Covina Argus from Covina, California on January 16, 1909 · Page 2
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Covina Argus from Covina, California · Page 2

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Covina, California
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Saturday, January 16, 1909
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Page 2
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THE DECAY IN_0_RANGES Review of Conditions by G. Harold Powell. i The Investigation by tlie Bureau of | Plant Industry into the cause of decay! In oranges was begun as the result of the efforts of Mr. J. H. Reed, an orange grower of Riverside, Cal., who, on account of the interstate nature of the problem, endeavored to induce the department of agriculture to undertake this work. In the winter of lflO:',-4 ?i preliminary survey of the orange industry was undertaken to make plans for this investigation. The causes of the decay were not understood, but a multitude of theories were advanced by growers and shippers to explain it. Some attributed the decay to the influence of the type of soil and to other conditions under which the fruit was grown; to a possible degeneracy in the fruit as the trees grew older, and to climatic conditions, such as frequent fogs and rains. The decay was thought by many to be especially related to a supposed inherent weakness of the fruit during the blooming period of t.he trees, which occurs during the picking season. Others believed it to be due to -methods practiced in the packing houses, while nearly all were more or less agreed that a large part of the loss was chargeable to inadequate or improperly handled transportation facilities. Teh decay entailed a heavy loss on the shipper, it was •detrimental to the reputation of the industry, and it led to difficulties of various kinds between all parties concerned in the handling and transportation of citrus fruits. i. The preliminary survey in the winter of 1&03-4 showed that the decay was more troublesome In sotrie regions than in others, that it was worse in some packing houses than in others in the .same region, and that it usually Increased in severity as the season advanced. Continual observations on many of the popular and supposed causes did not give promise of a satisfactory explanation, but it was noticed from the- beginning that there was a close and constant relation between the various methods of handling the irujf and. the development of decay, Blue Mold of Citrus Fruits The common blue-mold fungus was always found to be associated with decaying oranges, as was observed in 1905 by Woodworth. This fungus grew within the tissues of the fruit and caused a breaking down of the 'Structure, which rapidly produced a soft decay of t.he entire fruit. Two distinct kinds of growth were constantly found. The most common grow rapidly In a rather indefinite area over the orange, producing a mass of olive- green spores, with a large area of white mold extending beyond the spores and producing a semi-soft condition of tlie fruit. The growth of the second was much slower and in a more definite area, and the spores were "bright blue in color, though in other respects this fungus was similar to the first. Both fungi have been determined as species of Penicillium. While a distinct difference can be seen in the growth of the two in producing decay in the orange, it has been difficult to separate them morphologically. Peni- cillium glaucum has been generally considered the most common of the mold fungi. Yet, on the orange the rapid-growing, olive-green fungus is referred to as Penicillium digitatum, and the slow-growing, bright-blue species as P. glaucum. The more common form Is shown In Plate I, frontispiece. The spores are produced in countless numbers on the decaying fruit, of which there Is always more or less In the groves and in and around the packing houses. They are on the fruit, on all the machinery and floating in the atmosphere, and they germinate- easily and quickly wherever the conditions of heat and moisture are favorable. That there might be no question about these molds being tin: cause of the decay, large numbers of fresh, pound oranges were inoculated both In the field and the laboratory with spores of these species, and without exception the characteristic decay resulted. The citrus fruit crop of California amounts to nearly 'jn.OOO ears annually, of which the orange comprises from K", to &u per cent. The fruit, is grown under intensive culture, and the handling, shipping and marketing of the crop, have resulted in the development (it complex and highl) specialized bii.s- The lo.s.S'-.-i from d.-r-n> in th-- oraii-" d'.iiiii^. ' r ii n s port a ! i o ri !'orm<-' ! • .'tli,ount.-i| T o $7.v> '"• '• to $ 1 .", MI : ,.:<,.•,;.,!! .- T!..- •!> '••>•• i- < , :-..-.! i,, , I,;:..-<:.. ..1 : .... •;.-: •-•.!..,•:: .. ;: • : -. ':.- • ...!..•• through mechanical abrasions in the skin. The most common forms of mechanical injury are those caused by the clippers in cutting vhe fruit from the tree, si em punctures. and scratches and produced in the packing, houses. Most of these injuries are Invisible to the inexperienced eye. There has been a wide variation in the amount of Injury in the fruit of different pickers, growers and packing houses, the variation commonly running from 1 to 50 per cent. A good deal of the trouble has been related to methods of business which place a premium on the amount rather than the quality of the work done by the picker, the grower, or the packing house. By holding In many pricking houses in California fruit that has been picked at different periods of the season, in different sections of the citrus belt, and that has been handled In different ways, it has been shown that the fruit that Is handled '.he least develops the least decay, while the fruit that shows the greatest amount of injury develops the most decay. From the standpoint of the packing house, the least decay develops in sound un- brushed fruit. Brushing increases it, washing increases it still more, and any treatment that cut or tears the skin is followed by the greatest amount of decay. There appears to be little difference in the amount of decay in oranges grown in different sections that have been handled in a similar manner, or in oranges picked from the same grove with equal care at different periods of the season, at least from January to May. The "curing" of the orange for a few days before packing wilts the skin and in the early part of the season makes it pliable to handle. The cur- Ing is probably not harmful to uninjured fruit, but under the conditions of commercial handling In California the blue mold begins to develop in the oranges during the curing period, but does not develop far enough to be Been by the graders except in fruit that has beefi injured severely. If the fruit is packed promptly after picking arid Is shipped at. once in a cool temperature the decay may not develop in trdflsl't. The most progressive shippers now pack the fruit promptly after pickfrig". It is unnecessary t'6 brush so large a proportion" of the dranges as has been customary in the ria'st, and the washing 'can be avoided by treating the groves properly for scale. Tlie packing houses all through the citrus' belt are ebing modified in the direction df more simple machinery. The shipping experiments of the Bureau of Plant Industry during the past three years have Included 297 shipments of fruit to New York. The shipments have included oranges handled in different ways before packing. The fruit has been shipped at different lengths of time after packing, and it has been forwarded under ventilation, icing and precoollng followed by different conditions of icing. From the standpoint of the handling of the fruit tho least decay has developed under all methods of shipment in the sound, carefully handled oranges, and the greatest amount luis developed in those that, were mechanically injured. From the standpoint of the promptness of shipment after picking the least decay has developed in the oranges shipped immediately after packing, and tho decay has Increased in proportion as tin: (Inn; between packing and shipment has lengthened. From the standpoint cf tho method of .shipment the least decay developed in the pivcooled fruit that was loaded in the crirs in cold condition. The cooling of tlie fruit to u temperature of about. 10 degrees Fahrenheit before shipment, appears to sa\e lee in transit, as the cars do not lequiiv re-icing as often as they do when forwarded under regular icing. M appears also to Increase teh l're|j.'h'-c<tr- rylng capacity of a car by making it possible to load the boxes more closely than IH safe under regular Icing. From the standpoint of decay, precooling the fruit is not essential, as the decay can be avoided by handling the fruit rare' fully. I'recooling retards decay tern' porarily, but. does not remove the [cause. It should supplement rather than take the place of can fill hand: ling. j In the market holding tests the fruit that lias not been mechanically in- ijured keeps tin: longest, while the greatest, loss occurs in orungea that have been thus injured. The temperature; of the fiuit ehangeH .slowly in transit, in ventila!e<i earn there may be extreme changes in the' outside air, and if the < >:'.:•<• rues do not , pf-rsi.st long the changes in the. temper- a'ure of the fruit are relatively blow. In iei-il ears th<- tempe.-at ,11 .- tails ie|a- ii\e]y !';.!.-,i during bi;' a t rri in in i '• ri ; i ,:.i ;n ;•<(.-..-. ! I.-- i, ..,;.,,., : ,t ,j| ,. o: i| ops rapidly during the early part of the trip, while the fruit la warm, lu a car in which the fruit is cooled to 40 degrees Fahrenheit or lower before shipment the temperature remains nearly constant if the car Is re-iced regularly in transit. In cool weather it remains fairly constant without additional Icing after the car leaves California. In warm weather tho re-icing during (he fit'st half of the trip can be avoided, but the car may need re- icing during the latter half of the trip. G. HAROLD POWELL. A. J. ROOKS COVINA Shoe Repaid (o. i j FINK SHOP: REPAIRING REASONABLE PRICES Citrus Avenue BlaolcsmltHlng All kinds of g-cnoral and heavy Blacksnuthinp. We manufacture Rtdpers, Orange Racks and Box Presses Horseshoeing a Specialty Home Phone IOQ? Shop West Badillo St, Cavlna Call and See Us If you need anything iti the" HARNESS* line and we will give tlie l.r.-.i goods at the lowest price. Satisfaction guaranteed. Cov/lnei Harness Saddlery Co. Phone Home 1170 H E A L D'S 614 South Grand Avenue, Lo» Angrlel, California. The greatest business training institution in tho south. Open during tho ontiro ycnr. Write for particulars. J. W. LACKKY, Monitor. Clarence Allison Plans furnished for all kiuds.of buildings. Building Contractor C6VINA, CAL. J. W. .-Proprietor offthe COVINA LIVERY STABLES Home Phone 30. Covina, Cal. Start Right 1909 Own 5 Acres and Independence at BEAUMONT The Apple Paradise of Southern California Soil, water, climate and proximity to a home market are very prominent features of I'eaumonl's leadership as a homeseekers' colony. The proof's of tin: money value of these advantages are best shown in actual crops raised and sold. The money they yield the ra richer and the first reason for the bi(.f profits of Beaumont ranching is in the fact that it in tin: OIK: section of Southern California th.'U raises aoples and cherrie.-. equal to tlie world's best, and every pound of the fruit is sold at liome hen: in Southern California. One Crop of Apples or Cherries will be Worth as Much as the Land Sells for Today. We can show you notable instances where ranchers, this last season, took f.^dOO worth of apples from 7 acres '52,000 worth of cherries from 5 acres, and so on throughout the section. Ilomeseekers coming to California will do well to get in communication with us noon. We, offer you a n v bank <.r mercantile reference you wish to satisfy you of our financial responsibility and to nearly a thousand people who have been buyers, as to our square dealing and honor. It is Important to Buy Now While Lands are Selling at $125 to $175 per Acre. Thesf; prices will not bold much longer, The inprovcments made H the colony justify a stiff advance right now, but we are holding of! to enable many who are considering buying at Heauniont to get in before the advance. I You better act now. We have a few li;-;(iirnorit town lots, '<) fer.t frontage, I with domestic water; prices range S12", to »2'.iO Taxes are only -toe per year a lot. The best in vestment in California today. Free Lectures Thrice Daily Io:30 a. m. and 2:30 and H p. in. Free stereopticon lecture ,it our own room, ,v!4 South Hroadway, I<o.-i Augclc*. CUT OI.'T AND MAIL C.'iMI'IlN liKI,OW TOKAV BI'AUMONT LAND AM> WA'Ilik COMPANY Owner, M'-rnLi.-r I. A. Ki-alty li'ianl. I arn inu.-ri--^twJ in knowing ri. irv at*ou* lU-aimiofit ar,ij i'x ajinl*-, rui-untf irni'.-t'l'i Un-li , ai'i'i wouM lik*: Hi hav«: yoij ,>•(,'! /m: i i '<•! ;i.i ni i- ami informalion. Atxyut a* /«• -. v/oiiM ,-.tjit rm: \*.-.\. anil if information M at !.-.f ;,rtor / I may v/anl tit tfo to ii» a'jioont or. of,,- of y vjr HuniJay or Thur.;<iay <•/.' ij; .ion.-,, f-iivi; M..: r;ul;oa'i ral«;.j frorr hi:;.-:. '.-,(,i-.i i,ii ra 1 .* i ''i h,uy*:rrt ouLiuJv: of I.'«] if or nia. Nam*; A<H [••..< Hay, Grain, Cereals and Fuel WHO I .HSAIJ-: AND RETAIL Delivery to livery Part of the Valley SAN GABRIEL VALLEY MILLING COMPANY Home Phone COYINA, CAL. CITY LIVERY STABLES C. F. SMITH, Prop. I W. Badillo St., on the new electric line. COVINA, Harn Phone 240 Res. Phone 108 COVINA MEAT MARKET J. P. KENDALL, Prop. Orders tnken and deliveries made daily. Ordcra ia town will receive prompt attention. Fresh and Tender Beef, Mutton, Pork, Etc. Home Phone 3f> OITRUS TREES __ NuvftlH, Vulnnclnn, Eur«k« I.uinoiin, liucln Holuctwl from criolcn Ixmrlnu tr««n. flwmt ami lour oraiiKo fCff tifO 9TOOK. I'alinn, camphum, acacia*, romm, etc. Wrlta for itrlcua .... fOUTHLMMO MIHUaUCS, V. If Dlnbrow. I'ropr., It. K. I). No. i, Pmmmlmnm, Oml. Your Winter Trip East SHOULD UK VIA The Sunset Route OK Till'; Southern Pacific OR VIA NEW ORLEANS TO Washington .Ai Chicago X Cincinnati Cheap HomeseekeiV Excursions fcvery Thursday and Sunday. free to Buyers. IN THROUGH TOURIST SLEEPERS RICK COTTON SCOARCANK MOSS COVKKKD MVK, OAKS "KJNK-lfKADKD PICKANINNIES" MAI,MY URKK/KS THROUGH THK DRKAMY SOUTH I>. ii. SCHKNCK, Aj/cnt, Covin;i Photic 1 M (j. I,.-T K A V IS, ('uiiiiiii n i.il Aj.ji-11 1 , Pomi-iin SOUTH I£RN

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