Alton Evening Telegraph from Alton, Illinois on April 7, 1887 · Page 4
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Alton Evening Telegraph from Alton, Illinois · Page 4

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Thursday, April 7, 1887
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How the Men of the West Organized for Victory, STRIKING FIRST BLOWS, An Impartial Story of One of the Decisive Buttles ol tlio War. A Bloody Field—Tho Deipernte Flelitlue of Shcrmau'H Mfln—l'renllsn and IVftl- Ineo Hold tlio Kay ot tlio 1'oslttoll Until Uno I> Cnptiu-ml anil tlm Other Killed—IJcBtli of tlio ConfBilornto Com- tniimlnr—Sconoa of .Splmidld Murilor. Veternnii In Camp uml How ltiierult» : Under Flro—llllnoln,- Imlliirm, lowit, Ohio uiul Michigan Troo|>« 1'iu'o the licit FJghtliif; MnlcrlHl In the SoilUi- weit—Tlio Day's Jlmmlti. „ Twenty-fivB years have rolled by since the desperate struggle occurred that, on tho Oth »nd 7th of April, 1WH, broke dnwn tho chief •barrier'to tho Mississippi ynlluy and pavixl tho way for tho occupation by the national forces of every important point between Memphis and New Orleans. Yet oven after this long period, it In still conceded that tho battl of Million, notwithstanding ite far reaching rosults, was a move ujion tho military chess board not contemplated by tho authorities on either side until n very short time prior to the beginning ot the combat. Gon. aherman says in hLs memoirs that "Ilalleek'a intentions wero to break up railway communications between tho Mississippi anil "' nnessco rivers. Wo did not fortify our -uinps Iwcauso we had no ordoin to do HO, tuid because such a couraa would naturally have made our raw men timid." Gen. Buell testifies that "tho movement of troops up the Tennessee was purely an expeditionary service, and aftor some attempt* to debark at other points further up tie river, Pittsburgh Landing was dually chosen a« the most eligible for tho temporary object;" and, finally, Gon. Beauregard, in a recent review of tho campaign, remarks: "To •ay that any one, including Gen. Johnston and myself, bad thought of Corinth, and could have designated It as the strategic point of the Bnlloh campaign, before tlio ouemy had given ovidonce of any hostile movements from or near Pittsburg Landing ou the Tennessee river, is sheer folly, and ocarcely lieeds contradiction to be BO pronounced." It is also bnyond question that there wero inadequate preparations, unnecessary delays, lost opnorttinlties and sundry other obstacles to really decisive success on both sides; aud for a quarter of a century, they have been .themes of recrimination and exculpatory statements, with no other result than to revive and confirm the memory of faults. A RETROSPECT. Missouri having beoii secured to the Union, tho principal field of activity wns transferred to Kentucky and Tennessee, and Maj. Gon. Halleck placed in chief command of all the. armies in Ihe valley of tho Mississippi, with headquarters at St. Louis. Tliese included the army of the Ohio, Gon. Don Carlos Buoll; the r-rrny of tho Tennessee, Gen. Grant; the army of tho Mississippi, Gen. Pope, and that of Gen. S. R. Curtis, In southwestern Mis- nouri. Thin was in February, IUG' 1 .. Gun. W. r. Sherman was posted at Paducah for tho purpose of facilitating operations on the Tennessee nnd Cumberland rivers, and in the meantime was organizing out of tho new troops arriving there a division for himself when he should bo allowed to take the Held by Gen. Halleck. Tho latter thus had subject to his general orders an aggregate of 125,000 men of all arms. The Confederate line of defense extended east and. wost, from Columbus on the llissis- lipui, to Bowling Green (Forts Donolson and Henry being near the center.) Tbo department was under tun command of Gen. Albert Bidney Johnston, a distinguished officer of tho old army and a lifelong friend mid confidante of Joileniou Davis.' His forces con- listed of 45,000 effectives, of whom 14,000 were with him at Bowling Green; 15,000 under the bUhop general, Leonidas Polk, at Columbuv and neighborhood, and the remainder at Forts Henry and Donolson, Clarkcsville and eUe- wbere, ir-der command of Gens. Bucluier< liushrod H. Johnson, Pillow and Floyd. The eaplure of Forts Henry and Donelson, having •buttered tho Confederate line, tho evacuation of Columbus, Bowling Green and Nashville, followed, ami with the fall of Island Number 10, New Madrid, and the opening of tho Mississippi to Fort Pillow, tho national authority was established over the whole of the' state of : Kentucky, and Tennessee became a thoroughfare for both army and licet.. It was a splendid series of successes and Grant stepped lit oiico into national fame. Johnston and Beauregard now retired southward, it being evident to the military mind that the Memphis and Charleston railroad between -Memphis and Chattanooga would constitute tho new line, and that tho concentration of troops must therefore take place somewhere in that vicinity. But where! The answer was a problem to tho commanders on both sides. THE FIRST ORDER. Tho first movement that appeared to suggest I tail f to tho mind of (Joii._ Halleck was an expedition up tho Tennessee, from which " s t r o n g, light parties might be sent out" and accordingly on March 1 hu wrote Gon. Grunt, who was then at Fort Henry: Transports will bo . BGUl you US BOOH IU! 1 possihlo to move'-' • your column up tho ' TounenHi-0 river. The nialii object of lulu.. GXiHHlltlon will bit lot? destroy tlm nillrunil bridge over Hear , creek, near Ki^stport, OEM. HM.I.KOK. Miss., and also tin* connections at Corinth, Jaok- Bon Mill IhmilKiUU. It lx tbuiiKbt best Hint tltcsa objects shall lw attempted In the oriler named. Stroug (k'tacliiiieiitx at cavalry, llt-lil mtlllery, supported by Infantry, may by rupld moveintntu reuuh thwio points without very KtTloiis opponl- lion. Avoid any general engagement with strong forces. It will ho liutU'r to retreat than to risk it general buttle. Tula HUouUl bo H upon the pnicorfl B tlio riven Having upon the pnicorfl Bent with tbe nxpedjtlon from io riven Having accomplished these objec you will return to Puuvlllo unit inovn on Purls. ly Uu|>rcHucil djtlon from ese objects, Hucb was the first iniporln til order issued in tlio tshiloh campaign. How tlen. Klierinan was Kent forward to oxe- cutu it nnd tho ru- milt that rapidly followed, showing how llttlo Hallock, in fur away Nt. Louis, understood ~... tlio magnitude of %*l tho task before j him, will bo told ; Inter on. Troops r and stores wero liromplly gathered To the three dlvii- ions from Fort Donelsyn— F I r« t, OKN. ii. v. SUITII. Hcooml and Third! commanded by Uonx. C, F. Hmith, McCler- Hand and Unvlu Wallace — wore added a fourth, command!*! by Uen. Htuphen A. Hurlbut, and u III th, commanded by Oon. W. T. Bbarinun, lion. Hmith being In command of tb« expedition, his division was commanded by Brig. Uun. W. ij. L. Wallace. FEELING THE WAY. Event* now began to move briskly. Oeo, , With A portion et t> ejpwilUon, tmjr. Incvrtrcd on t*e ISth, Gon, Bhsrman mm ot-dored to land at dome feint btlow Eastpon And cut: tha Memphis and Charleston railroad between Tuscuinbia and Corinth. Passing Plttsburg tAndlng, ho leariuxl thnt on ti formrr trip up «ho river Capt. Gwin, of th« gunboat, found ixtsttd thprs ft Confederate regiment fthe Klgbt«cnth Louisiana), nnd accordingly sent word to Qcn, Smith that troops might properly be ordered to thnt place. Returning to headquarter* on the night of tho 14th, Hhorman reported his inability to carry out the order* of Hen. U«llock, whereupon he was instructed by Oon. Hmith to "liisembark Ills own division and that of Gen. Hurlhut, which Imd also arrived •tVlttelmrg lauding; to tak» positions well back, and fo limvs room for his whole army, adding thnt be would soon come up In per•on and move out In force to make the loug- niont on tho railroad contemplated hy Gen. Hallook." Inasmuch as tho credit of choosing this landing as tho most advantageous position that " p ns offered, belongs to Uoii. 0. V. Smith, it may bo remarked here that when ho was a commandant of the military academy at West Point, Grant and Hhermau wero there OH cadets. Frequent reconnaissances now disclosed tho fact thnt every road and path was occupied by the enemy's pickets. As early as tho 10th Bnerninn, accompanied by Lieut. Col. (afterward geiiernll JlcPliertfOii, advanced about ten mile» from the river to n pmco near Jtonteroy OH Pea ridge, where he learned that the trains were bringing large masses of tram into Corinth, and accordingly wrote to Gen Grant: "Wo cannot reach tho Memphis and Charleston railroad without a considerable engagement, which is prohibited by Gon. Halleek's instructions," lie also reported tlio ho was "strongly impressed with the im- partanco of Iho position, both for it-i land advantages and strategic position. The ground Itself admits of easy dofeiiHO by a small command, and yet affords admirable camping ground for 100.000 men." These incidents may appear insignificant, but they have an Important relation to the results. TUB FIELD OF SHIt-OH. Before referring to tho above map for more exact details of positions and localities, tho reader will bo assisted by bearing in mind the figure of n quadrilateral or parallelogram, the right side of which is the Tennesssee river flowing nearly due north, the upper or north «tdo Owl creok, and tho lowor or south side Lick creek, both of these streams flowing toward tho Tennessee river iu a northeasterly direction, aud being from three to five miles apart. Near their mouth were swamps filled with backwater from the Tennessee and impassable except where tho road crosses them. Tho inclosed space was a rolling table land about 100 foot above the river level, with either slope broken into deep and fre- quont ravines, draining into the two streams. One ot those was known as Dill's branch nnd Is about BOO yards above the landing. Another important ravino in the history of tho battlo ia callod sniLOH CHURCH. Tillmanfc or Briar creok, and runs almost duo north, a milo and a quarter from tho rivqr, dividing the table land into two main ridges. Oak creek is a confluent of Owl creek, and it extends half way across the front or south side of the battlefield, passing nea r Shiloh church, a small log meeting house situated two miles and a half in a southwesterly direction from Pittsburg Landing. For the most part the land was covered with timber or a dense undergrowth, with here and there open fields of from twenty to eighty acres. It was generally agreed that the position of the Union army wasstrong. Guarded on either flank by impassable streams and morasses, protected by a succession of ravines and nccliTi- ties, commanded by, eminences to tho rear, it seomed safe from attack and easy to defend. But no earthworks wero thrown up or timber felled, or natural advantages improved, and it is still a controverted question whether the Confederates wero expected until they came. GETTING INTO LINE. The war department having, on the llth of March, authorized tha consolidation of tho army of Gon. Buell with that of Halleck, tha former was ordered to march his . forces at once to Bavaima, although Floronco, a point further up the Tennessee, was the rendezvous designated in tho original plans of tho commander in chief. Tho fact had at lost become impressive that Johnston and Beauregard wore massing their troops at Corinth, and Instead of a hurried dash by a flying column to tear up a section of railway, the programme now contemplated a struggle between great armies for tho possession of the most vital stratoglo point In the southwest. Tho movement of Buell's forces from Nashville began March 15. On the 17lh Grantarrived at Savanna, and within an hour issued orders for the concentration of the whole force. Tho selection by Gen, Hmith of Pittsburg Landing was approved, and thotroopj were moved rapidly. Tho division of Gen. Lew. Wallace, however, was ordered to Crump's Landing, five miles below Pittsburg, to bo within supporting distance and guard tho road to Purify. Grant, personally remained at Bavaima to superintend tho organization of troops constantly arriving, and in order that ho might more readily communicate with Gen, Buoll during his march to the river. While visiting tho forces at Pitlsbnrg every day, ho left Uon, Sherman to orerclso free control in tho assignment of regiment* and brigades, and in tha choice of camping places, Tho posit ion of tho latter was therefore responsible, and his influence upon the fate of tbo army ini|x>rtant. Meanwhile, Hallock's instnietioim to Grant continued very positive, "not to bring on n general engagement until the arrivaj of Bueil," Grant, however, outer- tallied a different view and believed that "the sooner tho attack was made, the easier would bo the task of taking HID place." Gen. Pron- tiss now reported for duty, nnd about March £") six new regiments wore organized by him in two brigades which wero thereafter known as thu Kixth division. CONCENTRATING AT CORINTH. In four weeks after tho evacuations of the Confederate positions in Tennessee, fragments of commands from Howling (!roeri,3Cy., under Harden; Columbus, Ky., undor Polk, and Punsneola, Mobile and Now Orleans, un- dor Bragg, with sii''h now levies us could be hastily raibed, were united nt or near Corinth nnd for tlio llrst tlino organized us un army. "U was a hutwogonemis nnuu," says Gun. Rnigg, "in which there was more enthusiasm than discipline, more capacity than knowledge and inwu valor than Instruction. Hides, smoothbore, miiskuts—inany of thorn with tha old flint imd steel—and shotguns of all sizes and pattern-!, hold placo in tliu ttumo regiments." This force, about 40,000 of all arms, was divlilfe' i:ito four corps, respective!/few- by Gong, Polk, Bragg, Hsnleo Mid Brockinridgo, with Beaurpgard v second fa command, under Gen. John stou. Near midnight of April 9 Information was, received at headquarters that Buoll was advancing rapidly from Columbia to Savanna,and about the same time Gen. Cheatham, who wan stationed at Bethel, some twenty miles distant, telegraph- OEM. LEW WAt.LAcis. ed that a largo body of the enemy, which h« supposed to bo Gon. Lew Wallace's division', hail appeared in h|s front with an apparent. purpose to at- tank. Under these circumstances tho Confederate commanders promptly decided to •assume ,tho nggresslvo, and before daylight Benuregnrd had drawn up the plan of march and battle, and orders were Issued tor a. forward movement. It was intended to reach the enemy's front iu time to atlack on the morning of tho 6th, but owing to the heavy rains that had fallen, together with the failure of one of thu divisions to como up, tho formation of the lines was not completed until tho afternoon of that day. Although Gon. Johnston's headquarters at this moment wero less than two miles from tho Federal encampment, it does iiot appear that s tho near presence of his army was oven suspected. FACE TO FACE, Tho relative positions of tho two armies at this time wero as follows: The Federals occupied "a continuous lino from Lick creek on the loft, to Owl creok, a branch of Snako creok, on tho right, facing nearly south, and possibly a little west.." Their first line was held by Gens. Sherman's and Prontiss 1 divisions, extending from a bridge on Owl crook \f the Lick creok ford. Gen. Sherman's first brigade, Col. McDowell, formed tho extreme right; his fourth. Col. Buckland, was west of the Shiloh church and rested on it, and his third, Col. Hildebrand, was east of tho church, and also rested on it Then began the line of Prontiss' division, and afterwards, nt a loug interval, was posted Sherman's second brigade, Col. Stuart, in close proximity to Liek creek. About a hah* n mile iu rear of this line was McGlernand's division, somewhat between Sherman and Prontiss. Hurlbut was massed and in reserve to the rear and left of Prentiss, on tho road leading to Hamburg, and a mile and a half behind Stuart. The division of C. F. Smith, now commanded by Gen. W. H. L. Wallace, was two miles to the rear ond supporting tho right wing of tho army. The artillery was under the direct command of the division commanders. The general form of the lino was that of a semi circle, with its greater arc on the left. Tho Confederate forces were formed in throe lines of battle. The first under command of Gen. Hnrdce, extended somewhat obliquely over a space of nearly throe miles from Owl creok ou their left to Lick creek on their right. Tho artillery was in tho immediate rear and cavalry protected the ilaijks. The, Second corps, under Gen. Bragg, was 500 yards to the rear of the First, and arranged in similar order. The third line was hold by Folk's corps, and was deployed in columns of brigade on the left of tho Pittsburg road, its front being about 800 yards to the rear of Bragg's left wing. Brecki n r i d g o' s command, in rear of Bragg's right wing, occupied n position somewhat similar to that of OEN. BREOKINRIDOK. Folk's corps behind Bragg's left wing, between the Pittsburg road and Lick creek. Folk's and Breckinridge's troops constituted the reserve, and wero to be thrown forward as the exigencies required in support of the two lines of battle. The total of infantry and artillery engaged was about 86,000, and there were besides 3,080 cavalry which wero chiefly used for outpost duty. The aggregate of returns make 41,158 present for duty in Grant's army at Pittsburg Landing on Sunday morning. FIRST BLOWS. The night of tho 5th passed without alarm. Only tho men ou picket seemed to realize that a terrible struggle was close at hand. Even Gen. Sherman, notwithstanding tho unrest that had prevailed along the front during the day, wrote to Gen. Grant: "I do not apprehend anything like an attack upon our position," and Grant on tho same day dispatched Halleck: "1 have scarcely tho faintest idea of an attack (general ono) being made upon us." Gen. Halleck himself advised Buell that he "would leave for Corinth in the beginning of the coming week." Among tho Confederates, however, all was activity. Long before the early dawn they had breakfasted and stripped for tho bloody work of the day. Lines were formed and advanced and men looked into tlioir comrades' eyes wondering whether they would meet again around the bivouac flro or 1m only somo loved one's memory in » dead soldier's trench. Aroused by the hum of 40,000 men waking up for battle, pickets wero throw^i forward from the right of Gen. Prentiss 1 division to ascertain the cause, u portion of the Twenty-litth Missouri, and a liltle later five com panics of tho Twenty-flint Missouri, under Col. Moore, thus having tho honor of firing tho tint shots that rang up tho curtain on the drama of Shiloh. This dbtachmonb struck a battalion of the Third Mississippi, Major Hardcastlo, of Wood's brigade, Har- doo's corps, and the skirmishing that ensued quickly extended along the front. Tho entire Confederate lino, two miles in length, now moved forward, the direction being such a» to bring it first in contact with tho right of Prentiss and the loft of Bherman. Abroad gap, more than a mile In width, existed bo- tweon these two points, and into this tho Confederates plunged with a fury that wns overpowering. lYontlss 1 forces fell back in confusion, leaving their camps in tlie hands of the enemy, and several of tlio regiments of Sherman's loft were equally demoralized. WAS IT A SURPRISE? Whether all this rapid movement BO soon after the sounding of tho long roil along the national front, was a sifrprise, In u strictly military sense, Is still among the many con- troverted questions connected with the battle. Lossing in his "History of the Civil War," snys: Many of tho ofllecin worn yot HlumherliiK, others wcro dreiMlnK, ollieni were washing or cooking. Their KUUK wero unlouiloil ami accoutrements strewn around without order. Many of tho troops wero without a KiinlciNiit aunply of HID- munition, Thu llrst Intimation that Ihu C'ontVd- «ruU'» wero closx upon tnvnv 'a force wu» (.lio cry of tliu flylni; picket! nushlng Into camp, anil Ihu bcn-uin and cruxh oi hliells null tlio whistle of kallunsllicy flow ou Uemlly trrumln lhruii(,'li tliu tentti anil the furi*t, It wun au uapxiH-ctccl assault followed liy thu most fearful IV.SIIHU. Gen. Huell, In his "Hhlloh Kevlowed," says: I have only to remark Hint each revival of tlm question in iiiirnrlbo liuu plueud the fant in umore S lurl!!); light. Tlio enemy wan known to bn nl unit, bin iid adequate stepn wt'ro uikou to Ascertain In what fur™ or with what I|««|KII. 'I h« cnll to iinns lilenit.-il with tlm crush of itusmill, mill when I lie- n-linlu furcat on tlm rising crouuil In front llusl'.nl witli Ihoglcnmof linyonots. then lieu, filiennuii, us Im rrpurlu, 'became witlsfli-il for Ihe flint limntlmltlioI'liBiny iK'slgntilaik-termini-dat- tack. John K. C. Abbott snyi: Ofllcori were awakened by the crash of shot and Mull through 'Ajelr leoU, and others were now iod, but wnn« found don'! two i&ft after to tbalr bcxla. There was no tlmo to organize, no opportunity lo rally. Gon. Grant's biographer, Professor Coppe, testifies that "at tho outset our troops wcro ihamefully.surprised and driven back." Gon. Grant, in his memoirs, referring to Oen. Prentiss, saysi Tlie story that lia and lila cominoiul wero »nr- —" prltHMl tuul cu|i(ureil In their camps Is without any founila- tlou Whatever. If It hail been true, as currently rejmrtiHl nttlio time, and yet believed l)j thousands of people, that Preiitlsn and Ills division hail been cap- tared Iu their beds, there would not have been nu all ilay BtniKKli',' with Iho loss of thousands of killed nnil wounded on tho Confederate aide, Thertt was no liour during tho any when there was not . X ..- V1 . lii-iivy firing, and OKK. pnENTiiP. generally hard lighting at scrnw point "» iho lino, but m>ldom at all points nt the same time. It was a case or southern ilasti against northern pluck anil endurance. Gon. W. T. Sherman, in his memoirs, says: It wan publicly asserted nt the north that our army wns taken completely lir surprise; that tho rob™ catiglit u« In <mr tonfa; bayoucl 1 eil tlm men In their beils; that (leu. Unuit wna drunk; that. Ilucll's opportune arrival savi'il the Army of the Tonnnuiiw from ntti>r annihilation, etc. Tliese reports wero, In a measure, suutnlnetl hy tan published opinions of (taw, Huelt, Nelson unil others, who hail reached the steamboat InnilliiK from the east just befoi-H nightfall, when there wns n largo crowd of frightened, Ktiunpixlcil men who clamored aad declared that our army wan all dent royod anil tail en. I'l-raonally 1 saw den. Grant, who with his staff visited mo about 10 a. iu. on the tith, when wo wero desperately engaged. Hut we had then checked the headlong 'nssuult of the enemy and then hold our ground. He told m« thnt on his way ui> from C'nmip's landing he hud ordered Low Wallace's division to eros!i over Snake ei'eek, so us to como up on my right. Ho also came again just before durk mill deucrtliwt the lust assault made by the rebels at Die ravine near the steamboat landing, which lie luul repelled by a heavy battery collecl ml under Col. J. U. Wnbstiw and other officers, and lie wns convinced that tho battle was over for tlint day. 1U< oiilerml me to bn ready to assume the offensive In thu morning, saying thiit •s ho had observed at Fort Doiii'lson. at the crisis of the buttle, both sides seemiil defeated, nnd whoever assumed the otl'eusive wns miro to win. It is undoubtedly true thnt tho attack on tho raw troops produced u panic, which more or less infected other commands, but when tho real death grapple occurred with veterans like those of Wallace, Hurlbut and McClor- nard, the splendid num from Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and elsewhere in the west, who had been hardened In tho service, the desperate resistance that was niado and the varying fortunes of the flght demonstrated that the unexpected assault was not necessarily "a walk over." Tlio broken character of tho ground, tho frequently disordered lines and shifting positions of the day, make it impossible to present hero more than a panoramic viaw o£ the battle. THE BATTLE. Shiver's brigade of Hindman's division first crossed lances with that of Prentiss, while Geu. Hiudinati in person with Wood's brigade, struck the Fifty-third Ohio, Col. Appier, the extreme left of Sherman, which was posted on tho left of Rhiloh church. Cleburne's brigade attacked Buckland, and Hildebrand joining in the fray, it became a tierce blow for blow along tbo diitiro front. Though men on both sides fell like chaff, tho broken ranks continued to rally until tho weaker went down to stay. Hildebruwl's brigade retired in disorder, but a part of Sherman's position was on a steep and bushy slope that commanded the boggy bottom or valley of Oak croek, imd this was occupied by the brigade ot Col. Buekland with his men from Ohio. Here occurred ono of tho ugliest contests of the moruiffg. Tho Confederates charged by brigades, regiments and fragments of battalions. Grape, canister, shell, round shot and minio bolls swept tho place like a torrid simoon. Whole ranks crumbled before the pitiless palling of the iron rain; the ground was covered with the dead and wounded, and more were falling every second. Tho bravest, staggered by tho red hot tempest, reeled to and fro like a ship battling with a gale, but still holding on its way. Even tlie mangled men upon tho ground, bleeding and agonized with pain, uttered their feeble words of encouragement: "Go on, boys, don't mind us—take care of tho old flag 1" Tho stern, pale faces of tho survivors would tum towards tho officers as if to read their fate, but no voice could bo heard in such a fitorm, and the sword alone pointed out tho path of duty. Then with teeth sot, lips compressed and fiery valor at white heat, they would close up tho gaping ranks and fljjht on. Truly, this was as somebody described it, "ft valley of death," and no sjicetacle of sub- limer courage was ever presented in any country where soldiers have stood "in the dark shadow." M'CLERNAND'S WORK. In this affair, the Sixth Mississippi alono lost 800 killed and wounded out oi 4'i5 men- ^loonwhile, McClermuid had rapidly got "under arms and endeavored to support Sherman's loft, but his third bdgado was forced back with the fugitives from Sherman's now broken linos, with tho loss of six pieces of artillery. Nor wore all of tho Confederates in a condition to follow. Stragglers were thronging tha captured camps, decimated commands had retired from action, and the generals wero busy in bringing together their scattered troops. Beauregard was iii command on tha Confederate left and Johnston on tho right. During the forenoon a concerted movement was tuudo on McClomund's entire front. Again, there were brave charges and counter charges, and more limn once the ground was lost and regained. McDowell's brigade' of Hhcrman'K division, consisting tho Sixth Io Forty-sixth Ohio, CIKN. IIEAUHKOAHD, and Fortieth Illinois, battered like heroes against tho enemy's extreme left, but the result was as before, a recession to tho left and rear. Tho brigade of Col, Marsh, which included tho Kloveiith, Twentieth, Forty-fifth and Forty-eighth Illinois, was subjected to one of tho hottest onslaughts of tlio day. In lira minutes nearly all of tho field officers wore killed or wounded, togeth'.-r with all Iho horses of Harrow's battery which was posted on his center. Tlm first brigade also retired in disorder. Tho third brigade, o'lllluded and turned on its left flunk did tho same, and ita commander. Col. Hnith, wns mortally wounded, when tho division reformed IU right still connected with Bhermnn whilo tlio left was protected by the ravines nnd iumonotraule thickute that Intervened between It and tho division of W, H. L. Wallace. Tho struggle continued with varying success until late In the afternoon. At ono time MeClonmnil pushed the enemy hiilf a mllo through nnd beyond his camp, but thuudvantnuo was only temporary. Fresh assaults forced him ntlll furtliar rearward, whiii-n ho received the final attack iniulo that day on tho Federal right. Tho renlutr BIICO %vas gallant, obstinate nnd worthy of the men who nmilo it, and vvhoii it wu» gver thoy went Into bivouac for the night. "THE HORNET'S NEST." Only a purl of thu story of the attack on Prenllss hus boon told. After retreating through bis camps In the morning, UIR new position ho omipiud was the strongest of tho dtty, His left was lli* southern end of a V V. r»Tlnn; thenw Mi right extended along an old -washed out rood running nearly to tho Corinth road. On tho right of the latter wai placed Hiekonlooper'a battery. Oon. Onint vJsltod the spot, approved tUe position nnil directed PrentlBS to "Hold It nt nil hazards." Hlght royally wan 'tho command obeyed! Marching to his.] support, Oun. \V, 11. L. Wallace, postod Col. Ttlttlo tlEN. W. ll. L. WALLACE. with tho Second, Seventh, Twelfth and Fourteenth Iowa regiments on his right, •ml Col. awoonoy with tho Eighth town, Seventh, Flftioih, KiCly-Koeond, Fifty- sovonth mid Fiftv-eighlli Illlnoto regiments on tho right of Col. Tulllo. Bweouey's right, rcnolii'd tho odgo of • n wide, deep rnvlno Illlod with impenetrable Uilckots extending far to hla rear mill running into tho ravino of Brier crock. Such was (ho placo thai became famous among llio Confederates IUM "Sl'lio Hornet's Neat." The first nKsaiill inmlo was by Gladdcn's brigade; and now begin n scries of somn of tho most desperate engagements of tho buttle. Gen. Gladden having been mortally wounded In the charge of tho early morning, the coin- inand devolved on Col. Adams. The- line is barely formed at H) o'clock, \vlien tho southern men iiro seen confidently advancing through tho dense, thickets against the unseen too. •Tlioy arc permitted to como well within range, when suddenly there Hushes from 8.000 rilles n bliizo of lire, Tlie deep notes or llickcn- loopcr'n guns mingle with the treble of tho email arms llmlciiliops through the forest, and tho gray ennopy of smoke 1,1mb rests above tho Hconii tells whore death is .living siMittcrod OH every side. Tho well known "rebel ynll" rings out as tho enhiinn presses forward and the ground is dotted with tlio wounded nnd dead. BiittholendensVorm bents in their faces with a florecne.«s that nothing human eaii withstand, and tho crippled brigade, recoils to tlio cover of tha woods. Oon. A. P. Stownrt's command of Folk's corps i» now sent forward; and once, twicxi, thrice, it repeats tho grand effort to carry tho position, but with .no bettor success than before. Gen. Gibson's brigade of Bragg's corps surges iu and takes its place. Again that hurricane of lead. The angry balls fly in showers anil seem to bear a death warrant in every devilish screech. An enfilading flro from tho battery cuts down tho men by ranks, like swaths of grass under tho mower's scythe, anil vet others continue to step into tho path of death with cheerful alacrity, it seems, and fall with a battle cry upon their lips. Three times has Gibson charged, and three times been repulsed. Gen. Brag;* now impatiently directs one of his staff, Col. Loekett, his chief engineer, to ride forward to a central regiment that has boon driven buck, and carry its colors to tlio front. "Thi! (lag must; not go back again," ho said. The ollleer, obeying the order, dashes through the lino of battle, seizes the colors from the color bearer, and exclaims: "Gen. Bragg snys these colors must not; go to the roar." While ho is talking tho color sergeant is shot down. An olllcer approaches with u bullet holo in each cheek, tho blood, streaming from his mouth, and asks: "What are you doing with my colors, sir?" "I'm obeying Gen. Bragg's orders to hold them where they arc." "Lot me have them," was tho reply;" "if any man curries these colors but the" color bearer, I 11111 vho man. Tell Gcii. Bragg that I will see that these colors are in tho right place. But ho must attack this position in flank; wo can never carry it alono from tho front." Tho ofllcov who snoUo commanded the Fourth Louisiana, aim instantly riding back to Gen. Bragg to emphasize the-previous request made I'or artillery by Gen. Gibson, he was met with the stem answer: "Col. Allen, I want no faltering nowl" Stung to tho quick, he returned to his regiment, and onco more there was a wild, hurrying wave of men rolling up that, fatal slope only to he dashed to dcalh. It was splendid murder 1 Col. Allen afterward became Governor Allen, of Louisiana. Such were the kind of men whom Prcntiss anil Wallace fought on that, eventful day from !) in the morning until 5 o'clock in tho afternoon before one was captured and tho other killed! Finding that tho position could not bo carried by direct assault, Bragg now determine! on a combined flank movement. First, oil tho guns within reach were brought up and concentrated on the 0110 little battery, standing at thu salient point where Preutiss and. Wallace joined, that had reaped such a harvest among tho linos of the unerny. Before this terrible fire, Hickenlooper was com- 'polled to withdraw. By -I-.30 o'clock fighting in front of Bhornmn and McClornand having censed, Gens. Cheatbam, Trnbno, Johnson and .Russell, seeing that Wullnco could not bo approached across tho donso thicket filling the great ravine which protected his right, felt their way to tho plntemi in his rear, whore they met the combined forces under Bragg in front of llurlbut's camp. Moving thus ngnii-st tho remnants of tho two divisions, they inclosed them almost in a circle; a striigj»lo ensued, lint further ro- Distance was useless, mid tbo bravo Wallace was mortally wounded. The Second and Soventh Iowa, led by Col. Tuttlo, now cut their way out and reached Pittshurg Landing, b\it Prentiss, true U> his orders from Gen. Grant, firmly remained at his post, and "having lost everything but honor, surrendered his llttlo hand. It comprised 2,200 men. And so ended tho f amovis fight in 'the hornet's nest.'" LAST BLOWS. It will he remembered that tho extreme loft of the national lino was protected by Sherman's Second brigade, under Col. Utuart Karly In tho day a sharp engagement occurred without definite results, but Hurl but being present as n support, and apparently holding that portion of the left with a good deal 01 tenacity, Gon. Johnston ordered another attack upon tho position for the purpose of breaking down tho only barrier that nnnninei! in that part ol tlio Held botweon the Confederate lino and the landing. Tho movement wns not successful and the assault was repealed. Una of tho Tennessee regiments becoming demoralized by tho di'spcnito ru- sistanco encountered, refuted to • agui n advance, :', null at this jinict-'.; nro lliu commander in rliii-f, accompanied by . Gen, Hrcrkliiridgu and Governor Harris, of fomiesM'o, ro,lo i.o Hum- front nnd promised to load tin-in liiiiihelf. The hitherto reluctant Koldmrx, now roused to enthusiasm by such a distinguished leadership, I'hnrg'id and carried the sliiim. Jint It was at a terrible cost to the Confederate-!, After he bud passed, through tlio ordi-al ot l.lie nhnrgu imlmrt, a chaiica tihot Htrni'k (!cu, Juhiihlui) in Iho Ing, Bovor- ing an iiiip'i.-idiik Hi-lory, Hit clolhivi worn niorccd by miwllos. UIOM>|» of his boot bail bountoni I v n bullet ami his ln.ivui iihol iu four places, but h« himself ,i|,| ,,ot know Unit ho had j-ucciv,-,! a severe wuiiuil until (Jovcr- nor I Ian-is .-,,,,-i,,- him iwliiig In liU huddle, rode up and iihlicd if l,o was hurl "Yi s," wan thu i-i.|,|y, '-» m | i f lw mortally." Tho dying cenenil was removed from h'is lioiwe, nnd tliorn mu.ii tin, fluid |i« | m( | ho nearly won Ins spirit p'-^-d uwny. Tiiis was nbmit 0:!!U ocloi-k. (,;-ii. I'.riif.a ro»uittli>i:tlibcomintmd, ronmn-d iiri.niili.-i were now ma.lo on tlio Fed' cral led, tlm po-.itiuii was (Inully lunn-d ami In a i!niipli> of hours inuro the wcury rcm- imi|tsof tl». l-Vilcnil urmy wi-i'ii under thu (holler of iliugunlioalH and a lino of tlilrtv HMK-ex of urtilli-rv thai Imil boon hastily gntl). ernd by Col. Wc-bster, of Gen. Clnint'u BtnfT. Riidnow iMiistiHituii, with |t» 8 li R ht iuiuntry "uppprl, lliivuuly liono of the army. While ll/"i!'onfwlt>rotMi under Chalmora. J«ck»on,«/ (.!•», wiio liHd cloned Iji around tno landing* were preparing to arnault H,L last position. Bomiiognri was aHuvl.S? quarters uonr Shllou mooting house with t?* roar of his army in a state of <1ettiorhllBi«S' thousands of rttpa- ^KIOB*^ """nt, clous soliliui-H being engaged In loading themselves down with the spoils of tho Federal camps. The men lit the front wore likewise roducod to thin linos, nnil indlspos- _, ed to iidvimeo in ",.'£; tlm facn of tlio sheila from thu gunboats that bursting In ovcry; direction. Uen.' Bragg himself ad- OKN. A, 8. wilted that the troops "had done nil they-would do itnd had bolter bo wltlnlrattn" and Uen. Chalmers, who .was at llio kiwii,',, proparliif;- 1<> attack the reserve iil'tiUci y « 5 its support, IlkowlKn couCivscd that "ihonwn wero too much cxlimiitivl la storm tlm Ut lories on the hill." Under theso tircuu, stances, just Imfuru sunset, ordorfl wei^ismiod to cuaso liostllllliiH, collect tlm xualtoni! f ores! and bo ready to meet tho oxpscltd onsof Ft Low Wallace's f.vtJi division mid Buclu forces at day 11;;-! it. -Whether this was nn other "Imil. opjjoi-tuulty" y, romain a subject of clobuto In mflllury elrclts, THE END OF THE FIRST DAY, The scene around PitUburf; Lanilliisj at tlilj hour is indescribable. 12','on when Q t « Grant arrived at 10 o'clock In the mornlne tho panic stricken strajjgloi'a might limobtcn counted by thousands. Gen, Buoll, «liowu also mi cyo wilnesi, says, "Hie nicmth S Suako creek wns full of Ihom mvlnitnliw across. The immbor at nlirlitrall would ni* have fallen short of 15,000, including tboss who hud passed down the river tuul tlso demoralix.cil fraiMiielits about Iho caints on tho plateau. jMcn mounted nnd on font! and wagons with their tt-anif, nl) straggliiif to foreu their way to tlio river, worn inch, but the enemy fell back, Ihu exliamtoj soldiers sought their bivouac, and the blood; work of Hiimlay was finished, NIGHT. The day closed upon a sceno that has hud no parallel on tho western continent. IVIft tha gathering shades of night caino silence and the Iwo armies, like torn and bloat? gladiatois, lint ciinh alort, rested from thtlr Btru!xnlo. (h'anCfi forces had -retired to tbj camps of tiun.-!., \V. H. L. Wallace nnd Hurl, but, while tho equally scattered troops of Benurcgard bivouacked in tho campsof Sherman, iMcClcniiind and Prentiss. Soon after dark tlie rain dcsiviided in torrents, and ull through tho dreary horn's tho moaiw of tin wounded mingled with the pttilroa betting of tho storm nnil tho sullen thunder from tin gunbimts, which every fifteen minutes wnlxi shell far inland to explode .and banish JA^ To Uen. Grant, however, nil this was a gdSea opportunity. "To-morrow," ho said, to a group of otllcws gathered nrouud bim nt tin landing, "they will bo exhausted, and voiti!l go at them with 1'rosli men," anil when nfia- midnight he slept on.the ground, with lib head on tbo Stump of a tree for a pillow it was to dream of the coming victorj Kel- aon'fi division WHS already iu sight and Cut tonden and MeCook wore near at hand, white Gen. Lew Wallace, with his fresh division, was present to redeem the error of the day In tliisi connection, It will bo remembered that Gen. Walloon was left to defend the immense sto; i.-.s of tho army at Crump's Land ,jng unit f<> n sist any feint of tiie encnij tliat might be ir.ado nt that point. About H o'clo-.-l; in fh') morning Grant had sent him > vc-.'lxil on'.cv to move his division and form on .Sherman's right, but it was feued 'before the Federals ware driven bock from.their, lines. Fortunately, before ho reached tlii rear,of t'.iu Confederates, ho wns ovwtateii while on bin way by an uido with orders to countermarch, lint Instead ot six miles M» troops woro obliged to march fifteen,'nnd ibiu they did not reach tho BCVUO of routtlct until ul'tor sunset. According to (-ion. Buell, 7,000 men at ti« utmost, of tho Army ot Tcnn'iwiea, bcsidei Lew Wallace's I^COO, wero riiady to take part ^~~~ in tho struggh which was to bt renewed in lb« morning.' Seven thousand hod bun killed or wounded, 11,000 w'is'o prison- en*, about thirtr pleeis of nrtillfrjr wero in (ho handi of Iho enemy,'and at least 15,000 wow absent from tht ranks and hope- f During tho even ing Gens. Grant nnd Buell met at Sherman's headquarter* nnd it wu-s them arranged that the attack should be. liegun nt daylight. Gon, Low Wallace occupied tho right of line, resting OB Snake creek; Sherman, McC'loniaiid and Hurlhut, with tho remnants of Wallace's and f Prentiss' men, wcro posted next from right t» left, while McC'ook, Crittcudv.ii and Kobbn, ' of linen's nnny, In tho' order hnmod, eonitf- luted tho left wing. The skirmishing beBan early, tlio advanced outposta of Ml- con being tlio first— to strike tho» of tho enemy. The Confederate rijht consisted of ffardeo'H 'corps, with Cha) ' mor's and Jackson'H brigades of Bragrt corps. Gen. Bnigg was on the • loft with u» reniiiindi'r of |ji.< command, and Clarkrt ($ dfvbiou of Folk's corpx and Trabuels Kentucky brigade. Gon. BreeUiuridge was on Iho left of llardeo.and Oen. Polk fellfata lino bei woon Brngg nnd Bi-ockliu'ldKO. From tho beginning t-£ tile contest the fighting wu sovoro at every point Several times tut ground wns lust and won, batteries wt .taken and retaken, and Federals'Mid Cou fcderatou lay nido by sido Iu the: denM woodl and nniddv fields through which, they tat struggled for the nossasslon of the camps, -H WILS iividont long before noon, bowovei, t-hai the enemy was be in i; pushed iitondllv baclt and tho ground coniiuoiyi by them tue ui) r bo.foro, stubburuly surivuderod. Tin' inuskelry at times surpaMod In ila volttnn and execution aiiythlnp; of tho kind yat known In tlm war; trnU wero riddled with bulW holes; ono tree not eighteen incuen to dianiefi'r wi::i htrnclc by ninety balls not t«n feet fr.iin tlio ground, and miuieUd horsm mutilated men, living nnd doad, urokon CU carriiu-.t-s and all tho iiamolossdobris of a wr tlelliild wcrofcpvead around In. appalling coft 1 (tutlnu. Secini; his troops beginning tolag, «nd«* hnustcil fi'eliniinu dropping o,u' of """J D^aiiri ;nnl between li nnd -I o'clock «"" word in hi* oxtrcino right to nti'OAtln »"*f' unto llncK. ThlH movemont WHS under WJ counnniidof liruckiiibrtdge.and illseoncoaw was conducted with Elcadhiuwi imd with »« attemi'.li to fiillow, Indeeil Gen. Qi'aiit,mli» report to U.:illeck, snys thai his foiw ««( . "loo ni'ieli futlgucd from twoiluyii'liwilusPi'. j tup, uml exposure fn Uio ojion uir ,(o n diwiw 1 lug iniii in (ha intorveuliiK ulgUt to P"!*! 1 ? lniincdi:it(ly." Brcckinrltlefl ! that. lllg" caupe.il about u mllo and a hu,lf from the U* lli'IK'ld, and ihu next day moved lliroo n 1 "? further to tlm rear, 'flio other commiiiwj with t lii-lr frngmenta marchoil buck to tuw eucaiuiiuients urouud ^'oriut-h. « In llio "Mcill.'al nnd Surglciil HhloryM tho \Vur," tliu lyrtt in l;ilU'.d. wouudwl iw'j UiMiiK on llii)Fcdornl K|I|» ilurlflff Mwf"° dttya' llglil'lu^ l,s tixed lit- 111,6111, -n to Itonurcgiir'l, llio a-vgi-us'lto of Co; lasH WUK lil.r.'.; 1 ,). An<l no ended tho —- fcilllloli. The Hug uf the Union lloulnl omawott alouc tliu Iliiiu iniin which It Imd liwn|"' 1 ]', 1 and Ihe first font, priutd woiti tniulti » '"« wonderful !'iu»|i»!)sii which, bw.linili'K »J Donelson, took ileflnlto Bliur>" «' f'"''It' 11 ',*•? Mumphis, ryuovorod tho MisNl^'l'l 1 ! , Ij; ''Inlwlnii'ir la ffeiv Ol'lenns, clirysiiillf 0 '} '? Th* Murcli io'l.lu»Bca,"oiul'culiiil»MW W ' Ci'lirt lluUMi •"'"

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