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The Tennessean from Nashville, Tennessee • Page 48

The Tennesseani
Nashville, Tennessee
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I SUNDAY I ZZZZ 1 MARCH 9 Basbviiie enneesean ani Bmertcan flfoaqatfne Section mi.T hv tbr Star Compuny Grcnt Britain Klhtp Reserved TheOneCreatScientificractScottPiscovered The Poles Once 1 Alii ical Inn. JIP li'WMM, WSfe gles, the Equator a Girdle of Impassable Ice Swept by Mighty Blizzards Explanation Why Llamas Are Found Only in South America, Kangaroos in Australia and Polar Bears Only at the North Pole rH one great fact established by the unfortunate Oajttaln Scott's expedition to the South Pole Is that abundant life and a warm climate formerly existed there, while at the same time, around which 1b now the equator, was a gigantic girdle of Impassable Ice. In other words, our frozen poles were then tropical jungles and our equator a frozen waste. This Is ofvltal Importance to our knowledge of the earth's hlBtory. It means that in some earlier period' life was distributed In a manner, entirely different from the present, and that the climate of the whole earth was different.

Commander Evans, in his report ot Captain Scott'B last Journey, says: "Before descending the Beard-more Glacier Wilson and Lieutenant Bowers visited Buckley Island and climbed to a large nunatak at the top of the glacier. Thetn they spent some time making a large collection ol fossil-bearing sandstone and coal, in quantities. "When they reached a small depot under Clondmaker Mountain fossils of much greater age were found in the 'limestone, and a total of thirty-five pounds of geological specimens were carefully packed." The finding of coal is most significant. It means that tbe Antarctic Continent formerly possessed a climate that was practically tropical. The fern-like trees of the carboniferous period that furnished the earth's coal beds could only Sourish In a swampy soil with an atmosphere ot high temperature.

The discovery ot-large quantities cf fossils in the heart of tbe Antarctic Continent proves, moreover, that animal life was formerly abundant there. We do not yet know what all these animals were, but the cabled reports say that mammals and large land animals of various kinds were among them. At the present time there are no land mammals native to the Antarctic Continent or the Islands bordering upon It. True forms of land life are confined to Insects and other very low forms, and even such life as this Is extremely scarce. The larger forms of life found around the fringe of the continent consist of penguins and seals, which, of course, are not exclusively land animals.

They do not find their food on land but in the coean, where they find an abundant Bupply of fish. On account of their aquatic habits they are not confined to the barren cnntlnnnf nn which they fine a more or less interrupted lodging. There Is also a strange species of crab, edibje, and able to withstand the temperature of the Antarctic. These are all that Is left of the teeming life of ages ago. Captain Scott has, therefore, added greatly to our knowledge by the expedition in which he lost" his life.

-The same conclusion could not be proved so positively from researches at the North Pole, because that point is not situated on a great land continent, but in tbe midst of the sea. Evidences of a former warm climate have indeed been found in Arctic regions, but they were too far away from the Pole to permit a conclusion to be drawn with the same certainty as In the case of tbe South "ole. How can we explain this total change (n the earth's climate? It must be explained by one of two theories: 1 1 That the earth has changed Its axis so that the poles oeoupy positions along what was formerly the equator (2) That the amount ot beat In the earth's surface Is distributed otherwise than in earlier ages, although the position of the earth's axis remains the same Tbe second supposition may appear less clear and reasonable than the first, but It has lately received much support from prominent scientlHo men who favor it partly because they find that there are not L-ood astronomical -grounds for. arguing that the earth haa undergone a radical change ot axis. That it changes its axis slightly is certain In connection with the proof of tropical The Animal Hordes Captain Robert F.

Scott in His Antarctic Costume. Above the Grave Under the Aurora Australia on the Frozen Southern Waste That; Hs Discovered Was Once a Tropical Wilderness. A Picture Diagram of the Earth When the Equator Was an Arctic Waste and the Poles Were Imputable Tropical Jungles. Here Are Shown the Different Types- of Ancient Monsters, Birds, Reptiles and Animals Which Developed Independently in the Two Parts of the World Then Shut Off by the Impassable Ice Barrier of the Equator. This Tells Us Where Our.

Birds and Beasts Came from and Why Those of the Southern Hemisphere Are so Different from Those of the Northern. of feet deep under, ocean Band. It Is but in South America by flesh-eating matt plals, of which- there are no living types. This led partly to the development is South America ot the opossums, cavies. Sloths, armadillos and various forms of life which could not have survived the struggle for existence had there been present the specialized and active fellM "and canine beasts of prey.

In Africa It led partly to the development of certain forms of-which that continent is regarded as the source, elephants, sea-cows and manatees, primitive whales and conies. The great northern continent of Europe-and-Asla-and-North-Amerlca, or the Hot arctic region, as it is sometimes called, is responsible for all the rest of the ancestral animals, from which the modern types of animals have been derived. But the problem as to the geographies! origin of the ancestors of man still remains. There seems good evidence that be is not Of the Antarctica type. As the highest form of animal, therefore, man has developed in the central portion of Eurasia, the theatre of the principal mammal development in the history of tbe world.

Hither the highest specles'of animals migrated from their original cradles at the North and South Poles, 'T-, Antarctic Crab, One of th Few Forms of Life Left in the Antarctic Out of the of Living Things Once Living There. such as the echidnas and duck-billed pntypus-. The marsupials, or mammals which have a pouch, brlnging forth the young half-born, as it were, and continuing birth processes In a pouch of tbe skin, are evidently later than the platypus, that primitive creature which, though a mammal, lays eggs. Of this great group there are ten different of which there are still some types living. Of these ten, nine are found only in Australia and neighboring Islands.

Only one family that of the Opossums is found 'elsewhere, and it is solely an Antarctic type, found principally In South America. Throe fossil links join South and Australia a form of turtle unknown in the northern hemisphere; an ancestor of a South American form, allied to the Tasmanian wolf; and a small creature called the epanorthid, which 1b a distant cousin of the kangaroo. South America and Africa may be bracketed together in just one curious way, the absence from both continents Of early forms of the carnivorous dog and cat families. As a result the non-flesb-eatlng mammals wore preyed on In Africa solely by flesh-bating creodonts, of which there are no living types, and Plaints That Drive animals are then attacked -by hosts of devils and monsters of unheard-of shapes. The smoker becomes brave and possessed of superhuman strength.

It Is at this stage of the debauch that murders are committed by smokers of the marihuana weed. A few Americans have experimented with the weed. A few years ago a well-known clttaen of San Antonio purchased a large coffee plantation In southern Mexico. He was induced to try smoking marihuana; he became addicted to the which rendered him insane and finally caused his death. In another instance the superintendent of a mine hj Mexico, who was an American, -became the object of hatred of one ot tbe men in his employ.

The Mexican mixed marihuana with the American's tobacco. The latter became wildly Insane from smoking' the made a vicious attack upon a party of miners, was shot and killed In the affray. Not long ago a Mavlrian, at tha lower from nearly a hemisphere- This, of course would promote uniformity of tern peratures from tbe equator to the poles. If thus receiving radiation from a very large solid angle, the intensity of the radiation need have been only very slight 'indeed to maintain the earth's Such radiation might bo furnished by a cloud of small particles (not gases) comprising the nebula. Even, if they give no considerable radiation of- their own, they would' reflect that of the hotter solar Another roost important bearing the discovery of former the South I'oie Is to confirm the bl-polar theory of 'the origin of lire Whlon was puyineq ny the great Charles Darwin In h'lr "Descent of Man The simple tacts that kangaroos are only found in Australia, -that llamas are only found In South America; that polar bears are only found near the- North ole, that animals of the ox 'family are only found In' the -northern hemisphere, and other data-of this, kind point plainly to the, conclusion that various -epeces of animals originated near the.

poles and spread thence over the rest-of. the globe. Where there was; ah obstacle, to their spreading, as in- the case of Australia, which was surrounded by a vaBt ocean, tbe species was confined to. that locality; and that-is why we find the kangaroo only In Australia. Why should originate at tne poise If tbey were frigid and barren of vegets- lion? ObvlAuajr it- shouldn't.

The diffi- oulty disappears however, when we learn that the poles had once a warm. posBlDly tomo. climate, ana suppuriea an abundantrregeUtion. Then the glacial epoch' nd the animals were driven from their polar homes toward the equator, which had by that time became warm. Some species passed the equator and continued to evolve in the opposite hemisphere to that In which they originated.

Others were stopped by natural obetaoleB from spreading so far. While the. animals were developing, continents have been formed and have passed-away, great plains have been- upheaved hy nature into stupendous mountain ranges; thousands of square miles of forest have sunk "and lie hundreds yesterday, in geologic time, Bince Asia and America were united both at Bebring Straits and by.ji penluBula which now re- mains as the chain ot the Aleutian and the Kuril Islands- To the geologist the time seems not so far back when there was no Baltlo Sea, no North Sea, no English Channel, when the Mediterranean Sea was a small enclosed lake, and Europe extended from the North Pole to the great Sahara Desert In Africa (then a Sea), and when the-continental masB of Europe extended west of tbe coasts of the Ireland of to-day. From what has been said of the' zooirra- phy of those times, therefore, and from thls rulp of It Is to be expected that one might trace, two great lines of development, more or lesB characteristic of the two polar continents. Considering the.

mammals, as the most familiar ot tbe great animal groups, it is astonishing to find in Australia the striking preponderance of marsupials such as the kangaroos and Combats, and the exclusive appearance of the monotremes. Evil Mexican HE revolution in Mexico has brought with it not only the ravages of war, but also the degradation of the social conditions of soldiers and prisoners. One of the latest forms of dls stpatlon in the ranks of federals and rebels alike is'tho habit of smoking a deadly native plant of Mexico. According to reports many of the Mexican, prisoners in the. Belem prison in the City of Mexico are losing their minds as a resqlt' of smoking this The dry marihuana, alone or mixed with tobacco, make the smoker wilder than, a wild It is said that after the first three or four draughts ot smoke tbe.

smoker feels a slight headache, then he sees everything moving, and finally loses all control of his mental faculties. The next stage, of too intoxication Is full of terrors. Troops of ferocious wild animals march: before the vision of the (lions, tigers, and other wH4 beasts oteupy his vision. These wild life at the poles we must consider the fact that there are the plainest evidences of glacial life at the equator. These conditions may be accounted for by the aupposition that the earth then possessed so much internal heat that It produced a warm climate at the poles, and that a heavy belt of clouds hung round tbe equator, making the climate cold in tropical regions.

These two suppositions are discussed In a recent book on the Sun by Professor Charles O. Abbot, of the, Smithsonian Observatory at Washington, who states them thus: (A) Perhaps the Sun In those early times was not so nearly exclusively as now the earth's source -of heat, and the earth still retained so much heat that Its life wag practically independent of the sun except tor light. Perhaps then the sun has been gradually growing in temperature and emission, and In for-, mlan times had not then become the practically exclusive source of heat to the earth's surface. We may then consider If Permian giaclatlon was perhaps due, as Manson has suggested, to a very moderate elevation of land areas with a region of a still prevailing low-lying olpud mantle', with accompanying snowy precipitation. (B) Perhaps the sun in very ancient times had not yet altogether condensed to a pronounced nucleus, but still existed as a nebula of very considerable sise, so that "the was illuminated and warmed from, all directions, or (it no part of the nebula? enclosed the earth) at least You Insane.

clasB, living In tho City of Mexico, who had smoked a marihuana cigarette, became insane, attacked and killed a policeman and badly wounded three others. Marihuana is one of the most dangerous drugs found In The weed grows wild In many localities in the southern part of that country. Its wonderful powers as an intoxicant have long been known to the natjves, and many are the wild orgies It has produced. So dangerous jls this weed that In the City of Mexico and other. Mexican cities the Government keeps special, inspectors constantly employed' to see that it is not sold in tbe markets.

There Is In the State of Michaacan sn-gerous, 'among them tbe "totrache," al sort of "loco" weed. The seeds of tbis) plant boiled and drunk as tea will m'ks a person Insane. Among some claeaeff of Mexicans It 1b stated that Carlota, He former Empress of Mexico, lost her mind because she was given totrache In a refreshment by Jher enemies. Sail.

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