§ff^; t; F ILLIAWI E. GLADSTONE iLife Sketch of the "Grand Old Man" of Merry England. WAS A MAEVELOUS OAEEEB. Of Character a Paradox—Consistent In- comUtency a Feature—In Early-Life an Extreme Conservative; In Later Tears a Radical of the Radicals. The name "Gladstone" was for many years one of power in all the English speak- InE world. Not only has the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland felt the Impress of his genius in every part of her government, but Canada and Australia, the Cape Colony and other self governing dependencies have molded their institutions largely according to his ideas, while In the United States he has had as many devoted admirers as in his native island. "Grand Old Man" was his title here as well as in English lands, and here it was even xnorefreely accorded than there. HO>?. W. E. GLADSTONE. 1 And yet his character presents a paradox. No other politician of modern times, none jirobably of any time, has changed positions so often or so radically, and it is scarcely possible to find any defined principle advocated by him during his later years that he had not at some time in the past assailed with vituperative eloquence. let there was always a certain consistency even in his changes. Contrary to an almost •universal rule among students of society and government, he steadily grew more radical as he grew older, less cautious as he grew physically weaker and less tolerant of criticism as his course raised greater armies of critics. His supporters claimed consistency on his part by one plea-. He declared and was often able to show that, while sound reasoning on the facts then knovra sustained his first position, later experience taught •ensible men the true view, and hence that an advocacy which was once only a mistake was later the outcome of mere obstinacy in opposition to j ustice and truth. He entered parliament as a Tory of the 18th century •ort, grew into a mild Conservative, held office as an advanced Whig and then led the opposition to victory in 1892 as a liberal so very radical that many English radicals abandoned him, and even Irish radicals had sometimes to restrain him. , Sometime* Inconsistent; Always Earnest. . He took office as a protectionist, but aided in establishing free trade; launched into literature with a plea for the union of (church and.sJate 59 extreme, that even the flones repudiated it and ended by destroying the Irish establishment, and though his first public utterance to be generally noticed in America was a eulogy on Jefferson Davis and the southern confederacy and Jug next a savage criticism on the Irish party he lived to be the most popular of Englishmen to Americans and the very ideal of statesmen to Irishmen. Surely the career of such a man deserves close study. It teaches many valuable lessons, but chiefly these two—that in this century new measures and the science of government have developed so rapidly that the man of action and talent appears for a time the most inconsistent, and that the people instinctively approve of an inconsistent advance far more than of a consistent standstill or retrogression. One may go over hundreds of pages of Ids speeches or writings without finding a .single essay at wit, and though many passages show geniality it would be hard to find one that is distinctly humorous. In the case of any other man, or of the same man in any other country, especially in the United States, this very uniformity of seriousness and awful dignity would have made him the subject of satire. Dozens of names would have been invented for him. Bnt let him take what position he might, Englishmen have unanimously credited him with being terribly in earnest. In fact, if they had thought him less earnest his opponents would have thought him much less dangerous. Whatever his position might, be at a given time, he really believed in it. It became a part of his religion. And it so happened that nearly all the great issues of his time have been closely connected with religious tenets. To have men of such unyielding convictions is well, but that they are not a majority among the public men of any country is also well. Americans find no difficulty in understanding why Mr. Gladstone has been so fiercely hated or so cordially liked by different factions in England, for the contro- Tersy there bears an unpleasantly close re- •tMnblance to that in the United States im- X CASTOL mediately following the civil war. It is, however, a little strange that the most fanatic attacks should have come from such a scientist as Huxley, the most venomous assaults from tie poet Swinburne and the keenest thrusts from the philosophic Iiecky and the historian Fronde. Bis Conservative Youth. TP« father, John Gladstone, was a prominent merchant, and his mother was of Eootoh royal descent. The family was of the old conservative kind, and the father idd office as a Tory at Liverpool, where 'William Ewart Gladstone was born Dec. », 1809. After the usual coarse at Eton fct catered »t Christ'* Church, Oxford, and apparently absorbed all the conservatism of that intensely conservative old Tory stronghold. He passed through the excitement then prevailing on church affairs—it soon after produced the so called "Tractarian movement" and the conversion of John Henry Newman, late cardinal—and was not even shaken; he witnessed the frantic war against Sir Robert Peel, member for Oxford, on account of his advocacy of Catholic emancipation, and yet was not moved to liberal views; he listened to the eloquence of the young reformers and as far as can be judged regarded it with contempt. In short, the youth was almost unnaturally conservative. Gladstone and the United States. As is well known, Mr. Gladstone's sympathies were with the south during the civil war. During the later years of his life his views concerning America, like his views on almost everything but Homer, underwent a decided change, and for many years he was an ardent admirer of the United States, its people and its government. "America has a magnificent future," he once said to .an American friend, "if the people are only true to their possibilities. Before the close of the 20th century the vast continent embraced within the limits of the United States, stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the Gulf of Mexico to the great lakes of the north, will be the home of 300,000,000 of freemen, representing every nation upon earth, vaster in extent and population than the Roman empire in its palmiest days, but free from the danger that attended the extension of that empire among barbarous peoples, which was the primary and potent cause o£ the decline and fall of the greatness of Rome. Every true Englishman should be proud of the progress of the United States, for the Americans are our kith and kin, having the same literature, the same language and the same sturdy love of political independence. The wresting of Magna Charta from King John prepared the way for the battle of Bunker Hill and the Declaration of Independence." His Political Career Summarized. In 1S31 he was graduated with a brilliant triumph, and the next year entered parliament in the good old Tory way—"accepting the seat for Newark by the grace of the Duke of Newcastle." He continued to represent that borough till 1846, but as Gladstone then showed signs of becoming liberal the duke gave the seat to another, claiming, as he said, "the right to do what he would with bis own." In 1834 Gladstone first "took office" as under secretary for the colonies, Sir Robert Peel being premier. Being "thrown out," asthe English phrase is, by the defeat of Peel in 1835, be employed his leisure jn literary work and published the once celebrated—perhaps one should say notorious—"Church and State." It is now remembered chiefly because of Macaulay's savage criticism of it in the Edinburgh Review. In 1840 he put forth another peculiar work on church affairs. In 1841 he again took a place in the cabinet and soon became eminent as a financier. In 1845 he resigned because the government favored the Catholic college in Ireland, but soon came in again. In 1847 he was chosen to represent Oxford, and then, for the first time, began to advocate liberal measures, the first being the bill for removing the disabilities of the Jews, which he had opposed in 1841. In 1851-3 he became a leader of the Liberals and entered on that long contest with Disraeli, which continued without truce till 1876, when Disraeli became Beaconsfield and entered the house of lords. Mr, Gladstone was four times prime minister of England, first taking office in 1868. In 1873 his ministry was defeated by a coalition of Tories and home rulers on the education question, but as the opposition could not organize he was restored only to be again defeated the next year. Six years later, in 1880, having during his retirement conducted a vigorous campaign against the government both on the platform and by means of pamphlets, directing his attacks mainly against the policy which resulted in the treaty of Berlin, under which the Turks were left rulers of millions of oppressed Christians, he was again raised to power. This time his ministry endured until 1885 by a combination of Tories and Parnellites on the budget. In 1886 he regained the reins, but held them for a short time only, the home rule problem proving fatal to his continuance in power. Lord Salisbury was then chosen prime minister, and Gladstone was out until 1892, when, after an exciting general election, parliament showed a majority of 40 against the Conservative government. The Mobbing of Gladstone. "Gladstone in danger from a mob. He takes refuge in a hallway!" To Americans who read it now this statement will seem incredible. Yet it was a fact, and so late as 1S7S. The English people had on one of their periodical war fevers, and were consequently insane. It is not too strong an expression. The war fever often rises to a sort of insanity, and even in the .tolerant United States it has twice happened that the veterans of one war were mobbed for not being sufficiently zealous in the next. In the autumn of 1S7S the party of Mr. Gladstone had apparently sunk to the lowest depth it ever reached. Lord Beaconsfield (Disraeli) had returned from the Berlin conference bringing, as he said, "Peace with honor," and all the men who opposed the pro-Turkish policy of the government were stigmatized as "friends of Russia"— consequently traitors. The masses took up that false and foolish cry, so often heard when war is thought near at hand—that the opponents of war were only such because they favored the hostile country as against their own. London was almost unanimous for sustaining Turkey at all hazards against Russia, and the music halls rang every night with war songs, the favorite refrain being— We do not want to flght: but, by jingo, if we do, We've got the ships, we've got the men, we've got the money too. So the war party came to be called the "Jingoes." The Turks had perpetrated most atrocious massacres in Bulgaria, and Russia had marched her armies toward Constantinople. Beaeonsfield as prime minister ordered the British fleet to that city and began to concentrate troops at Cyprus, while Mr. Gladstone'denounced the Turks and declared that the time was past when England could honorably sustain them. Beaconsfield excited the popular hatred against Russia and carried the day. The Russians were restrained when within sight of Constantinople, and on the invitation of Bismarck the powers convened at Berlin and patched up an arrangement which gave Turkey a little longer lease of life. The people were pleased to see England appear once more as a sort of dictator in European affairs. All the morning papers of London except The News took part with Beaconsfield and denounced Gladstone in no measured terms. The "peace men" were occasionally hissed or otherwise insulted in public places, and at length Mr. Gladstone and his wife were "hustled," as the phrase goes, in the public street. As the event produced much indignation, the London papers were not aniwras to give publicity to the details, and by way of apology it was stated that "a little mob of patriots returning from a Jingo carnival" created the disturbance. The fact remains. The statesman who had served England so long and well was while walking with his wife pressed upon, derided and insulted till, the danger of assault seeming to them imminent, they took refnge in the hall of the nearest house— and that's all the London papers admit. But a reaction was at hand. When all the particulars of the Berlin settlement came out,'the people were disgusted. Tie Tory- party was completely overthrown at the next election, and in 1880 Gladstone became for the second time prime minister. Gladstone'* Victory In 1892. The scene in the house of commons accompanying the overthrow of Lord Salisbury's government Aug. 12,1892, though perhaps less dramatic than that attending the downfall of Mr. Gladstone's government in 1885, was full of exciting episodes. Mr. Asquith bad moved a vote of "no confidence," The house was full, 10 members only abstaining from voting. A singularly brilliant and caustic piece of rhetoric from Mr. Chamberlain was followed by extemporaneous remarks by Mr. Chaplin, who, because one or two members of the ministerial minority were late, spoke largely against time. He was frequently interrupted by indignant Irish members with groans, cries of "Vide! Tide!" loud laughter and much talking. Dr. Tanner, a privileged jester, even went so far as to march solemnly up to Mr. Chaplin's side with a glass of water, but the orator kept on despite interruptions until noon, when the tardy ones arrived, and he sat down, while the house called for the division. It took fully 20 minutes to count the votes. Mr. Gladstone was among the very last to return from the lobbies by way of the bar, and he was received with vocifei-ous cheering. First the Irish members and then the regular opposition rose en masse and shouted and waved hats until their chief had seated himself. Mr. Balfour received a- similar ovation from the ministerial minority when he took his place behind the chair Then Mr. Majoribanks, the government's new chief whip, entered with the figures of the majority, which he whispered to Mr. Gladstone before h'e took his place in front of the table and to the right of the speaker, always reserved for the successful tellers. The whole house was so noisy and excited that it was a long time before silence for the reading of the figures could be secured. There was more wild cheering when the figures were given out, and cries of "Evicted," "Remember Mitchels^owB," "Down with coercion," arose from the Irish members. Mr. Balfour moved adjournment, and in 10 minutes the house was cleared. Mr. Gladstone had a great reception from the crowd outside as he drove away with Mrs. Gladstone, who had watched the scene from her usual corner in the ladies' gallery. His Marriage and Bis Home. Mr. Gladstone was married July 25,1838, to Miss Margaret Glynne, of a Welsh family, who brought to him a considerable property, which included famous Hawarden castle. She inherited it through a long line of descent from one Sergeant Glynne and his son, the Baronet William Glynne. They obtained it at the close of the great civii war, andthe former owner, James, earl of Derby, had lost his head. Of course it has a history, like all the old places in Great Brit- MRS. GLADSTONE. ain. The old castle, whose rains still Interest the visitor, was one of the posts by which the English first held the conquered Welsh in subjection, and its Welsh name (of which Hawarden is a modified form> means "fort on the bridge." Prince Llewellyn at one time lived there. It was dismantled in 1645, and the present mansion was built early in the 18th century. The old castle rain and adjacent park are open to the public, and in any part of the wood where ancient or decaying trees needed cleftring away the visitor might not very long ago have seen evidences of the work of Gladstone, the woodchopper. The last day he spent at his favorite exercise was just after a great storm, which had played havoc with the trees. The air was damp and chilly; the sight of so much debris stimulated him to unusual exertion, a severe cold and illness resulted, and his old time exercise was abandoned. The Gladstone Family. Eight children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Gladstone. One daughter died in infancy, two daughters are married, and Helen, still single, holds the honorable place of vice principal of Newnham college at Cambridge. She ranks high among the educated women of the world, and the institution over which she presides is noted for its position on the advanced education of women. Of the four sons, one is rector of Hawarden, another is in parliament, the third is active in politics, and the fourth is in business at Calcutta. There has always been a naive simplicity in Mrs. Gladstone, especially when speaking about her husband, often amusing and sometimes affecting. She was never backward in helping his canvass and evidently considered him the greatest statesman England ever produced. In an address at a home rule meeting of the campaign of 1S92 she assumed as an admitted fact that no one was at heart really opposed to her husband, and of Earl Compton, the Liberal candidate, she said to the voters. "You are supporting a good and an honest man; but, more than that, you are supporting my husband in his fight, for justice to Ireland." A Sunday at Hawarden was not long ago described as follows: "'A carious group about the door of Hawarden church waited to see the Gladstones arrive. The great statesman used to sit in a seat Justin frontof the pulpit and nsnally read the Scripture service for the day. "When the anthem was ended, Mr. Gladstone walked swiftly but noiselessly np to the lectnrn—a splendid eagle with outstretched wjags, done in carved oak—and read the story of Naaman and the little Syrian maid. TTia style was the perfection »f simplicity, so simple that one was almost tempted to believe it the perfection of sit. "Between the first and second lessons he seated himself on a small square stool directly in front of the reading desk, and here again he took up his position during the sermon. After the service Mr. Gladstone returned to his seat. He waited for the communion, and as I passed out he and Mrs. Gladstone were both bowed in the oblivion of devout prayer." "AIX ABOUND POLITICIAN." [Cartoon in Punch.] Their son, Stephen B. Gladstone, the rector there, follows the practice of college chapels, where one of the students is usually selected to read the Scripture lesson. The selection of devout laymen for this office, however, is a common practice in the English church, as it was in the early churches and in the Jewish synagogue. Mr. Gladstone's Town Ufe, Columns on columns have been written of Mr. Gladstone's wonderful strength as an old man. It is doubtful if the world has seen such another. When in 1S92 he was made prime minister for the fourth time, he was 84 years old, and though he had j-ast passed "through a most exciting campaign he entered upon his duties as bead of the government with seemingly unimpaired vigor. It was doubtless to his extreme simplicity and purity of life that he owed his phenomenal virility. His time was usually about equally divided between London and Hawarden. When he was prime minister his London residence was of course the famous house in Downing street, that has for so long been the official home of the 1 premier. At other times he has rented. Between 1886 and 1892 he was the yearly tenant of a house in St. James' square, Pall Mall, where he Lad for neighbors the Dukes of Cleveland and Norfolk, the Earl of Derby, the Marquis of Bristol, Earl Cowper and other great men. His rising hour when in town was 8:30. He dressed for the day at once, and if the weather was good, sometimes when it was bad, took an airing before breakfast. The morning meal was always a plain one, lasting half an hour, during which time he usually absorbed all that was of interest to him in three or four morning newspapers. After breakfast he disposed of his correspondence in his library. When he was in office he always employed several private secretaries. When "out" he had but one assistant, usually his son. After his letters were attended to it was his custom to devote the remainder of the morning to reading. Luncheon was usually taken alone and consisted of a small slice of beef or mutton and a glass of claret. The afternoon, and often the evening, was devoted to political duties. For many years Mr. Gladstone was accustomed when in London and not busy with politics in the 'evening to dine out. He rarely gave dinners. Sometimes he visited the theater or opera. Midnight was his hour for bed, and he used to light himself to his room with, a candle. He used to say that, he always left business outside his bedroom door, and hence always slept well. He never used tobacco in any form. His drinking was confined to claret, of which, however, he was not a professed connoisseur. He was always neat but never smart in his attire, and he had a profound dislike for' old clothes. In town in winter he used to wear a tall black hat and black clothes, which included a short overcoat with a long, queer cape. In summer he wore gray cassimere and a tall white hat. To Mrs. Gladstone was left the task of caring for his wardrobe. Gladstone's Scholarship. In 1886 Mr. Gladstone visited Winchester college, which had in his student days been a sort of rival to his own college at Oxford. Of course the students gave him a royal welcome, and their orator for the day addressed the premier in a somewhat lengthy speech in Latin. Mr. Gladstone listened with the closest attention, as politicians and statesmen always do on such occasions, and the waggish ones probably thought his attentive manner mere form and politeness. To their surprise, however, he replied at once with equally classic Latin and in such detail as to show that not a statement in the address had escaped him. An average lifetime had passed since he left college, and in that time he had been one of the busiest men in the world, yet his knowledge of the classics had constantly improved. The principal Latin authors were still as familiar to him as the English authors of the same rank, and Greek as his second native tongue. Every American college has its standard jokes about the various Englishmen who have put forth so many varying views on the "Iliad" and "Odyssey," the same man sometimes changing his views completely within a few years, but Mr. Gladstone is always honored as the consistent and almost convincing advocate of the unity of Homer. It is a very curious fact that down to the middle of this century American scholars and colleges were practically unanimous in maintaining the unity of Homer: that a change came so rapidly that at one time the great weight of authority was the other way, and that in many cases the same passages were relied on to prove various authors that had been to prove unity, while many men who had when students thought Gladstone's reasoning unanswerable lived to wonder that it should ever have seemed to them weighty. In his "Studies on Homer and the Homeric Age" (iSoSj Mr. Gladstone maintains that one man wrote the entire poems, and that they are historic—that is, there was a real Troy which was destroyed by the Greeks. In his "Juventus Mundi" (1869) and his latest work on Homer (1S74) he goes still further and attempts to fix the date of Troy's destruction. The argument is, if anything, abler, yet the first convinced, and the last did not. The world is now in an era of skepticism as to all ancient stories. The most ardent admirers of Gladstone's genius merely smile at his views on such subjects and say that he is by nature a devotee, whether as to the literalness of the Pentateuch, of Homer or any other ancient work, Mr. Gladstone's Ubrmrr. Xfr Gladstone's library contains about 25,000 volumes, and he was fully three- a century collecting it. Scarcely a day passed that he did not make somead- dition to it. For instance, on the day of Stanley's wedding he escaped as soon as h« could from the gay throng and went to the shop of a bookseller on Southampton row, •where he bought "The Life of Thomas Before' and After the Union," by Martin; "The Rise and Progress of Religious Opinion in Ireland," by Mrs. Thompson- "Lord Holland's Reminiscences," "Manchester College Lectures," containing an address by Cardinal Newman on classical literature; "Byron's Letters," "Lent Lectures,". "The Laws of Honor," an account, of the suppression of duels in France; "Le Bouddha," by Saint Hilaire; "The French Librarian or Literary Guide," by Ventonillac; "English Synonyms" and a Greek work. He always had'his books rebound, bold- Ing that any book worth having was worthy of a good cover. His library was so miscellaneous that he could not himself state what sort of books predominated, though he had personally divided it into many minute sections. Theology, he thought, comprised about one-fourth of the whole. There are about 20 editions of Homer and from 30 to 40 translations, whole or in part. He never sympathized to any considerable extent with the craze for modern first editions, but "I like a tall copy," was a characteristic remark made once to a friend. "And so far as regards a preference for ancient authors, in old but good editions, to modernized reprints, the verdict was emphatically in favor of the former." Gladstone and the Caricaturists. Mr. Gladstone's pronounced personality and his extended public career combine to make him an easy and always timely subject for the caricaturist's pencil. In fact, it is bard to imagine on looking over the funereal pages of Punch ivhat its artists would have done had there been no Gladstone. These satirical pictures of the great Liberal leader have a certain value, bow- ever, for they show him in exaggerated measure, it is true, but still with a degree of fidelity at all periods of his life and as he appeared in every possible mood. The examples here given are copied from the pictures of John Leech, John Tennel,' Linley Sanbourne and Harry Furniss as they were printed between 1859 and the present time. The picture with the exaggerated shirt collar is by Furniss, who delighted to portray the Grand Old Man's high collar as his most pronounced characteristic, often simply indicating with a line or two the top of his head and with a dot the eye, as in this case. Among the pleasantest and most valuable customs of the staff oi Punch has been for many years the eating of a weekly dinner with the editor, at which the policy of the paper and its caricatures are outlined and criticised. Mr. Gladstone was invited to be an honored guest at one of these dinners, and there was some previous speculation as to how he and Mr. Furaiss would enjoy the meeting. Mr. Gladstone proved equal to the occasion. He came, and hardly was he seated at ths table when the company became aware of a change in his familiar personality. A second look revealed its nature. Mr. Furniss started: somebody tittered; there was a smile, a ripple and then a roar of laughter. Mr. Gladstone had on the smallest, slenderest and most inconspicuous of narrow turndown collars, assumed for that occasion only, and was quietly enjoying the artist's discomfiture. Mr. Furniss soon recovered himself and appreciated the joke as much as any one else. Gladstone and the Queen. Gladstone never was a favorite at tho palace. Indeed the queen is reported to have said more than once with emphasis that she detested him, and said it in a way to imply that she also feared him. When Lord Salisbury resigned- in 1892 to be followed in office by Gladstone, she is said to have accepted the resignation with expressed "regret," thereby breaking the unwritten law that British royalty should never express preference for either of the great political parties. There are stories to the effect that more than one discussion between the sovereign and Gladstone terminated in angry words, but the premier never flinched from facing royalty. "You must take this action," he once said to her. "Must! Did you say must?" she angrily retorted. "And do you know, sir, who I am?" "Madam," answered Gladstone coolly, "you are the queen of England. But do you know who I am? I am the people of England, and in this emergency the people say 'mustl'" It is scarcely necessary to add that the "people" prevailed. Gladstone's Fet Dog- It is stated elsewhere that Mr. Gladstone never, so far as recorded, perpetrated a joke, yet he was far from being a gloomy man. Indeed his bouyancy of spirits was remarkable. He was frequently even gay, and his smile is likentd by some one to a sunburst. He liked pets and during his later years possessed a little black Poni- eranian dog named Petz, of which he was very fond. The little animal used often to accompany the statesman on long walks, and it was Mr. Gladstone's delight to tlirow sticks for the little fellow to run after, and he often told how on one occasion when he was felling a tree, with Petz as his only companion, the dog after a time thought some little attention should be paid to him. and that some of the chips should be thrown to him to fetch. So he kept'picking up a chip now and again and dropping it at the woodman's feet in the hope of attracting his at- TE2 ECPEZ TS DOWXIKG STREET. tention. Mr. Gladstone, appearing not tt> notice his little friend's efforts, \veut on with his tree felling, determined to try an-. tire him out. But at last, in dire distress, Petz picked ap a large chip and dropped it oa Mr. Gladstone's boot, at the same time looking up into the statesman's face as if his life depended on his wish being gratified. The gentleman had to give in, and Petz was made altogether happy. Gladstone as a Speaker. Notwithstandimj his abilities in other Directions, it was as speaker that Mr. Gladstone possessed his strongest bold upon the English people. His voice was clear, vibrant, melodious and penetrating. It wa? quite audible in the corners of the largest frail, and'it was rare that he was tmable to reach the outskirts of the most extended outdoor andience. Even after he had paaeed tn« limit of fourscore yeairs this was largely true, though during the last years of his life hi» magnificent TOMt«|w- gans were somewhat impaired. Though contrary to the impression! produced by the pictures of Mr. GlBdstXMa, h»r was not a large man. His graceful attt-. tudes and imposing appearance -had much!. to do with the favorable impression aft wan almost invariably able to produce upon hi». audiences. His gestures were appareatlyr unstudied and always seemed to emphasize- the words he tittered. His style as a speaker differed materially from, his style as SD writer. Though it is Undoubtedly trua that, he prepared most of bis important speeciiMBV carefully in advance, he was never at ft logs for a reply when, interrupted by a dissenting auditor. Public speaking is of even greater importance in English than in American politics. Certainly, judging from the report*, which are always printed verbatim in th»English papers, long public speeches are- much more frequent there than here. Mr.' Gladstone probably made more speechew- than any other English statesman. Thanks- to his wonderful physique, he never flinched because of inclement weather, and among the marvels of his career was the way in. whsch be would stand for hours in a pelting rain sometimes while he expounded to~" the voters his views on the vital topics of the day. Mrs. Gladstone invariably occupied a- place near him when he was speaking and was always ready with wraps and refreshments for him the moment he had finished. He was rarely treated with discourtesy, especially during his later years, but in the campaign of 1892 he suffered an injury to- one of his eyes from a small missilethrown.' by a woman. He soon recovered from the • effects of this, however, and continued speaking during the campaign, although, it was feared that he might bo laid up during the remainder of the contest. Gladstone Chronology. The chronology of the Hon. W. E. Gladstone is as follows: 1809—Dec. £9, born at Liverpool. 1827—Entered at Christ's Church, Oxford. 1S30-1—Brilliant triumph, "double first" in- belles lettres. 1831—Graduated from Oxford. 183S—Entered parliament in December, having been elected for Newark by the interest at- the Duke of Newcastle. The poll stood—Wilde»719; Handley, 783; Gladstone, 882. Continued to. • represent Newark till 1840. 1833—Jan. 13, admitted to Society of Lincoln"*' Inn; withdrew in 1839, having given up his in-. tention to practice law. 1834—Dee. 9, Sir Robert Peel, first lord of th«i- treasury, named Gladstone under secretary for- the colonies. 1835—Peel administration overthrown; Gladstone goes out; becomes one of the "opposition." 1(58—Married.- 1838-9—Published the once noted "Church anil State;" severely criticised by Macaulay. MR. GLADSTOSB AXD HIS 1840—Published "Church Principles Considered." ISO—Sir Robert Peel returner to -power-and*, names Gladstone member of the privy council,, vice president of the board of trade and master • of the mint. 184S—Revised the British tariff and became- eminent as a financier. 1S38-45—Frequent contributor to The Quarterly Review, chiefly on history and ecclegi&atic&b. topics. 18«—Succeeds Lord Ripon as president of the • bo&rd of trade. 1815—Reeiened from board of trade because'- government increased the Maynooth grant (to- a Catholic college). 1S46—November, Sir Robert Peel is defeated; and resigns; Lord John Russell unable to "form* a government;" Peel recalled and maiea Gladstone secretary for the colonies. 1848—January, Sir Robert Peel announces ther "fiscal revolution;" declares for free trader- great excitement among all English speaiiner people; Gladstone defends his chief with great,, ability and success; being unwilling to accept! an office from the Duke of Newcastle, a pro-^ tectionist. Gladstone resigned the seat early Inj the year and was out of parliament dnrinetho' debates on free trade. 1847—Chosen to represent OxZord; speaks lorr removing disabilities of Jews, which he had op-' posed in 1841. 1852—Enters on a 24 years' contest with Disraeli 1852—December, Disraeli beaten; coalition,, ministry formed: Gladstone chancellor of tb»' exchequer. 1855—Resigned chancellorship of exchequer. 1858—Accepts extraordinary mission to the • Ionian islands: his cession of those islands to- Greece is still matter of heated discussion; publishes the "Homeric Age;" becomes noted in Greek classics. 1859—Chancellor of the exchequer again; now- known as an "advanced Liberal;" Italian war;; British opinion; Gladstone's position extremely i awkward. 1860—Treaty with France (Cobdcn'a); Glad-stone has become a radical free trader. 1860-1—AboUshea the duty on paper. 1865—Palzaerston died Oct. 8; Lord Ras*elli formed a new cabinet, and Gladstone became' leader of the boose. Ii88fr—Reform bill defeated; ministry rudgns;. Derby forms a ministry: Gladstone become*leader of the opposition. 2867— Signs multiply that Gladstone i* veer- toe around to a liberal policy for Ireland. I(3(jj_March 16, ever memorable debate begun in house of commons by Joba Maguire; Bright and Gladstone soon follow against the"Irish Established chnrch." 1S68— July 31, parliament dissolved: November elections pot Liberals in power, a»d Gladstone, defeated in Lancashire, becomes member for Greenwich; is named prime minister; publishes "Ecce Homo" and "A Chapter of Autobiography." 1869—Long and bitter fight on July 36: th»bill to disestablish the Irish chnrch received the signature of tie queen; publishes "Juven- tns Munili." 1870—Aug. L, first Irish land bfll received th»royal assent. 1S71—Gladstonean jubflee; his statue nn veiled in his native place; his bill pasted abolishing purchase of axmy commissions, also bis bill abolishing confiscation in penal ease*. 1873—Resigned; opposition could not organize; Gladstone restored. 1874—Jannary. dissolved parliament; beaten.- before people, "goes out;" Disraeli in again. 1876—In opposition; pnbliauei "Homer Synchronism.* 7 1879—Mid - Lothian tritunph: publishei- "Gleanings of Past years." 1890— Disraeli defeated; Gladstone prim* minister again. 1885—Out again. ; . 18W- Prime minister Ogata for a time: proposes Irish home role; beaten and goes out; present Irish contest begun. 1888—Gladstone carried the general election* and on Aug. 12 was mad* prime minist«r wtA » majority at *> made np-ofmuir fftetfaM.
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