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The Age from Melbourne, Victoria, Victoria, Australia • Page 16
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The Age from Melbourne, Victoria, Victoria, Australia • Page 16

The Agei
Melbourne, Victoria, Victoria, Australia
Issue Date:

Friday, September 9, I960. Eskimos Find Plastic Igloos Better Than Snow Houses! Wildf lower Time Drawing For Reproduction (V) Special Picture To Color. By Christine Aldor Ever since the Canadian Eskimo met the white man whom he named Kabloona he hat realised the latter' inability to cope with Arctic necessities like hunting and fishing and especially the building of snow houses By BASIL SILCOVE '1 of the fashion drawing and advertisements and. In fact, anything which cannot be reproduced by a line block. If you look at a newspaper photograph with a magnifying glass, you will see that the greys are made up of regular tiny dots, very dense In the dark parts and fine and sparse in the lighter greys. The glass screens are again used lor Altering the light which passes through a photographic negative, so that it forms a picture made up of dots, on the zinc block used for printing. The richness and subtlety of the printed picture de-nends on the fineness of the Perhaps you have, at soma time, subject for picture that needs more than pura block areas and lines contrasted with white; you would like to add soma grey or "middle tones." This con be dona in several ways. Tha first is an adaptation of the line block, where areas of grey ore added by means of "mechanical screens." These are flat areas cam-posed of regular dots or stripes and ore added photographically by tha printer when tha block is made. Have another look at To make them, two sheets of plate glass, which are scored with very fine lines filled with ink, are fixed face to face so that one set of lines runs vertically and one set horizontally. The result shows a screen like fly wire, only with anything from 60 to 200 lines to the inch I Different arrangements of lines are made to print screens of single or, double lines or dots. All you have to do to tell the printer to use this method is to cover the area lightly with a blue pencil or a pale blue wash of water color. The other sort of reproduction In which greys occur, is made with a nalfr tone block. This Is used for all photographs, much the comic strips. You will see in "Terry," for instance, that shadows and grey areas are covered with these fine dots. The Modern meet the size of the Arctic house. In snow block construction, each one is cut so expertly that it fits together by gravity. The final closing block at the top of the dome serves to bind the whole structure together. And herein lies the Eskimo's skill. But. in putting the new plastic blocks together. Pitsulak had to slightly vary the old method. The Styrofoam blocks, instead of being held by gravity. were secured by wooden meat skewers. After being i This is a special VVildflower Time Picture to color to remind you all of our lovely native flowers and the need to protect them and to safeguard them so that they may continue to flourish. The sketch shews tha Blua Pincushion, tha mauve Fringe Lily and the pink Convolvulus. Wa suggest you use the correct colors for your entry. Special cash prizes of: SENIOR 3 31, 2 2, 1 II; INTERMEDIATE 2 21, 1 II, 176; JUNIOR 176, IS, 126 will be awarded for the best entries received at "Junior Age" by next THURSDAY. You may use either PETS' COnER screens used, and the finest screens can only be used on very smooth nara paper. Half-tone blocks are more expensive than line blocks, but perhaps your school magazine can afford them. Although the method can be used to reproduce all varieties of grey, a drawing where the areas are well defined and contrasted will be most effective. Use Indian ink or water color, lamp black, and make several depths of grey by mixing it with Chinese or process white. Do not forget that the most important part of your picture should contain the greatest contrast of black and white. This week we go back to an old master for our illustration. The tender drawing of a mother and child was done with a brush, Indian Ink and water by the great Dutch painter of the 17th Century, Rembrandt van Bijn. See how fresh and easy it looks with its simple areas of light and shade. Notice the crispness of detail on the light sida and how the figure seems to mova gently forward from tha soft shadow. But suddenly tha white man jumped aheod by producing a PLASTIC igloo. Thii is to superior to the one of mow blocks that hove been modo for 1000 years that the Ei-kimo hot oven praised the efficiency of the new in-vention. Brainchild of James Houston, an experienced officer in the Canadian Department of Northern Affairs, the new-type plastic igloo has met the Arctic's trying day-to-day conditions more efficiently than the conventional snow igloo. Houston became familiar with the native snow house while living for many yean among Eskimos. He found the inside temperature was uneven, the ceiling dripped, and the igloo sonn melted away. Above all. the snow igloo took a long time to heat and was not comfortable to live In. By chance, Houston heard of a new petroleum chemical called Styro-foam a product 30 times lighter than water which had been used as insulation in ordinary houses in Greenland and northern Canada. Convinced that a better Arctic home than the typical snow house could be fabricated, he first studied the Eskimos' building techniques. And then with money donated by the Department of Northern Affairs and Natural Resources, Houston built a "test" igloo at Ottawa, the Dominion capital. Pitsulok, an Eskimo famous as a fast builder of snow igloos, wos brought south specially for the ei-periment. When the tests proved successful, the lightweight plastic blocks were shipped on the yearly supply boat to Cape Dorset, Baffin Land, in the eastern Arctic. There Pitsulak rebuilt the plastic igloo for the nara winter conditions. and no better place for a thorough testing could have been selected than this bleak, wind-swept area or extreme low temperatures. Pitsulak applied almor', the same method as when building an Eskimo snow Igioo. The foundation blocks were laid out on a circular floor of two layers of plywood with Styrofoam inlaid between them. Then, usinsr a saw-knife. which has a wooden handle holding an IB-inch stainless steel blade, he shaped the blocks layer upon layer to Answers To Queries During the past several weeks I have had many queries sent in to me. So here is a selection from them which I think has general interest. Film Story Contest Closes Soon The exciting contest which seeks a story idea for an Australian film closes on September 17. The council does NOT tunnel entrance, as found tn ordinary snow igloos, and is composed of 120 blocks of six-inch thickness. It has withstood winds up to 85 m.n.h., but in spite of the wind's fury no sound can be heard inside. The plastic Igloo Is fireproof and dry while a suitable temperature can be quickly achieved and easily maintained. It costs about 500 dol. 223) to buy and erect on a do-it-yourself basis. When it is 40 deg. btlow freezing point outside, a small kerosene burner can bring the igloo tcm perature up to 105 deg. in two hours. This is much faster than the old Eskimo oil lamp, whtcn main tained only around 30 deg. The experimental plastic hut now serves as a school house for the mission Eskimos and the handful of white children of the Government employed staff. And for the new 'generation of Eskimos, adapting more and more the white man's living standards, the modern prefabricated Igloo is well suited either for fixed or movable quarters. r.Eonr.E sutto other things and die. Act immediately. Mrs. J. (Balwyn). Our cocker is developing a loud, laboring type of wheexy breathing. He is about 1 1 and in very good condition otherwise. What does this signify He is becoming asthmatical, due to ad vancing age, over-feeding ana too little exercise. Re- duce one and increase the other. Prue H. (Colac). I thought that a harmonica wos a mouth organ, but my cousin tells me it is the noma of a bird. Who is right Both of you, but' your cousin refers to the lovely grey shrike-thrush. Such a friendly bird. We have several in our gar den always ready to help, wouta seem. Robin S. (Launceston, It a cot contracts ringworm can ft ba conveyed to a human Yes, indeed decidedly so I Most contagious to humans and other animals. Every care must be taken if you know it is such a sufferer. In fact every care must be taken at all times with all animals. Always wash your hands after hand ling them. If you have any queries please write to me, but enclose a stamped and addressed envelope. It makes ft easier for me to reply quickly. 3 lAJan 5o the Editor of "Junior Age" In hundred years' time so that I can receiva entries from young people living on the Moon Ann Kelmann (13), Caulfield. (Award, 5.) Jt VIOft LIBRARY Ink-and-pen drawing by Rembrandt. Ships, Shields and Coins All those who live near the sea, or who occasionally spend a holiday by the sea, like to know something of the ships they see, from the yachts and ketches to the huge tankers and passenger liners. Some of today's books provide that knowledge. THE OUTBACK, MEN paints, pencils, crayons or pastels for your coloring and fry to make your entry as attractive as possible, for some, of them will be exhibited at the Royal show. DO YOU KNOW that, far 10 years, wa had our own lighting plant and were never without electricity We have had S.E.C. powar for ona month and, in the lost week, hove had the power off three times Kathleen McLeay (14), Upwey. (Award, 5.) together to form huge liners and cargo vessels. A subject we don't hear great deal about in Australia is dealt with in "A GLANCE AT HERALDRY" Harrap, Australian price 17), by Irene Goss. TTiere are, however, opportunities to study the subject here, and it is extraordinary how much those who understand heraldry can learn from the shield, say, of any family or institution. Heraiary nas a strange language, of course, but all the terms are explained in this well-written little book. Coin collectors will find "TEACH YOURSELF NUMISMATICS" (English Universities Press, Australian prica 113), by C. C. Chambarlain, invaluable. The book is in the form of a dictionary, which de fines the terms used by coin collectors, the origins of coins and various other forms of currency, the values of ancient coins, and gives much other in-formation which collec tors need to know if they Plastic Igloo, cut to the required shape, the blocks, IS inches by 36 inches, were glued together by an adhesive called Slyrolok. The result of Pitsulok's craftsmanship wos on igloo 1 8 feet in diameter and nine feet high. Although so light that four men can easily pick it up and carry it, the roof will support a weight of up to 360 lb. This pioneer plastic igloo still stands on a bar- ren and exposed hill at Cape Dorset, in the far Arctic. It includes a rear day. Air pet's bedding at frequent intervals, for fleas breed in rugs, pillows, blankets and baskets. Fleas can be a menace to a dog's health and well-being. Virginia B. I South Yorrol. Is it true thot a budgerigar con give humans all sorts of ailments, including polio It is a bad practice to allow budgerigars to "kiss" their owners. The only disease humans can get from these lovely little birds is parrot fever or psittacosis certainly not poliomyelitis. Peter C. (Bendigo). Our cat has not been well for soma tima and wa hove been told he may have kidney trouble. Would this be possible Yes, indeed. You should consult your veterinary surgeon, because if he has kidney trouble and it is left too late, he could develop blindness among PAIRS fll 1o Can you put each of the following pairs of words Into a sentence (one for each pain to show the meaning of both words 1 1. Paws Pause. 2. Claws Clause. 3. Caws Cause. 4. Seer Sear. 5. Bow Bough. Suggested by Alan Bond (13), Hawthorn East. (Award, 5.) GEiYIJER 11 to 13 Can you give the femi nine of the following words 7 1. lOll. 2. Cock. 3. Monk. 4. Author. 5. Heir. Suggested by Jeryldlne McF.lroy (151, Glen Iris. (Award, 5. I DREDGE 14 tn A dredge has 20 buckets on an endless chain which makes eight revolutions per minute and can raise 60 tons of soil a day. How many tons can be raised in one day by a dredge having 32 buckets of the same capacity and making six revolutions per minute Suggested by Barbara Robertson (15), L'pwey. (Award. 5.) ACROSTIC II to 1 We are sure you 'all know what an acrostic Is I Can you make one from the word TELEGRAM Suggested by Bruce Roberts (14), Burwood. (Award, 5.) There's beaded sweat on, his forehead, His clothes are thick with dust, Five thousand head of prime beef stock. He's trailed from Colo- bust. He'll soon be home to his darling wife And his loving children three. He smiles to himself at the thought of it And whistles content edly. The sky above grows dusky, The growling thunder crashes, The cattle are nervous and frightened. Above the lightning flashes. The rain pelts down with bitter force, The cattle run with fright. A moving sea of pointed horns, A great but deadly sight. The drover tries to wheel This competition, organised by tha Victorian Council far Children's Films and Television, offers cash prises, in two aga groups, far short stories by young people. are to follow their hobby properly. Another book for tha hobbyist it "THREE MODEL THEATRES" (Nelson, Australian pries 189), by Roy Smith, which gives clear directions for building model theatres of tha Elisa-bethan age, tha 18th century and the present day. As a guide to how the theatre works, building these models could not be bettered, and even those not interested in model building will And that the book in creases their knowledge of what goes on behind the scenes in the theatre. Thosa who find geometry difficult will be surprised to find how interesting ft becomes in "ADVENTURE WITH SHAPES" (Phoenix House, Australian prica 156), by Anthony Ravielfi. Mr. Ravielll has not written a text but has at-temnted to show how the familiar forms of geometry are reproduced in nature, or rather, how nature has taught man the geometrical forms he uses In everyday life both for decoration and practical purposes. It no longer seem-, a dull subject. All today's books are well Illustrated. members wish may be put into one envelope, but correct postane must be added or the entries are not received at "Junior Age." Members are askad to maka sura that aach antry is on a separata pieca of papar of reasonable sixa. THE EDITOR. by Ivan want a film-script but a lively story with good ideas. The story need not be long judges will consider ideas before length or expert writing. Winning entries may be chosen for an Australian film. All entries should sent to the President, Vic torian Council for Chil' dren's Films and Tele' vision, 17 Wanda Road, Caulfield, by SEPTEMBER 17. Further details of the competition are available from the council. RAIN Rain, rain and mors rain. Pouring from the sky. au our paaaocKS art flooded. Nowhere is it dry. Steadily pounding on th roof, Dripping down the watts. Streaming down th window pane, Glistening as it falls. Streams are rapidly rl inc. Many are in flood, Their banks a soaaen mass ot Brown and slippery mud. This month has been ine coldest one That we have ever had. Let's hope the rest of svrino-time Isn't Quite so bad. Original poem by Juanlta Twyford (H). Clyde. (Award, 178.) BICCLES He talks and squawks, he's never still. But jumps around all day, He's upside down -mor often than He is the other way. He walks around the table and He samples, all the food, He even walks across th toast. And doesn't know its rude. He says, "I am a pretty boy, Hello, my name is Biggies," As upside down he does his tricks Or, through his ladder wriqgles. Now I will tell you who is, Our Budgie, blue as sky, And, he can do mors funny tricks Than even you or I. Original poem by Lynette Wbelan (15), Ivan-hoe, (Award, 176.) Rowley Cash prizes of 10, 6 and 4 are awarded to the fhree best entries in each of our weekly competitions, and certificates are forwarded to all senders of neatly presented correct entries. Closing date is the THURSDAY following date of publication. Each entry MUST include your full name, age and address. THE EDITOR. Joon K. (Balwynl. Our beloved cat has a sore eye which has become a little inflamed, with a membrane-like substance showing at th corner. The eye is crying most of the time. Bathe in a weak solution of boracic which should be slightly warmed. It would seem your cat may have a slight cold in eye. Use lotion sparingly and always use clean piece of cotton wool for each eye at each bathing. The membrane is the third eyelid and called a "haw." Jock W. (EastMalvorn). My dog has fleas what should I do about it Dust coat thoroughly with good flea powder, brush off and out, in half an hour. Repeat two or three times a week until fleas disappear. Suggest you get flea comb also from your pet shop. At all times brush coat vigorously and regularly each BISCUITS 8 to 101 Can you find the total cost of 1. One-half lb. of biscuits at 46 lb. 2. One and one-half lb. of salt biscuits at 36 lb. 3. Three lb. of cream biscuits at 4 lb. 4. One-quarter lb. of chocolate biscuits at 8 lb. Suggested by Pamela Silver (12), Box Hill. (Award, 5.) CIRCLES (8 to JO Can you draw the Olympic Circles in their correct colors Suggested by David Ball (9), Kew, (Award, 5.) Age Most classes of ships ora dealt with by Irvin Block in "THE REAL BOOK OF SHIPS" (Dobson, Australian price 133) sailing vessels, whalers, submarines and other fighting ships, tugs, tankers and ships of the past and future. He takes us on a tour of the Queen Elizabeth, the world's largest ship, de scribes how the smallest yachts use the wind and how sailors find their way across the seas. And he finishes with a list of terms used by sailors and another of books in which more may be learnt about ships. "LOOK AT SHIPS" (Hamish Hamilton, Australian prka 83), by Scott Ramsay, begins with tha floating logs and bundles of dried reeds which first carried man across rivers, and traces tha history of water transport right up to tha present day. He describes the methods of propulsion the paddle, the oar. tne sail wnicn served men for thousands of years, and then the development of steam power, making men independent of wind and current when they travelled on tne sea. Mr Ramsey also looks at the possibilities of the future. The historical approach Is also Used by John Stew art Murphy in SHIPS, HOW THEY WERE BUILT" (Oxford University Press, Australian prica 12.) A little more technical than the other two books, it takes us irom tne aug-out canoes to tne great smd yards of today where thousands of tons of steel and other metais are weiaea Terry Won't -A his horse But slips and falls to the around Right in the path of the coming cattle. Nothing can save him now. Although the end seems very close. A glimmer of hope he sees. For, riding through the teeming rain his foreman, Lenny Rees He leans down from the trottina mount. The foreman grasps his arm, He swings up on the tired horse, They're almost safe from harm. The drover grips the foreman's hand, He smiles and says "Thanks, ten." "She's right," the foreman grins and says. Typical Outback Men. Original poem by Mervyn Gay (14), N. Bendigo. (Award aU 1.) mute die. In just a minute, tha world's smokers use up three tons of tobacco and aver 600,000 cups of tea or coffee will vanish dawn quota of tha world's, throats. A foremost statistician has worked out these grand-scala avents of a minute, making up an astonishing tima picture of the march of man. Every minute we are using up 2000 tons of coal and nearly as many barrels of oil. The world's food consumption meantime is rather more than 100,000 lb. meat, SO.00O eggs and a crusty 500,000 loaves of bread. Maybe you don't take alt, but the world pinches 50 tons a second. Sugar sweetens and energises of at the rate of 20,000 cwt. a minute. A world stockpile of 750,000 lb. ot potatoes will vanish in Just the same tune. Perhaps you're Just popped out to post a letter So have 8,500,000 other people i In a minute the world has sped slightly over 1000 miles in Its journey round the sun. Perhaps you're wonder ing just how much time you've spent reading the facts and figures In thts article. The average reading time is about on minuttt -John McCann (It). Blackburn. (Award, 118.) "JUNIOR AGE" RULES UELPlG Under 8 What is the "Job" yon most enjoy doing to help at home Is it washing dishes, bringing in wood, making your bed or some other "Job" quite different. Just write down the way you like to help. Suggested by Elaine Evans (11), Carnegie. (Award, 5.) CtItTAIJVS Under 8 Can you draw a window with a pair of gaily colored curtains on either side of It? Suggested Wharton (7), (Award, 5.) by Dawn a I n. Here is the eleventh "Junior Age" rule published in our weekly series: 1 1 Children in the some family may sand all thair entries In the ona envelope but each entry must be en separata piece of paper and clearly marked with nemo, aga and address. As many entries as August 26 "I won't be a minute" you say but maka it snappy. In that brief ticking minuta 90 babies will be born and 76 people will Michael Sedunary, Morwell, Judith Fisher, Olenroy, 4. Solution: 1 89V4. BIRDS. 11-13: Jill Scott, Castlemaine, 10; Julie Barr, Marlbymong-, Pamela Silver, Box Hill. 4. BUTCHER. 8-10: Margaret Wilson, Toolamba, 10; Faye Quancht, Ashburton, Shirley Matters. McKln-non, 4. CROWN. 8-10: John Salflnger, Croydon, 10; Noel Peterson, Lower Fern Tree Oully, Ian Gibson, Pascoe Vale. 4. LETTER BOX. Under 8: Pauline Lyster, Reservoir, or; unvm Bira. Baiiaaie, Lcn Coe, Strezlecki, 31. HOW MANY Under 8: Lance Raggatt, Box Hill, Terrle Curtis, Sheppar- JOIN "JUNIOR AGE" If you would like to join "Junior complete this form and return it to us. A membership certificate will be sent to you entitling you to participate in all our activities. Full Name i'm hp t) I I Most Sa stooa quick I SMf WOO'Rtr ALMOST AS 000 (PCOOVB IS LARSElV DoeT To BT'LL AlO BeT 1 A AW. WU CAN Get UP VDoK CeMAIJKABlS CtaWSB CHABCIN' TMe? i iv5 PICTURE TO COLOR. 13-18: Bronwyn Nicholls. Sliepparton, 10; Diane Lambert. Burwood, Evelyn Lawson, Devon port, 4. PICTURE TO COLOR. 8-12: Andelys Fan-ell, West Preston, 10; Seanald Kel-lock, Ballarat. Lorraine Lambert, Burwood, 4. PICTURE TO COLOR. Under 8: Penelope Webster, Beaumaris, 5'; Janette Dietrich, Mltcnam, Roslyn McRae, Thombury. 2. RATIO. 14-16: Dennis Biker. Fern Tree Oully, 10; William Abbott. Canterbury, 6'; Kerry Murphy. Diamond Creek, 4. Solution: 506.880:1 inches. FI8lll.NO. 14-16: Oall Lambert Burwood, 10; Allan Fry, rootscray. 6'; Elisabeth McNIcoi. Mont Albert. 4. Solution: 'A hour. STAMPS. 11-13: Lawrle Grant, West Footscray, 10; Address Address all mail to "JUNIOR AGE," 233 COLLINS STREET, MELBOURNE. ton, Mary itooerieon Upwey, if.

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