed buffalo skin blankets which also serve as beds. PAGEANTRY IN CAPITAL Here in the Capital, the Mayor and his army proceeded to the streets to insure order and security.
"This is the 11th hour and I pray it is not too late." Rome Bars Civilian Bombing, Says Envoy LONDON, Oct. 3 (PI Reports of an air bombing of Aduwa, Ethiopia, were met today with the following official statement by the Italian embassy. "Premier Mussolini and the Government have given express instructions to our forces that on no account must civilian centers of population be bombed." An Italian Embassy spokesman tance which is much more considerable, which maniiestly involves more serious immediate danger, against which it is necessary to react without delay because of elementary reasons of security. In presence of this situation the Italian government has found itself The Council Committee of 13 iriet suddenly to discuss the emergency which had arisen. Its members were expected to confer frequently untij Saturday when a report will be submitted to the League Council.
The League council was officially convoked for an emergency session Saturday morning to deal with the conflict. FOES INVITED SIT Both Italian and Ethiopian dele-I gations will be invited to attend the Council session: Italy, because she is a member of the Council, and Ethiopia, because she has a right to sit temporarily as a member during the discussion of the dispute. compelled to authorize the supreme command in Eritrea to take necessary steps in defense. added: "To bomb an area where there is a civilian population would be a violation of tradition and honor." Vatican Steeped in doom on War Outbreak SUEZ VATICAN CITY. Oct.
3. (U.R) Gloom enveloped the Vatican today when announcement was made UNDER STUDY By RICHARD D. McMILLAN (Copyrlshl. 1S3S. by the United Press) PARhVGct.
3. British jurists undertook a study hew of the The grave problem now has arisen Whether it is practicable to proceed With the drafting of recommendations for the settlement of the dispute. It- is the Council itself which must decide this point. Certain circles showed a tendency to press for a clear and official determination of war guilt in other words, for a determination of whether Italy or Ethiopia is to he held' responsible for agression. I THREE MONTHS Article XII of the Covenant says League members "must agree in no in Rome that hostilities had begun in Ethiopia.
The hope was expressed that the conflict could be confined to East Africa. Italian Consulate in Brazil Is Stoned SAO PAULO, Brazil, Oct. 3. UP) The Italian Consulate here was stoned nd daubed with tar before daybreak today by unidentified persons. Troops and police were placed on guard.
Egyptian Troops tyfove Tribal chiefs with lion manes arid riding gorgeously comparisoned mules and horses made up a memorable spiritual pageant to the palace. At the last minute it was decided that the Emperor's chancellor, Haile Wolderoufe, should read the proclamation for Selassie. To inspire youths to deeds Of valor, old men recounted martial glories in Ethiopia's past. They described countless invaders repulsed from the time of the ancient Sgyptians to the Romans and Mo-ammedans. ADOWA REMEMBERED On every side was heard such expressions as, "Menellk has arisen God Israel is with us," "Our patron sain George who gave us victory at Odawa will come again to save us death Italians!" Fanatical priests, fired by the belief this is a holy war, inspired their flocks to go forward to battle under the banner of Christ and Selassie.
"Down with your ploughs! Up with your spears!" "Forsake your shuttles for your swords!" "The God of Hosts is with us!" "Follow us behind the cross which brings victory and peace!" RESEMBLES RODEO legal aspects of preventing Italian troopships and supply ships from entering the Suez Canal, without closing the canal to ordinary traffic of any nation. It was understood that the question had been raised as to whether such ships could not be "intercepted." Th possibility that such "interception" might be legal was' based upon the presumption that economic sanctions may be voted against Italy by the League. The fine legal point involved appeared to be whether "interception? under Into Detense rositions ALEXANDRIA, Egypt, Oct. 3 (U.R) Egyptian troops, today began moving into towns and exposed areas, including Alexandria. ROME, Italy, Oct.
3. Premier Mussolini ii-showrr on a scene was duplicated yesterday when he delivered from the same bal- case to resort to war until three months after an awarS by the arbitrators or a report by the This agreement was interpreted by League officials to mean that neither Italy nor Ethiopia could legally resort to war for three months after the Council makes a decision on the dispute. League officials said they believed Italy would argue before the Council that she was not engaged in a war of conquest but, rather, in a war of defense. The Italian message, signed by Fulvio Suvich, undersecretary of foreign affairs, asserted Ethiopia's aggressive spirit had found its lat of cony his "war" address to his nation and the world at large. halcony of the Palazzo Venezia in a recent address lo thousands Rioters Stone Italy Mexico Citv Legation MEXICO CITY, Oct.
3. (Pi A such a circumstance would constitute an act of war or would be This I veterans and other persons who have been called to the colors. compatible with an economic small group of demonstrators, to Mussolini." stoned the I It was presumed that the study is Chronology of Afro-Italian Row being conducted in Paris because the headquarters of the Suez Canal Company are here, although more Italian Legation here last night, breaking several windows. After marching in front of newspaper offices, the demonstrators, who identified themselves as mem bers of the "A 1 1 Imperialist The following events trace the growth of the Italo-Ethiopian dispute, which has led to con flict in Africa: (By the Associated Press) Sept. JO.
Italian Government taxation Commission adjourns indefi- be aroused by illegal African par- tition ,,1 ilntementa pledging both niteiy a mail In a corner, has decided to fight his way out or die fighting. Veteran observers said his speech last night was in fact a cry for help and a plea to France and Britain to let him go through with his East African program without destroying him and the peace of Europe at the same time. That, might explain his failure to use the old slogan of "Sanctions mean war" and the expression of the same idea in more conciliatory phrases, The people here remained unusually quiet and calm after the flurry of excitement caused by the issuance of specially authorized extras announcing the advance in Ethiopia. Not a single demonstration of than half the stock in it is British-owned. The question of the right of the League, under international law, to close the canal to any nation adjudged an aggressor is a moot one.
Before the experts began their study It was officially asserted in French Government circles Wat the British Government did not intend to close the canal. As this program was debated by the jurists England and France appeared to be drawing closer together in their attitude toward Italian military action in East KELLOGG PACT URGED July 12. Secretary Hull urges observance of Kellogg-Briand peace Italy and Ethiopia to refrain from any acts of aggression aid abide by 1928 friendship treaty. The great circular forest of eucalyptus was an amphitheater with a black sea of humanity surging excitedly. The scene resembled gigantic rodeo.
Women witrTstraw, mushroom-like parasols and boys carrying rifles twice their own size massed below the palace. Selassie's lions roared restively when the mobilization drum! thundreded out. The Emperor signed the order with a gold pen and then resumed his throne in the palace. Sept. 17 Great Britain, dropping pretenses as home fleet reaches Gibraltar and Mediterranean points, admits world's third largest fleet concentrating in danger zone as a precautionary measure, (only Japan est complete expression in general mobilization of the Ethiopian forces an act which Italy called a direct, immediate threat to Italy's troops In East Africa.
It was not announced immediately whether the League assembly would meet this week to deal with the emergency. ITALY PLEA EXPECTED The League expected Italy to submit a comprehensive argument for self-defense as indicated in the Suvich telegram today but it foresaw that Aloisi would, as heretofore, refuse to sit at the same council table with the Ethiopian pact vows. Nov. 17 Italy protests attack by-fj July 26. President Roosevelt in League," proceeded to the Legation.
There speakers criticized Premier Mussolini and Italy for developments in Ethiopia. Police broke up the meeting, but made no arrests. A movement to demand that Mexico break diplomatic relations with Italy in protest against that country's "provoking war" was started by the same organization. Manlio Fabio Daltamiano, a Federal deputy, who earlier in the evening sponsored a motion condemning "capitalism and imperialistic war" which the chamber adopted, was designated by the League to present the demand to the government. and United States have larger fleets than those now in Mediterranean area).
Haile Selassie refuses to accept any tripartite protectorare. Sept. 18. League proposes peace plan, declined by Italy in advance. GOOD-WILL a mob on Italian Consulate at Gon-dar.
in which one Italian was killed and three wounded. Nov. 28. Ethiopia pays indemnity of 1450 lire (about $123.54) after apology. Dec.
5 Italian and Ethiopian troops clash near Walwal. 1935 Jan. 11 Ethiopia appeals to Africa. dicates 'avoidance of issues like Italo-Ethiopian dispute his present policy, July 31 Eden, Laval and Lit-vinoff fail to agree on League formula as council meets in extraordinary session. Aug.
3 Ethiopia, but not Italy.ac-cepts League peace plan. Aug. 9 Great Britain warns Brit- and kind was reported either In the capital or in the provinces. Nevertheless, newspapers were Bourse Prices Suez Bonds Down 100 PARIS, Oct. 3 P) Bourse issues dropped sharply again today France's military high commission met today to study the technical aspects of a military accord with.
England. Sept. 25. Italy and Britain exchange gijod-will assurances. Sept.
26. League Council, acting without Italy, unanimously votes to take action under Article XV of the Covenant, warning Italy and Ethi League for intervention. Jan. 23 Italy blames Ethiopi ns to leave Ethiopia. Aug.
15 Italy tells Great Britain Premier Pierre Laval and the chiefs of France's fighting forces attended the meeting. Italians Not Excited for massacre of 97 in French Somali eagerly bought up and there were small group discussions In such public places as restaurants of the government communique announcing, the Italian advance. Chief reason for the restraint shown by the populace was due, observers said, probably to the fact that war had not been unexpected, Over War, Says Envoy land. Spain Concentrates Feb. 1 Italy urges Ethiopia opia that any hostilities before December 4 automatically will put aggressor in status of committing act on the darker outlook in the Italo-Ethiopian situation.
There was no hysteria on the Bourse, but the steady downward pressure was felt on Government issues, the prices of which declined. This sinking was followed by bank, industrial and international bond issues. Suez Canal bonds jost 100 points. TOKYO, Oct. 3.
(U.R) Toshiharu Harima, Japanese diplomatist recently returned fronVRome, was status be changed from that of ful military occupation of Ethiopia is Italy's minimum demand. Aug. 23, Selassie offers Italy province of Aussa. Aug. 28 Mussolini warns sanctions means war, threatening to withdraw from League of Nations.
BRITISH FLEET AT CANAL of war against ail League members. formally or otherwise. Oct. 1. Italian Minister "to Addis Ababa orders Consulates evacuated.
Oct. 2. Mussolini mobilizes Ital A Mussolini communique has already made it known, however, that Italy would not leave the League until the League clearly took on itself the responsibility for "measures which strike at The telegram from the government of Haile Selassie, reporting continuance of a battle in Ethiopia, said: "These facts occurring in Ethiopian territory constitute a violation of the empire's frontier and a breach of the Covenant by Italian aggression." The Italian note, to the League declared that the general mohili-zaion, proclaimed today by Emperor Haile Selassie, "constitutes an immediate direct menace for Italian troops." BLAMES ETHIOPIA "In consequence of the order of general mobilization," it read, "this member, of League to that of a League mandate. ERITREA UNDER ARMS Feb. 11 Mussolini mobilizes soldiers, and orders 50 airplanes to Eritrean border.
Feb. 12. Ethiopia charges Italian machine gunners attacked Ethiopian patrol January 29 near Gerlogubi. Feb. 13 Italy and Ethiopia agree Air Force Defenses MADRID, Oct.
3. () All Spanish aviation services were concentrated under the War. Ministry today as a measure for increasing the efficiency of the army. All air services were placed un-, der the control of the director of aeronautics, who is responsible to the War Ministry. British Cruiser From Sailor Flees Fire, Overcome by Smoke Elmer Dudly, 19, a sailor living at the Hotel Ray, 10th and Wash- ian nation to declare: "We will answer war with war." Ethiopia tells League Italians have crossed border.
29 British Mediterranean Fleet leaves Malta for strategic positions around Suez Canal. Aug. 30 Francis M. Rickett. Roosevelt says: people of quoted today as saying Italian citi-zenf are not much excited over the Italo-Ethiopian situation.
The Tokyo Ashahi, in an exclusive interview with Harima, represented him also as saying Italians were not openly opposing a war with the African nation. Harima, first secretary of the Japanese Embassy at Rome, was reached at Shanghai by the newspaper. He said Premier Benito Mussolini was not concerned especially with the pro-Ethiopian tone of edi intend to remain Streets, awoke at 4:30 this America British promoter, reveals Ethiopian morning to find his bed on fire. 'I Love 'Mother' Top Song Titles exploitation concessions i ng P63" the world to establish neutral zone and appoint Oct. 3.
EmDeror Haile Selassie Hp telephonert the night clerk, ran half the country to interest which a boundary commission. orders general mobilization. Reports into hallway, and collapsed, Feb. 18. Two thousand Italian of Aduwa bombed and battle In ovwrewme ay mnua.c.
The night clerk put out the fire. soldiers board ship, starting month-long file of troops to Eritrea, Agame Province. March 19 League urges both na include Standard Vacuum Oil Company. Aug. 31 Great Britain asks concession be withdrawn.
President Roosevelt signs neutrality resolution to embargo arms if war breaks out. September 3 Secretary Hull announces oil company has withdrawn concession. tions to refrain from war. which was said to have been caused by Dudley's smoking in bed and falling asleep, and Patrolmen John McCumber and Wesley. Reisdorf, who arrived with an ambulance, China Station Arrives ADEN, Arabia, Oct.
3. UP) The British cruiser Berwick arrived today from its China station. The Berwick, tne cruiser Cornwall, the aircraft Carrier Hermes and four ''destroyers from China stations all touched recently at Singapore on the Malay Peninsula, en route from the Far East. Jailed Woman, 70, Given New Home March 25 Italians announce one Ethiopian killed in new border clash. SAN FRANCISCO, Oct.
3 UP) revived Dudley without taking him An elderly woman, arrested because to the hospital. Guests at the hotel she made her bed in her family's were unaware of the excitement. September 4 Italian delegates torials in Japanese newspapers, The diplomatist intimated that since Italy and Japan are commercial competitors for trie Ethiopian trade Italy might take some steps to protect her own trade against Japanese jn event she gains economic control of the African area. Harima was represented as saying Italy was borrowing many statements used by Japan in the Manchurian case before the League of Nations. Combatants9 Strength aggression has taken on a volume of importance which is much more considerable, which manifestly involves more serious immediate danger, against which it is necessary to react without delay because of elementary reasons of security.
"In the presence of this situation, the Italian government has found itself compelled to authorize the supreme command in Eritrea to 'take necessary steps in defense." (An official communique issued at Rome reported Italian troops "have moved Into some advanced positions beyond our lines," but. denied the charges of an air bombardment of. Ethiopian villages.) IV EW YORK, Oct. 3. The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, which keeps tab on all the songs which are played over the radio and how often, announced today that "Mother" and "I Love You" are still the top as far as titles go.
The society has in its possession 306 songs entitled "Mother" and 203 "I Love You's." The "Moon" as a title rose quite a bit in the past year, as the society noted that six songs dealing with various lunar attractions were included on the list of the tunes played moat times over the air. The 85 leading songs were played 1.255.669 times over the air the last year: Only two of the 85. "Tea for By The Associated Press leave League Council session refusing to discuss dispute on equal terms with Ethiopia. FRANCO-BRITISH FEARS September 9 Cordial welcome of new Italian Ambassador to JBerlin awakens Franco-British fears of Italo-German understanding. September 11 Sir Samuel Hoare pledges British support of League Covenant "in its entirety." September 12 Hull appeals to Kellogg Pactysignatories to observe their, obligations.
Small nations bloc promises to back League's Covenant. tomb, found a new domicile today. Tlje woman, Mrs. Marie Jahnke, 70, was arrested by police Sunday in Calvary Cemetery, where she had been keeping a vigil at a vault containing the remains of her father, Edward H. Ruhling, chief assayer at the United States Mint here, who died in 1898, Police gave her shelter in the city prison.
Then today Mrs. T. C. Morlock told Municipal Judge Daniel S. O'Brien Mrs.
Jahnke had once worked for her and offered to take her home The women left the courtroom arm in arm. BREAK STARTS March 30. Ethiopia breaks off direct negotiations with Italy. April 3 Ethiopia starts troops for Italian border. May 6 Italy charges that murder of Italian soldier at Gogula shows Emperor Haile Selassie unable or unwilling to maintain order.
May ,24 League Council adopts resolutions, accepted by Mussolini, arranging arbitration. June 3. Italy charges Ethiopians killed a number of Italian soldiers on May 31. July.l. Anthony Eden reveals he has offered strip of British territory as peace gesture.
July 8. State Department advises 125 Americans to get out of Ethiopia. July Concili- Fisher Gets Term As Moonshiner SAN FRANCISCO, Oct. 3. Jo old fashioned.
The rest of the fighters have primitive weapons. Military experts say the Ethiopians have some modern machine guns and airplanes, and 20 modern anti-aircraft guns displayed recently occasioned some surprise among foreign observers. Ethiopia has no navy, being Inland. Italy ranks fifth among the world powers in size of its navy. Ethiopia must Import munitions.
Italy fabricates them, largely from imported raw Italy has over 200,000 fighting men in hW East African colonies and approximately 800,000 more mobilized at home, In addition to ovair (,800,000 reserves In Italy. Tb troops have modern equipment. Italy possesses 1507 military airplanes. Ethiopia has 800,000 warriors, but many are attached to individual tribal chieftains whose allegiance to Emperor Haile Selassie Is not always assured. Haile Selassie asserts 200,000 are armed with guns, bat many of these are seph Mangusi, fisherman, faced by a large array of moonshine appara tus found in his possession, was Two," and "Limehouse Blues" were written more than 10 years 'England Dangerously Churchill BOURNEMOUTH.
England, Oct. 3. tPi Winston Churchill's assertion that "Britain has disarmed to the point of danger," today stirred sent to jail to serve out $250 fine on the charge Qf possession of illegal liquor, in the court of Municipal Judge Charles Boden yes ago, the society said in asserting September 13 Laval tells League assembly France will defend Covenant obligations. South American delegate warns Black Africa may tne radio has cut drastically into (he sales of sheet music. Sunday Want Adds should be 'phoned to LA-6000 today to avoid the week-end ruin.
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