.........y,.... % ^ 1 t || The Byline of "i Dependability Hope Star T / The Weather Arkansas: Continued warm IhilJ afternoon and tonight. M 0 VOLUME 44—NUMBER 212 Star ol Hope, 1899; Press, 1927. Consolidated January 18, 1929. HOPE, ARKANSAS, MONDAY, JUNE 21, 1943 (AP)—Means Associated Press (NEA)—Means Newspaper Enterprise Ass n PRICE 5c Allies Mass for Invason Our Daily Bread Sliced Thin by The Editor ALEX. H. WASHBURN Farm Values Finally Recover (\ Beware of Putting Them in Hock Again Life insurance companies which got into the farming business during the depression are now happily getting out, says a news dispatch from New York this ^weekend, because rfc foreclosed farms are "selling like hot cakes." v" —® The figures about the companies' recovery from a billion-dollar headache are very definite. Holgar B. Johnson, president of the Institute of Life Insurance, estimates that: At the bottom of the depression the life insurance concerns owned Six Killed in Race Riot in City of Detroit Detroit, Junc 21 — Michigan ,, Court Orders New Trial in Joe Smith Case Little Rock, June 21 (IT) Because of two reversible errors, the supreme court today set aside a dealh scnlcncc givCn Joe W. Smilh, 36, conviclcd slayer of 10- year old Dolores Calherine Smith, and remanded Ihc case for a new trial. The high tribunal snid Pulaski Prosecuring Attorney Sam Robin, fc son erred in referring to an alleged '* confession by Smith in his opening slatcmcnt without cautionary inslruclions of Ihe trial courl. The courl added lhal Ihc confession, which Smilh charged was obtained by third degree methods, (X| was inadmissible. Circuit Judge Gus Fulk erred, the courl said, in neglecling lo inslrucl Ihe jury lhal punishment could be fixed at life imprisonmenl on a first degree murder conviction. (J) The girl, Smith's niece by marriage, was last seen Sept. 25, 1942 walking home from a Litlle Rock school with -a man witnesses identified as Smith, her body was found four weeks later in a secluded spot about three miles from the school., ™ Commenting on Smith's charge that he was beaten inlo signing Ihc confession, Ihe court said; "We are not saying that the de- fendanl's slalemenls were Irue; we are merely detailing lhal the $) defendant testified regarding the alleged confession. We do not live in the land of Ihe German geslapo. The law of our land surrounds everyone even the meanest I criminal and the vilest character I *» — with the presumption of inno ' cence; and we must never allow that presumption to be destroyed by Gestapo taclics. "The. law is well selllcd lha when a question is raised as to Ihe nalurc of the confession, the worth one billion 100,000 farms dollars. Today they own 15,000 to 20,000 farms with a value of around 200 millions— only a fifth of the original figure. And before another crop-year rolls around the companies cxpecl lo be "subslanlially pul of Ihe business of farm opcralion." The Institute of Life Insurance Concludes correctly that this happy slalc of affairs is — "Ihc resull of war-lime high prices for farm producls and a rehabilitation program which has put many formerly rundown farms in shape for the real cstalc market." The insurance companies un- on the subsidies to burden is on Ihe slalc lo show ils free and voluntary character. The state failed to sustain the burden regarding the confession in Ih case al bat: and the Irial cour correctly hold the confession in i admissable." Then, referring lo the prosccu tor'g reference to Ihc confession ii his; opening statement the Iribuna "There was a swccl little inno- pays moslly cash for it. t| ceiil girl, a vile and heinous crime, a confession dclailcd by the prosecuting attorney, then the jury left for a day lo draw on ils own imag- inalion as lo what was going on in chambers; the result follows in- i inevitably lhal no juror could erad slate police and state troops were ordered to Detroit today to restore order after six persons were killed and some 200 injured in widespread race riots. Captain Donald S. Leonard of Michigan slate • police announced shortly before 11 a.m. (Eastern War Time) thai Governor Harry Kelly of Michigan had ordered mobilization of the slate forces. At that time oulbreaks of violence which had spread from an altercation at the Belle Isle bridge late lasl night were continuing despite the mobilization of the entire 3,500 members .of the police force of the nation's fourth city. "Six negroes had lost their lives, A white physician, attacked while answering a call, and a police sergeant were critically injured. The police sergeant was shot in a gun fight. Capt. Leonard said the governor had directed mobilization, at Iwo Dclroit armories, of 1,000 slalc troops picked from the bcst-lrained companies in Ihc slate. In nddi- lion, he said, bclwcen 400 and 500 members of Ihc slalc police force ;•••• • ., , mcmDCis OL uic siciiu punuu JDIUU outaledly have improved the farms including thosc in Michigan's up- .U: n U n ..n-.n 4 n rr* r\nv ni>, 1 -vr Intn InfMF ° _ .. .. hich came lemporarily inlo Iheir jossession, bul il is a happy day vhcn farming is divorced from the oaning agency to stand on its own eel—and one single phrase from he quolation, "the resull of war- ime high prices for farm prod- ucls," is a warning lhat wisdom ind caution will have to be exercised if this happy condition is to je preserved. It is generally recognized thai in he long run any assumplion lhal _eal eslale, whether urban or farm, will lift a heavy burden of debt is erroneous arid, dangerous. Disrc- 3 »l6ng-known truth has jee'n aV'ihc Bottom' of most of our !arm troubles. There is a feeling in some quar- lers today that farm real estate once more is a safe haven of refuge, when inflation may threaten all other investments. This ki'.ici of thinking puls loo much of a ]>rc- mium on farm values, encourages going inlo heavy debt for farm investment . . . and will lead to trouble. It must be obvious lo everyone lhal once Ihe war ends government subsidies will continue lo be an important part of the income thai sustains farm values. And if the nation is seriously hurt in other invcstmenl lines, by inflation, it is most likely that government will per peninsula, more than 300 miles from Detroit, were already mobilized and standing ready for action if needed. Governor Kelly arranged to fly to Dclroil from Columbus, O., where he had gone for Ihc annual governors' conference. He said at Columbus, "I am not declaring martial law. I am trying to hold the situation without that." Detroit, June groos and one 21 (/T) Three No- white policeman crack down agriculture. Under no circumstances should any man commit himself to the belief thai farms reprcsenl an investment, which is proof against an inflationary panic. Every man in his heart wants a farm, and lhat is a good thing; but he is acting wisely only when he buys a farm because he really wants one, and icatc from his mind what the prosecuting attorney had said in detailing the confession." In a Northwest' Arkansas feud Predicts Shutdown in Arkansas Mines Fort Smith, June 21 (fl>)— Complete shutdown today of all coal Oklahoma by Stale Filzjarrell mines in the Arkansas dislricl was prcdicled Mine Inspeclor J. W. case, Ihe Supreme Courl upheld a 21-year prison sentence assessed Claris Fanchcr in Carroll Circuit court for the killing of a neighbor, Johnny Roberts, bul scl aside a seven year sentence given his brother, Troy Fancher, and remanded this case for a new trial. The tribunal said there was nothing of a substanlial nature in the record showing criminal parlicipa- . ' Continued on Page Four) Validity of Kidd Act to Be Tested Hot Springs, June 21 —iff 1 )— Circuit Judge 'Earl Wilt today posl- kponcd until Thursday a decision in fa test case involving validity of the U943 Kidd act barring Sunday I sales of beer and wine. Witt, who took the case under S advisement Friday, said he [planned to make a further invcsti- |gation of the law. A Hot Springs sandwich shop op- |eralor, Frank Barber, was charged vilh violating the law June 13, Ihc first day il became effective. He jtdmitled selling a case of beer, bul ^denied H conslituled a law viola- lion. Barber contended thai Ihc Kidd g,ct was never passed by Ihe 1943 'egislalure and therefore could not enforced. The act passed both enate and House but the emer- |ency clause was defeated in the "Jouse, then reconsidered and tied in a filibuster at adjournment afler culling crews in 41 mines in Ihe Poteau . Bokoshe area ro- fuscd lo work last night. "All indications point lo a complete work stoppage in the Arkansas coal mines." Filsjarrell and union represenlalives said Ihe same condition would prevail on the Oklahoma side. There are currently about 4,000 miners employed in Arkansas and 2,000 in Oklahoma although United Mine Workers claim 8,000 members in the dislrict. The 130 mines hi Arkansas produced a daily average of 7,700 tons last year. were shot and killed, and eight other policemen and more than 180 civilians injured this morning as race rioting spread over a large Negro section adjacent to downtown Detroit. Sporadic fights continued as Major Edward J. Jeffries and law enforcement officials conferred at police headquarters on means of halting the riols which police said started with an isolated fist fight on the Belle Isle bridge late last night. The mayor ordered every saloon and bar in the city closed. Governor Harry F. Kelly notified his office at Lansing he would ro- lurn lo Michigan al once from Ihe governor's conference at Columbus, Ohio, to assist in dealing with the problem. At the same lime he was in telephonic conference with Detroit officials concerning possible mobilization of the stale troops. Disturbances which occurred over an area roughly throe miles square heavily populated by Negroes and lying cast and northeast of the downtown area, spread this morning t o Woodward Avenue, "main slem" of Dclroil which runs from Ihe Detroit river north. Al Woodward and Adelaide street, a crowd of 300 lo 400 whites was reported milling about, stoning every passing automobile that, carried Negroes. Police reported it consisted moslly of young men dressed in overalls and working clolhes. A barrage of rocks forced one car lo strike a safety zone; the car then was overturned. This group finally was dispersed when police riot cars arrived with 200 officers carrying machine guns and tear gas pistols. A survey of five police precinct stations at 8 a.m. showed at least 238 persons held for assault and disturbing Ihe peace, One of those slain bore a draft card issued lo Carl Lincoln, 19. Pa- Irolmen Harold Bole and Vei'non Stalled Mining Industry Looks to Government Washington, June 21 — (/P) — The big coal mining cog of the nation' war machine stalled again today and the 500,000 miners who run it looked to the government for their cue. Rejecting what they tcrm'qd an infamous yellow dog contract" pro posed by the War Labor Board (WLB) John L. Lewis and his United Mine workers invoked their "no contract no work" policy for the third time within two months after negotiations with the operators collapsed. The door was held open for a speedy resumption of operations under the direct sponsorship of the government, however, and the next move appeared to be up to Interior Secretary Ickcs, who was placed in charge of the mines on May 1 as federal fuels administrator. Ickes, represented by his aides as feeling no precipitate action last night could have fended off the-expiration of the latest work truce at midnight, made no immediate comment. He cancelled a projected trip to Columbus, Ohio, where he was to have atendcd the governors' conference opening there today, however, and stood by to receive union representatives. The operators declared with the breaking off of negotiations yesterday "no possibility of agreement cxsits" so long as the miners con- liuc their insistence on $1.30 a day extra pay for underground travel time. This figure had been whittled down from an original demand of $2. The Mine Workers' Policy committee, in a 750 word statement assailing the War Labor Board, which Lewis has charged with prejudice, declared: "We,assert the willingness of the. nil no workers to" work and continue the production of coal for the government itself, under the direction of the custodian of mines. "The executive officers of the United Mine Workers of America are hereby instructed to hold themselves- in readiness to confer with the secretary of the interior." The third stoppage in the recurring crises, which hit anthracite as well as soft coal mines, came in. the face of a report by the Office of War Information (OWI) tress- ang the importance of coal to Shift in Far Eastern Command In sudden shift of the "Far Eastern high command, Field Marshal Sir Archibald WaVell (right) has been named Viceroy of India, with Gen. Sir Claude Auchinleck (left) succeeding him as Commander in Chief'in India. NEA Service Telepnoto Turkey Said Shaken by Violent Quake London, June 21— (/P)—The Berlin radio said loday a viplent earthquake had rocked the northwest part of Anatolia province of Turkey and thai unconfirmed reports placed Ihe dcalh in the city of Adapazar alone at 15,000, half ils population. The account, from the none-lco- roliable Transoccan News Agency,' said the quake occurred shovily afler 7:30 p. m. Sunday night during a heavy thunderstorm, an 3 lhal a muffled subterranean rumbling from below the earth's surface added to the terror. The quake's epicenter was placed at Adapazar and the unconfirmed reports, Transocean said, were that 40 per cent of the houses were deslroyed and another 30 pper cent were damaged severely. Germans Report 4 Large Forces | off Syria, Sicily: —Europe the war economy. Asserting that coal "must be mined at full capacity" lo meel current demands, OWI said: "There are more lhan one half of the power and energy required lo produce the weapons of war. II creates nearly 55 per cent of the electricity used. II runs four oul of every five railroad locomotives, it ho;its approximately 50 per cent of Ihc nation's homes. The work stoppages began in an orderly fashion with Ihe Friday n'mhl shifts and approximately 74,000 miners had quit work before the whistles blew an empty summons this morning. As Joe O. Grady, union local vice president at Ohio's Willow Grove mine summed it up: "We're not on strike, but we're nol going to work because we haven't any contract." Anatolia is the great western peninsula of Turkey between the Black and Mediterranean seas, leading to Ihe Dardanelles. . Earth tremors also \ver c reported felt in other parts of Anlolia, even in Ihe easl. Sparse and dis- rupled communications delayed accurate accounts of damage and suffering. The earthquake shocks were fell at Istanbul, formerly Constantinople, and the principal city of Turkey, and the German agency said Ihe people there were "seized with panic," rushing from their homes and restaurants. It required more than an hour to restore calm, the report added. The broadcast, recorded by the Associated Press, said all telegraph and telephone communications were disrupted and thai railway Iraffic between Istanbul and the capital, Ankara, was interrupted. Sicily Target of Large Allied Formations By HAROLD V. BOYLE Allied Headquarters in North Africa, June 21 (/P)— Lieut. Gen. Carl A. Spaatz' air fleets were declared officially today to have wrought new destruclion upon Sicilian largcls from Marsala to Messina straits — shooting down 16 Axis fighters in the process — and the Rome radio said Naples < and four other Itailian mainland cities also were raided yesterday. Medium bombers and fighters cooperated to round out "heavy week-end blows against Italy and Sicily. The Italian hifh command com- munique, broadcast from Rome, said Naples, a major west coast supply port; Foggia, a railroad city near the spur of the Italian boot; Spinazzola, 45 miles to tho southeast; and Reggio Calabria and San Giovanni, on the toe of Ih boot, were atlacked by Allied airmen yesterday. (These raids were not reported in Allied announcements, but the Italians have on occasions told of such thrusts before they were reported by Northwest Africa, Malta or Middle East communiques. (The Algiers radio warned the Italian people in a broadcast lo- day that Allied air blows, which have been largely confined lo porls would spread now lo Ihe interior. ("If you want lo save your industries and see Ilaly restored lo U.S.MightHave Lost the War but for Discovery oftheNewWeapon-Radar Ration Calendar Ration Book No. 1 Coffee—Stamp No. 24, good for one pound, expires June 30. Sugar—Stamp No. 13, good for five pounds, expires August 15. For canning, Stamps 15 and 1G good for five pounds each. Shoes—Stamp No. 18 good for one pair through Ocl. 31. Ration Book No. 2 Blue Slamps G, H and J, for canned and processed vegelables and fruits, expire June 7. Slamps K, L and M, good through July 7. Red Stamps J and K good through June 30. Red Stamp L becomes valid June 6, good through June 30. Gasoline ' Stamps No. 6 of A-books good for four gallons each until July 22. Hayden said they fired afler he Ihrew a brick at Bole. The officers said they were called to Hancock and Beaubien streels by Iwo Negro patrolmen who reported Lincoln was molesting women and throwing bricks into Ihe slreels One of Ihe police bullels slruck him in Ihe chest. The others killed were identified through cards on their persons as William Hurdges, 27, and Robert Davis, 28. Police Sergl. Floyd C. Noot, 38. father of three children, died in a hospital afler he and Patrolman Ernest J. Harlwick, Jr., were wounded in a gun battle with Negroes al Division and Hastings slreet. Most of the widespread rioting which had continued through the early morning hours was reported under control al 7 a.m. The Belle Isle bridge, where the first serious riot occurred, is Detroit's only link with the island which is a popular recreational spol with bathing beaches. Automobiles leaving th e island were stoned. One hundred and thirty varieties of violets are grown in Japan. By JOHN M. HIGHTOWER (Copyright, 1943, By The Associated Press) Washington, June 21 — (/P) — Radar, the mosl revolutionary new weapon of this war — an instrument that has secretly shaped Ihe course of victory in many historic battles — was originally developed in the United Stales as a by-product of radio research by a Itille sroup of naval scientists, long on faith and short on funds. Had they not persevered in their work in the face of official inertia, comoounded in many instance by scoffing disbelief, the United States might have lost the war about 10 ol 20 years before il began. To mililary and naval men now it is inconceivable that we should have entered this struggle with out, radar. The record shows thai the scientists began to realize thai fact, more than 20 years ago. Long before the bailie of Guadalcanal, they envisioned radio "eyes" to let warships "see 1 through fog and darkness. Long before the battle of Brilain, they foresaw ^ wall of detective rays ringing the frontiers of nations en dangered by air attack. Almost be ore airplanes flew at night, they onceived the ideas which make oday's Allied night fighters the deadly killers they are. This is the story of radar, so ar as it may be told now, and of the men who made it. Two months ago the story could lot have been to,ld at all. Radar was so secret and its secrecy was considered so vital to the United Nations lhal even mention of the lame was taboo. It is true that the Axis had a similar instrument; but the admirals and generals who decide such things believed ours was a lot bet- ler lhan theirs — knew it by pe- formance if nothing else. They did not want any loose talk about radar so they ordered no talk at all. What the scientists, being naval research men, apparently did not fully anticipate is that they were spawning a new branch of the radio industry in the field of elec- hrbnics. Today radar is a mulli- million-dollar industry for war tomorrow it wlil become a billion- dollar industry for peace. Radar wil guide tomorrow's sea and air- the position she deserves after the war," the announcer said, "demand peace and demonstrate for peace.") The Northwest African Air Forces lost five planes during the fresh operations, which included a heavy assault by RAF Wellingtons on Messina Salurday night. Fires visible 100 miles away were started in the Messina railway freight yards and the ferry terminus area. Aerial patrols over Pantelleria frustrated a new attempt by Axis fighter - bombers to break through and strike at the island's British garrison. (Axis radio broadcasts said Allied naval dispositions off Syria indicated a possibility of action in the Aegean. (A Salurday nighl allack by German bombers upon an Allied convoy off Cape Serrat, Tunisia, was reported in a DNB dispatch radioed from Berlin to have left six transports and merchantmen lolal- ing 35,000 Ions seriously damaged, one of them enveloped "in a huge cloud of smoke." DeGaulle Is Prepared to Leave Algiers By DANIEL DE LUCE Algiers, June 20 (#>)— Polilical intimates of Gen. Charles de Gaulle declared today the tall Fighting French leader was prepared to leave Algiers for Beirut or Brazzaville if his military reform program failed to win adoption by the Commitlee of National Liberation in the discussions beginning lomarrow. De Gaullists expressed concern over a possibility that Gen. Henri Giraud, with prevoiusly unex pected • support, might be, able to continue the status quota in French military affairs. The new threat of de Gaulle's withdrawal followed by ten days his first "strike" when he refused to attend sessions of the orginal seven members of the French committee and demanded that committee of 14 members be convened. A formula for the division of military authority between de Gaulle as commissioner of national defense and Giraud as commander in chief had been generally reported acceptable in principle by bolh faclions. But de Gaullists said they feared lhat the plan, if put into effect under present conditions, would have so many limilalions lhat de Gaulle would be hamstrung in attempts to rejuvenate th e army by ousting over-age officers and others who previously were loyal to Vichy. De Gaulle definitely will atlcnd the committee meeling tomorrow morning, his close adherents said. If the Iwo leaders shquld succeed in coming to a final agreement tomorrow, dependable political sources said Ihe United Stales and By CARL C. CRANMER Associated Press War Editor ..y German broadcasts declared'.to-J- day an Allied invasion fleet' Was ?' assembling in the Eastern Medl-Vj ;erranean off the Syrian coast,::that|< landing craft were being moved*' into position in North Africa and that a large British and American naval force was concentrated at Gibraltar. . lf The unconfirmed Axis reports jAyf. the massing of invasion forces ~in ^ the Mediterranean theater coincid-.^ ed with an Allied headquarters*, communique announcing heavy v»' new aerial thrusts by British and^ American armadas across the nar-?j : row seas at air fields and ports ot tf Sicliy and eyewit«ess reports via' T* Stockholm that Italian morale al-* , ready broken by bombings and" war reverses. Short in food, sleep and hope, \ the Italians were declared ready and eager for peace, and jam- ,, ming the seven hills of: Rome in a J search for safety. Reliable Allied quarters in North Africa, however t denied rumors that Crosn Prince,. Umberto, Marshal Pietro Badoglio, King Vittorio Emanuele or any other Italian emissary had arrived , there to negotiate an unconditional f surrender. \ Other war headlines today were: i t ; Australia Spitfires cut down ' Japanese armada in 10-minule bat- Vj tie, shooting down at least nine? perhaps 22, out of a 48-plan? armada attempting to raid Darwin; Liberators again bathe Rabaul air-', dromes in bombs and incendiaries. "•, Russia — Heavy Russian artillery bombardments in Sevsk sector "f\£ of pivotal Orel front announced;^ *7^ Red air fleet smashed hangar stores, plane parks : !at Bryansk I i < KaracheV," rpund'ing out k wee'k"" in» which 276 German planes and' M' , Soviet planes were reported destroyed. ' Atlanlic — New Allied "vest > pocket" aircraft carrier proves worth in five-day, five-night convoy battle in which planes and ships. destroyed two, perhaps fiv^ or more, of Adolf Hitler's U-boats. Air war ,— Berlin radio says, RAF raided sfcuthwestern Germany Sunday night, reoorls no damage; the Schneider irmament works at Le Creusot, the French "Krupps," reported "mountain of debris" after big Sautrday night assault.' Great Britain are prepared to take the lead — perhaps this week — in recognizing the temporary French government. Other United Nations and Turkey, which has withdrawn her envoy from Vichy, were reported ready to follow suit without delay. Giraud made a slight concession to de Gaulle late today, il was reported. Civiliass due to be called up for army service soon will be permitted to volunteer for Gen. Eduard Rene Marie De Larminat's Fighling French division. This is in line wilh the policy of the Third Republic, allowing conscripts to volunteer ahead of time for the branch of service they prefer. 98 Degrees Saturday and 97 on Sunday According to records at the University of Arkansas Experiment station, near Hope, Saturday, June 19 proved to be the holiest day of the year with a record 98 degrees. Sunday was only 1 degree cooler mercury hitting 97 de- Price Rollback in Retail Meat Today Washington, June 21 —(/P)— An average, 3-cenl-a-pound reduclion in the retail price of mosl meals went into effccl today — the second of three price rollbacks undertaken by Ihc Office of Price Administration (OPA) through payments of subsidies. The cutbacks affects all meal excepl cured and processed pork, but those cuts will come under Ihe subsidy plan July 5. The new meal prices followed a ten per cent reduclion hi butter prices earlier this month. A similar reduction is scheduled for coffee prices, but an effective date with the grees. Conlinued on Page Four) jhas not yet been set. Two-Day Holiday This July Fourth July 4th this year comes on Sunday, so the secretary of the chamber of commerce has con- laclcd Ihe managers of a number of stores in Hope with regard to closing Monday, July 5. and without exception, they have all declared lhat they expected to observe the 4th on the Monday following. This has been a custom in Hope for many years and unless there is some objection voiced by the merchants, no further action is expected to be taken by the merchonts 1 committee. Gilbert Island Bases of Japs Hit by Yanks Washington, June 21— (/P)— Heavy bombing raids scoring a number of hils on Ihe Japanese airfield at Tarawa in Ihe Gilbert Islands were reported by the Navy today, A communique said: "South Pacific: (All dates are east longitude) "1. On June 18-19lh, during the night American Liberator heavy bombers attacked Japanese instat lations at Tarawa in the Gilbert islands. A number of hits were scored on the enemy positions. Although seven enemy zero fighters were in the air over Tarawa they did not press a determined attack against the United States bombers. "2. On June 19th, during 'the night army Liberators attacked Japanese positions at Kahili, Buin area. A number of fires were started. "3. On June 20th, during the morning, Navy Dauntless dive bombers and Avengers (Grumman TBF) torpedo bombers escorted by Army Warhawk and Navy Wildcat fighters, attacked, Vila, Kolomban- gara island. A supply dump was hit and a fire started. His were also scored on the runway. "North Pacific: "4. On June 20th, during the day, Navy Ventura medium bombers atlacked Japanese installations at Kiska. Rehults were not observed. "5. In all of the above operations all United States planes returned." Girl Bites Dog Fort Atkinson, Wis. —W)— Here is a story of "girl bites dog." Joyce, 18-month-old daughter of Mr. and. Mfg. Robert Lawrie, bit a black dog belonging to neighbors. She bit the dog so hard, in fact, that he won't visit with her anymore. >\ r<- An area of nearly 250,000 square miles is covered by the Pennsylvania coal fields.
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